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conversed with each other through an open-
Ing in the wall, as their parents would not
sanction their marriage. Once they agreed
upon a rendezvous at the tomb of Ninus;
Thisbe arrived first, and while she was
waiting for Pyramus, she perceived a lioness,
which had just torn to pieces an ox, and
took to flight. While running she lost her
garment, whicbr the lioness soiled with blood.
In the meantime Pyramus arrived, and find-
ing her garment covered with blood, he
bnagined that she had been murdered, and
made away with himself under a mulberry
tree, the fruit of which henceforth was as
red as blood. Thisbe, who afterwards found
the body of her lover, likewise killed herself.
THISBfi (.Ss), afterwards THISBAE
(-anun : Xakaria)^ a town of Boeotia, on the
borders of Phocis, and between Mt. Helicon
and the Corinthian gulf.

THOANTEA (^c), a surname of the
Taurian Artemis (Diana), derived from Thoas,
king of Tauris.

THOAS (-antis). (1) Son of Andraemon
and Gorge, was king of Calydon and Pleu.
ron, in Aetolia, and sailed with 40 ships
against Troy.~<2) Son of Dionysus (Bacchus)

and Ariadne, was king of Lemnos, and
married to Myrina, by whom he became the
fkther of Hypsipyle and Sieinus. When the
Lemniar women killed all the men in the
island, Hypsipyle saved and concealed her
father, Thoas. The patronymic Thoamtias
is given to Hypsipyle, as the daughter of
Thoas. — (3) Son of Borysthenes, and king
of Tauris, into whose dominions Iphigenia
was carried by Artemis, when she was to
have been sacrificed.

THOBIcUS (-i : Theriko)^ one of the 12
ancient towns in Attica, and subsequently a
demus belonging to the tribe Acamantis, was
situated on the S.E. coast, a little above

THRiCIA (-ae), wa^ in earlier times the
name of the vast space of country bounded on
the N. by the Danube, on the S, by the Pro-
pontis and the Aegaean, on the E. by the
Pontus Euxinus, and on the W. by the river
Strymon, and the eastern-mostof the Illyrian
tribes. It was divided into 2 parts by
Mt. Haemus (the Balkan) , running fh)m '
W. to E., and separating the plain of the
lower Danube ftrom the rivers which fall
into the Aegaean. Two extensive mountain
ranges branch off from the S. side of Mt.
Haemus; one running S.E. towards Con-
stantinople; and the other called Bhodope,
E. of the preceding one, and also running in
a S.E.-ly direction near the river Nostus.
Between these two ranges there are many
plains, which are drained by the Hebrus, the
largest river in Thrace. At a later time the
name Thrace was applied to a more limited
extent of country. Thrace, in its widest
extent, was peopled in the times of Hero-
dotus and Thucydides by a vast number
of different tribes ; but their customs and
character were marked by great uniformity.
They were savage, cruel, and rapacious,
delighting in blood, but brave and warlikei
In earlier times, however, some of the
Thracian tribes must have been distin-
guished by a higher degree of civilisation
than prevailed among them at a later period.
The earliest Greek poets, Orpheus, Linus,
Musaeus, and others, are all represented as
coming trom. Thrace. Eumolpus, likewise,
who founded the Eleusinian mysteries at
Attica, is said to have been a Thracian, and
to have fought against Erechtheus, king oi
Athens. We find mention of the Thracians in
other parts of southern Greece, and also in
Asia. The principal Greek colonies along
the coast, beginning at the Strymon and
going E.-wards, were Amphipolis, Abdeka,
DicAEA or DieaepoUs, Makonka, Stryxb,
Mesehbria, and Aenos. The Thracian Cher-
sonesus was probably colonised by the Greeks

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at an early period, but it did not contain any
important Greek settlement till the migration
of the first Miltiades to the country, during
the reign of Pisistratus at Athens. [Cheb-
BoNxsus.] On the Propontis the 2 chief
Greek settlements were those of PEBiirrRvs
and SxLTHBRiA ;; and on the Thracian Bos.
tx)ras was the important town of Btzantixtm.
There were only a few Greek settlements on
the S.W. coast of the Euxine ; the most im-
portant were those of Apollonia, Odessus,
Callvio'is, Tomi, renowned as the place of
Ovid's banishment, and Ist&ia, near the S,
mouth of the Danube. The Thracians are
said to have been conquered by Sesostris,
king of £gyp,t, and subsequently to hare been
subdued by the Teucrians and Mysians ; but
the ftrst really historical fact respecting them
is their subjugation by Megabazus, the general
of Darius. After the Persians had been
driven out of Europe by the Greeks, the
Thracians recovered their independence ; and
at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war,
almost all the Thracian tribes were united
under the dominion of Sitalces, king of the
Odrysae, whose kingdom extended from
Abdera to the Euxine and the mouth of the
Danube. In the 8rd year ofl the Pelopon-
nesian war (B.C. 429), Sitalces, who had
entered into an alliance with the Athenians,
invaded Macedonia with a vast army of
150,000 men, but was compelled by the
railure of provisions to return home, after
remaining in Macedonia 30 days. Sitalces
fell in batUe against Ihe TribalU in 424, and
was succeeded by his nephew Seuthes, who
during a long reign raised his kingdom to a
height of power and prosperity which it had
never previously attained. After the death
of Seuthes, which appears to have happened
a little before the close of the Peloponnesian
war, we find his powerful kingdom split up
into different parts. Philip, the father of
Alexander the Great, reduced the greater
part of Thrace; and after the death of
Alexander the country fell to the share of
Lysimachus. It subsequently formed a part
of the Macedonian dominions. We do not
know at what period it became a Boman

