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rhetorician of the age of Augustus, was a
native of Gadara. He settled at Rhodes,
where Tiberius, afterwards emperor, during
his retirement (b.c. 6 — a.,j}. 2) to that island,
was one of his hearers. He also taught at
Rome. Theodorus was the founder of a
school of rhetoricians called " Theodorei.'*

THEODOSiUS (-i). (I.) Sumamed the
Great, Roman emperor of the East, a.i>.
878 — 895, was the son of the general
Theodosius, and was bom in Spain about 346.
He acquired a considerable military repu.
tation in the lifetime of his father, under
whom he served ; and after the death of
Valens, was proclaimed emperor of the East
by Gratian. The Roman empire in the East
was then in a critical position, owing to the
inroads of the Goths ; but Theodosius gained
two signal victories over (he barbarians, and
concluded a peace with them in 382. In
887 he defeated and put to death Maximus,
whom he had previously acknowledged em-
peror of Spain, Gaul, and Britain. In 890
Theodosius gave a signal instance of his
savage temper. A serious riot having broken
out at Thessalonica, in which the imperial
officer and several of his troops were mur-
dered, Theodosius resolved to take the most
signal vengeance upon the whole city. The
inhabitants were invited to the games of the
Circus ; and as soon as the place was full,
the soldiers were employed for 8 hours in
slaughtering them. It was on this occasion
that St. Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, after
representing his crime to Theodosius, refused
him admission to the church, and finally
compeUed him to entreat pardon before all
the congregation. Theodosius died at Milan
17th January, 395. — (II.) Roman emperor of
the East, a.d. 408 — 450, was bora in 401,
and was only 7 years of age at the death of
his father Arcadius, whom he succeeded.
Theodosius was a weak prince; and his
sister Pulcheria possessed the virtual govern-
ment of the empire during his long reign.
The compilation called the Oodex Theodo-
Hantu was begrun in his reign.

THEOGNIS (-Idisj, of Megara, an ancient
elegiac and gnomic poet, is said to have

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floorisbed b.c. 548 or 544. He was a noble by
birth ; and all bia sympathies were with the
nobles. He was banished with the leaders of
the oligarchial party, haTing previonsly been
depriTed of all his property ; and most of his
poems were composed while he was an exile.
The genuine fragments of Theognis contain
maoh that is highly poetical in thought, and
elegant as well as forcible in expression.

THEON (^nis). (1) The name of 2 ma-
thematicians, namely, Theon the elder, of
Smyrna, an arithmetician, who lived in the
time of Hadrian ; and Theon the younger, of
Alexandria, the father of Htpatia, best
known as an astronomer and geometer, who
lived in the time of Theodosius the elder. —
(2) AxLivs Thxov, of Alexandria, a sophist
and rhetorician <k uncertain date, wrote
several works, of which one entitled Progym.
natmata is still extant — (3) Of Samos, a
painter who flourished firom the time of
Philip onwards to that of the successors of

THEONdfi (-te), daughter of Proteus and
Psammathe, also called Idothea. [Idothxa.]

THEOPHANfiS (-is), Ck. POMPfilUS, of
MytUene in Lesbos, a learned Oreek, was one
of the most intimate friends of Pompey, and
wrote the history of his campaigns.

THEOPHRASTUS (4), the Oreek philo.
sopher, was a native of Eresus in Lesbos,
and studied philosophy at Athens, first under
Plato; and afterwards under Aristotle. He
became the favourite pupil of Aristotle, who
named Theophrastus his successor in Ihe
presidency of the Lyceum, and in his will
bequeath^ to him his library and the ori-
ginals of his own writings. Theophrastus
was a worthy successor of his great master,
and nobly sustained the character of the
school. He is said to have had 2000 disciples,
and among them such men as the comic poet
Menander. He was highly esteemed by the
kings Philippus, Cassander, and Ptolemy,
and was not the less the object of the regard
of the Athenian people, as was decisively
shown when he was impeached of impiety ;
for he was not only acquitted, but his accuser
would have fallen a victim to his calumny,
had not Theophrastus generously interfered to
save him. He died in b.c. 287, having pre-
sided over the Academy about 85 years. His
age is variously stated. According to some
accounts he lived 85 years, according to
others 107 years. He is said to have closed
his life with the complaint respecting the
short duration of human existence, that
it ended just when the insight into its pro-
blems was beginning. He wrote a great
number of works, the great object of which
was the development of the Aristotelian

philosophy^ his Charactere* and his work
On Plantt are extant.

THE0P0MPU8 (-i). (1) King of Sparta,
reigned about b.o. 770 — 720. He is said to
have established the ephoralty, and to have
been mainly instrumental in bringing the 1st
Messenian war to a successful issue. — (2) Of
Chios, a celebrated Greek historian, was the
son of Damasistratns and the brother of
Caucalus the rhetorician. He was bom
about B.C. 878, and attended the school of
rhetoric, which Isocrates opened at Chios.
He accompanied his father into banishment,
when the latter was exiled on account of bis
espousing the interests of the Lacedaemonians,
but he was xestored to his native country in
the 45th year of his age (338), in consequence
of the letters of Alexander the Great, in which
he exhorted the Chians to recal their exiles.
On his return, Theopompus, who was a man
of great wealth as well as learning, naturally
took an important position in the state ; but
his vehement temper, and his support of the
aristooratical party, soon raised against him
a host of enemies. Of these one of the most
formidable was the sophist Theocritus. Af^
long as Alexander lived, his enemies dared
not take any open proceedings against
Theopompus ; and even after the death of the
Macedonian monarch, he appears to have
enjoyed for some years the protection of the
royal house ; but he was eventually expelled
fh)m Chios as a disturber of the public peace,
and fled to Egypt to Ptolemy, about 805,
being at the time 75 years of age. We are
informed that Ptolemy not only refused to
receive Theopompus, but would even have
put him to death as a dangerous busybody,
had not some of his friends interceded for
his life. Of his farther fate we have no
particulars. None of the works of Theo-
pompus have come down to usj Besides his
Histories he composed several orations. His
style resembled that of his master Isocrates,
and he is praised by the ancients for his
diligence and accuracy, but censured for the
severity and acrimony of his Judgments.

THCRA (-ae : 8antorin\ an island in the
Aegaean sea, and the chief of the Sporades,
distant ttom Crete 700 stadia, and 25 Bomar
miles S. of the island of los.

TH£KAM£N£S (.is), an Athenian, son of
Hagnon, was a leading member of the oligar-
chical government of the 400 at Athens, in
B.C. 411. Subsequently, however, he not
only took a prominent part in the deposition
of the 400, but came forward as the accuser
of Antiphon and Archeptolemus, who had
been his intimate friends, but whose death he
was now .the mean and cowardly instrument
in procuring. After the capture of Athens

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by Lysander, Theramenes was chosen one of
the Thirty Tyrants (404). But as from policy
he endeavoured to check the tyrannical pro-
ceedings of his colleagues, Critias accused him
before the council as a traitor, and procured
his condemnation by violence. When he had
drunk the hemlock, he dashed out the last
drops from the cup, exclaiming, " This to the
health^of the lovely Critias I "

THERAPNAE (.Arum), a town In Laconia,
on the left bank of the Eurotas, and a little
above Sparta, celebrated in mytholo^ as the
birthplace of Castor and Pollux. Menelaus
and Helen were said to be buried here.

THERAS, a Spartan, who colonised and
gave name to the island of Thera.

THfiRASIA (.ae), a small island W. of

THERMA, a town in Macedonia, afterwards
caUed Thessalonica [Thessalomica], situated
at the N.£. extremity of a great gulf of the
Aegaean sea, called THERHAictrs or Teebhabus
Sinus, fh)m the town at its head. This gulf
was ateo called Macedonicus Sinus : its modem
name is Qvlf of Saloniki,

THERMAE (.&rum), a town in Sicily, built
by the inhabitants of Himera, aftj^r the de-
struction of the latter city by the Cartha-
ginians. (^imeba.I


THERMODON (-ontis : Thertneh\ a river
of Pontus, in the district of Themiscyra, the
reputed country of the Amazons, rises in a
mountain called Amazonius M. (and still
Mason Dagh)^ near Phanaroea, and falls into
the sea about 30 miles E. of the mouth of the
Iris. At its mouth was the city of Themis-
cyra; and there is still, on the W. side of the
mouth of the Thermeh^ a place of the same
name, Thermeh.

THERMOPYLAE, often called simply
pI^LAB (-arum), that is, the Hot Gates or
the Gates, a celebrated pass leading from
Thessaly into Locris. It lay between Mt Oeta
and an inaccessible morass, forming the edge
of the Malic Gulf. At one end of the pass,
close to Anthela, the mountain approached so
close to the moVass as to leave room for only
a single carriage between ; this narrow en-
trance formed the W. gate of Thermopylae.
About a mile to the E. the mountain again
approached close to the sea, near the Locrian
town of Alpeni, thus formbig the E. gate of
Thermopylae. The space between these 2
gates was wider and more open, and was dis-
tinguished by its abundant flow of hot springs,
which were sacred to Hercules : hence the
name of the place. The pass of Thermopylae
is especially celebrated on account of the
heroic defence of Leonidas and the 300 Spar-
tans against the mighty host of Xerxes.

THERMUM (-i) or THERMA (.&tis), a
town of the Aetolians near Stratus, with
warm mineral springs, and regarded for some
time as the capital of the country.

THERON (-onis), tyrant of Agrigentum in
Sicily, reigned from about b.c. 488 till his
death in 472. He shared with Gelon in the
great victory gained over the Carthaginians
in 480.

THERSANDER (-dri), son of Polynices
and Argia, and one of the Epigoni, went with
Agamemnon to Troy, and was slain in that
expedition by Telephus.

THERSITES (-ae), son of Agnub, the most
deformed man and impudent talker among
the Greeks at Troy. According to the later
poets he was killed by Achilles, because he
had ridiculed him for lamenting the death of
Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons.

THESEUS (-£58, -^ or -el), the great le-
gendary hero of Attica, was the son of Aegeus,
king of Athens, and of Aethra, the daughter
of Pittheus, king of Troezen. He was brought
up at Troezen ; and when he reached matu-
rity, he took, by his mother's directions, the
sword and sandals, the tokens which had
been left by Aegeus, and proceeded to Athens.
Eager to emulate Hercules, he went by land,
displaying his prowess by destroying the rob-
bers and monsters that infested the country.
By means of the sword which he carried,
Theseus was recognised by Aegeus, . acknow-
ledged as his son, and declared his successor,
to the exclusion of the sons of Pallas. The
capture of the Marathonian bull, which had
long laid waste the surrounding coxmtry, was
the next exploit of Theseus. After this he
went of his own accord as one of the 7 youths,
whom the Athenians were obliged tp send
every 3rear, with 7 maidens, to Crete, in order
to be devoured by the Minotaur. Wlien they
arrived at Crete, Ariadne, the daughter of
Minos, became enamoured of Theseus, and
provided him with a sword with which he
slew the Minotaur, and a clue of thread by
which he found his way out of the labyrint^.
Having effected his object, Theseus sailed
away, canrying off Ariadne. There were va-
rious accounts about Ariadne ; but according
to the general account Theseus abandoned
her in the island of Naxos on his way home.
[Ariadne.] He was generally believed to
have had by her two sons, Oeonopion and
Staphylus. As the vessel in which Theseus
sailed approached Attica, he neglected to
hoist the white sail, which was to have been
the signal of the success of the expedition ;
whereupon Aegeus, thinking that his son had
perished, threw himself into the sea. [ Aegsus.]
Theseus thus became king of Athens. One of
the most celebrated of the adventures of

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Theseos was his expedition against the Ama^
sons. He is said to have assaUed them before
they had recoyered from the attack of Her.
cules, and to hare carried off their queen,
Antiope. The Amazons in their torn invaded
Attica, and penetrated into Athens itself; and
the final battle in which Theseus overcame
them was fought in the very midst of the city.
By Antiope, Theseus was said to have had a
son named Hippolytus or Demophoon, and
after her death to have married Phaedra
[Hippolytus, Phaxdra]. Theseus figures in
almost all the great heroic expeditions. He
was one of the Argonauts ; he Joined in the
Calydonian hunt, and aided Adrastos in re-
covering the bodies of those slain before
Thebes. He contracted a close friendship
with Pirithous, and aided him and the Laoi-
thae against the Centaurs. With the assist-
ance of Pirithous, he carried off Helen from
Sparta while she was quite a girl, ani placed
her at Aphidnae, under the care of Aethra.
In return he assisted Pirithous in his attempt
to carry off Persephone from the lower world.
Pirithous perished in the enterprise, and
Theseus was kept in hard durance until he
was delivered by Hercules. Meantime Castor
and Pollux invaded Attica, and carried off
Helen and Aethra, Academus having informed
the brothers where they were to be found
[AcADKjfus]. Menestheus also endeavoured
to incite the people against Theseus, who on
his return found himself unable to re-establish
his authority, and retired to Scyros, where
he was treacherously slain by Lycomedes.
The departed hero was believed to have
appeared to aid the Athenians at the battle
of Marathon. There can be no doubt that
Theseus is a purely legendary hero, though
:be Athenians in later times regarded him as
an historical personage, and as the author
of several of their political institutions.

THESPIAE (-arum) or THESPIA (-ae :
JSiremo or JRimokastro)^ an ancient town in
Boeotia on the S.E. slope of Mt. Helicon, at
no great distance from the Crissaean Gulf.
It was burnt to the grround by the Persians,
but subsequently rebuilt. At Thespiae was
preserved the celebrated marble statue of
Eros by Praxiteles, who had given it to
Phryne, by whom it was presented to her
native town. [Pkaxitelbs.] From the
vicinity of Thespiae to Mt. Helicon the
Muses are called Thespiddet^ and Helicon
itself is named the Thespia rupes,

THE8PIS (-is), the celebrated father of
Greek tragedy, was a contemporary of Pisis-
tratus, and a native of Icarus, one of the
demi in Attica, where the worship of Dionysus
(Bacchus) had long prevailed. The alteration
made by Thespis, and which gave to the old

tragedy a new and dramatic character, was
very simple but very important. He intro-
duced an actor, for the sake of giving rest
to the chorus, in which capacity he probably
appeared himself, taking various parts in the
same piece, under various disguises, which
he was enabled to assume by means of linen
masks, the invention ot which is ascribed to
him. The first representation of Thespis was
in B.C. 535. For further details see Diet, of
Antiq. artj^ Tragoedia,

THESPIUS (-i), son of Erechtheus, who,
according to some, founded the town of
Thespiae in Boeotia. His descendants are
called TTiespiadae,

THESPROTI (-orum), a people of Epirus,
inhabiting the district called after tbem
Thbsfrotxa. or Thesprotis, which extended
along the coast from the Ambracian gulf N.-
wards as far as the river Thyamis, and
inland as far as the territory of the Molossi.
The Thesproti were the most ancient in-
habitants of Epirus, and are said to have
derived their name from Thesprotus, the son
of Lycaon. They were Pelasgians, and in
their country was the oracle of Dodona, the
great centre of the Pelasgic worship. From
Thesprotia issued the Thessalians, who took
possession of the country afterwards called

THESSAl!a (-ae), the largest division of
Greece, was bounded oh the N. by the Cam-
bunian mountains, which separated it from
Macedonia ; on the W. by Mt. Pindus, which
separated it from Epirus ; on the E. by the
Aegaean sea ; and on the S. by the Maliac
gulf and Mt. Oeta, which separated it from
Locris, Phocis, and Aetolia. Thessaly Proper
is a vast plain shut in on every side by moun-
tain barriers, broken only at the N.E. corner
by the valley ind defile of Tempe, which
separates Ossa from Olympus. This plain is
drained by the river PenSus and its affluents,
and is said to have been originally a vast
lake, the waters of which were afterwards
carried off through the vale of Tempe by
some sudden convulsion, which rent the rocks
of this valley asunder. In addition to the
plain already described there were 2 other
districts included under the general name of
Thessaly : one called Magnesia, being a long
narrow strip of country, extending along the
coast of the Aegaean sea from Tempe to the
Pagasaean gulf, and bounded on the W. by
Mts. Ossa and Olympus ; and the other being
a long narrow vale at the extreme S. of the
country, lying between Mts. Othrys and Oeta,
and drained by the river Spercheus. Thes-
saly Proper was divided in very early times
into 4 districts or tetrarchies — a division
which we still find subsisting in the Pelo-

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ponnesian war. These districts were — (1)
HssTiAEOTis, the N.W. part of Thessaly,
bounded on the N. by Macedonia, on the W.
by Epirus, on the E. by Pelasgiotis, and on
the S. by Thessaliotis : the Peneus may be
said in general to have formed its S. limit. —
(2) Peijlsoiotis, the £. part of the Thes.
salian plain, was bounded on the N. by
Macedonia, on the W. by Hestiaeotis, on the
E. by Magnesia, and oh the S. by the Sinus
Pagasaeus and Phthiotis. — (3) Thessaliotis,
the S.W. part of the Thessalian plain, -was
bounded on the N. by Hestiaeotis, on the W.
by Epirus, on the £. by Pelasgiotis, and on
the S. by Dolopia and Phthiotis. — (4)
PHxraoTis, the S.E. of Thessaly, bounded on
the N. by Thessaliotis, on the W. by Dolopia,
on the 8. by the Sinus Maliacus, and on the
E. by the Pagasaean gulf. It is in this dis-
trict that Homer places Phthia, and Hellas
Proper, and the dominions of Achilles.
Besides these there were 4 other districts,
viz. : — (5) Magnesia. [Magnesia.] — (6) Do-
lopia, a small district bounded on the E. by
Phthiotis, on the N. by Thessaliotis, on the
W. by Athamania, and on the S. by Oetaea.
The Dolopes were an ancient people, for they
are^not only mentioned by Homer as fighting
before Troy, but they also sent deputies to
the Amphictyonic assembly. — (7) Oetaea, a
district in the upper valley of the Spercheus,
lying between Mts. Othrys and Oeta, and
bounded on the N. by Dolopia, on the S. by
Phocis, and on the E. by Malis. — (8) Malis.
[Maus.] — ^The Thessalians were a Thespro-
tian tribe, and under the guidance of leaders,
who are said to have been descendants of
Hercules, invaded the W. part of the country,
afterwards called Thessaliotis, whence they
subsequently spread over the other parts of
the country. For some time after the con-
quest, Thessaly was governed by kings of the
race of Hercules ; but the kingly power
seems to have been abolished in early times,
and the government in the separate cities
became oligarchical, the power being chiefly
in the hands of a few great families de-
scended from the ancient kings. Of these
two of the most powerful were the Aleuadae
and the Scopadae, the former of whom ruled
at Larissa, and the latter at Cranon or
Crannon. At an early period the Thes-
salians were united into a confederate body.
Each of the 4 districts into which the country
was divided probably regulated its affairs by
some kind of provincial council ; and in case
of war, a chief magistrate was elected under
the name of Tagus (Tayo?), whose commands
were obeyed by all the 4 districts. This con-
federacy, however, was not of much practical
benefit to the Thessalian people, and appears

to have been only used by the Thessalian
nobles as a means of cementing and main-
taining their power. The Thessalians nevex
became of much importance in Grecian his-
tory. In b.c. 344 Philip completely subjected
Thessaly to Macedonia, by placing at the head
of the 4 divisions of the country governors
devoted to his interests. The victory of T.
Flamininus at Cynoscephalae, in 197, again
gave the Thessalians a semblance of inde-
pendence under the protection of the Romans.

THESSALONICA (-ae : Saloniki)^ more
anciently THERMA, an ancient city in Mace-
donia, situated at the N.E. extremity of the
Sinus Thermaicus. Under the name of
Therma it was not a place of much import-
ance. It was taken and occupied by the
Athenians a short time before the commence-
ment of the Peloponnesian war (b.c. 432),
but was soon after restored by them to Per-
diccas. It was made "an important city by
Cassander, who collected in this place the
inhabitants of several adjacent towns (about
B.C. 315), and who gave it the name of
Thessalonica, in honour of his wife, the
daughter of Philip, and sister of Alexander
the Great. From this time it became a large
and flourishing city. It was visited by the
Apostle Paul about a.d. 53 ; and about 2
years afterwards he addressed from Corinth
2 epistles to his converts in the city.

THESTIUS (-i), son of Ares (Mars), and
Demonice or Androdice, and, according to
others, son of Agenor, and grandson of
Pleuron, the king of Aetolia. He was the
father of Iphiclus, Euippus, Plexippus, Eu-
rypylus, Leda, Althaea, and Hypermnestra.
The patronymic Thestiades is given to his
grandson Meleager, as well as to his sons,
and the female patronymic Thestias, to his
daughter Althaea, the mother of Meleager.

THESTOR (-8ris), son of Idmon and
Laothoe, and father of Calchas, Theocly-
menus, Leucippe, and Theonoe. The patro-
nymic Thestorides is frequently given to his
son Calchas.

THETIS (-Idis), one of the daughters of
Nereus and Doris, was a marine divinity, and
dwelt like her sisters, the Nereids, in the
depths of the sea, with her father, Nereus.
She there received Dionysus (Bacchus) on his
flight &om Lycurgns, and tiie god, in his
gratitude, presented her with a golden urn.
When Hephaestus (Vulcan) was thrown
down from heaven, he was likewise received
by Thetis. She had been brought up by
Hera (Juno), and when she reached the age
of maturity, Zeus (Jupiter) and Hera gave
her, against her will, in marriage to Peleus.
Poseidon (Neptune) and Zeus himself are
said by some to have sued for her hand;

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but when Themis deeLared that the son of
Thetis would be more Ulostrious than his
father, both gods desisted trava. their suit.
Others state that Thetis rejected the offers
of Zeus, because she had been brought up by
Uera; and the god, to revenge himself;
decreed that she should marry a mortaL
Chiron then informed his friend Feleus how
he might gain possession of her, even if she
should metamorphose herself; for Thetis,
like Proteus, had the power of assuming any
form she pleased. Peleus, instructed by
Chiron, held the goddess fast till she assumed
her proper form, and promised to marry
him. The wedding was honoured with the
presence of all the gods, except Eris or Dis>
cord, who was not invited, and who avenged
herself by throwing among the assembled
gods the apple, which was the source of so
much misery. [Pakis.] By Peleus, Thetis
became the mother of Achilles, on whom she
bestowed the tenderest care and love.


THIa (-ae), daughter of UrSnus and GS|
one of the female Titans, became by Hyperion
the mother of Helios (Sol), Eos (Aurora), and
SelSnfi (Luna), that is, she was regarded as
tile dei^ fh)m whom fdl light proceeded.

THIS, a great city of Upper Egypt,
capital of the Thinites Nomos, and the seat
of some of the ancient dynasties.

THISBfi (^8); a beautiful Babylonian
maiden, beloved by Pyramus. The lovers,
living in adjoining houses, often secretly

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