THBASEA (-ae), P. PAETUS, a dis-
tinguished Bomtui senator, and Stoic philo-
sopher, in the reign of Nero, was a native of
Patavium and was probably bom soon after
the death of Augustus. He made the younger
Cato his model, of whose life he wrote an
accoxmt. He married Arria, the daughter of
the heroic Arria, who showed her husband
Caecina how to die ; and his wife was worthy
of her mother and her husband. At a later
period he gave his own daughter in marriage

to Helvidius Priscus, who trod closely in the
footsteps of his father-in-law. After incur-
ring the hatred of Nero by the independence
of- his character, and the freedom with which
he expressed his opinions, he was condemned
to death by the senate by command of the
emperor, A.n. 66.

THRASYBULUS (-i). (1) Tyrant of Mile-
tus, was a contemporary of Periander and
Alyattes, the king of Lydia. — (2) A celebrateil
Athenian, son of Lycus. He was zealously
attached to the Athenian democracy, and
took an active part in overthrowing the
oligarchical government of the 400 iu b.c.
411. On the establishment of the Thirty
Tyrants at Athens he wa« banished, but, by
the assistance of the Thebans, succeeded in
overthrowing the Ten, who had succeeded
to the government, and eventually obtained
possession of Athens, and restored the de-
mocracy, 403. In 390 he commanded the
Athenian fleet in the Aegaean, and was slain
by the inhabitants of Aspendus. — (3) Brother
of Gelon and Hieron, tyrants of Syracuse,
the latter of whom he succeeded in b.c. 467,
but was soon afterwards expelled by the
Syracusans, whom he had provoked by his
rapacity and cruelty.

THRAStMACHUS (-i), a native of Chal-
cedon, was a sophist, and one of the earliest
cultivators of the art of rhetoric. He was a
contemporary of Gorgias.

THRAStMfiNUS. [Tbasimknus.]

THRONIUM (-i : Eomani), the chief town
of the Lopri Epicnemidii, on the river
Boagrius, at a short distance from the sea,
with a harbour upon the coast.

THtJCTDIDES (-is). (1) An Athenian
statesman, and leader of the aristocratic party
in opposition to Pericles. He was ostracised
in B.C. 444. — (2) The great Athenian his-
torian, of the demus Halimus, was the son
of Olorus or Orolus and Hegesipyle, and was
bom in b.c. 471. Thucydides Is said to have
been instructed in oratory by Antiphon, and
in philosophy by Anaxagoras. Either by in-
heritance or by marriage he possessed gold
mines in that part of Thrace which is opposite
to the island of Thasos, where he was a
person of the greatest influence. He com-
manded an Athenian squadron of 7 ships, at
Thasus, 424, when Eucles, who commanded
in Amphipolis, sent for his assistance against
Brasidas ; but, failing in that enterprise, he
became an exile, probably to avoid a severer
punishment. He himself says that he lived
20 years in exile (v. 26), and as it commenced .
in the beginning of 423, he may have re-
turned to Athens in the beginning of 403,
about the time when Thrasybulus liberated
Athens. Thucydides is said to have been

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assassinated at Athens toon after Ms return ;
and at all events his death cannot be placed
later than 401. With regard to his work,
we may conclude that we have a more exact
history of a long eventful period by Thucy-
dides than we have of any period in modem
history, equally long and equally eventfuL

THtJLfi (-68), an island in the N. part of
the German Ocean, regarded by the ancients
as the most N.-ly point in the whole earth,
and by some supposed to have been Iceland ;
by others, one of the Shetland group.

THDRII (-orum), more rarely THCRIUM
(-i : Tmra Nuova)^ a Greek city in Lucania,
founded b.c. 443, near the site of the ancient
Sybaris, which had been destroyed more than
GO years before. [Sybams.] It was built by
the remains of the population of Sybaris,
assisted by colonists from all parts of Greece,
but especially from Athens. Among these
colonists were the historian Herodotus and
the orator Lysias. The new city, from which
the remains of the Sybarites were soon ex-
pelled, rapidly attained great power and pros-
perity, and became one of the most important
Greek towns in the S. of Italy.

THYAMIS (-is : Kalama), a river in
^'.pirus, forming the boundary between Thes-
protia and the district of Cestryna.

THTADES. [Thtia.]

THtESTES (-ae), son of Pelops and,
Ilippodamia, was the brother of Atreus and
the father of Aegisthus. [Atbeus and

THTIA (.ae), a daughter of Castalius or
Cephisseus, became by Apollo the mother of
Delphus. She is said to have been the first
to have sacrificed to Dionysus (Bacchus),
and to have celebrated orgies in his honour.
From her the Attic women, who went yearly
to Mt. Parnassus to celebrate the Dionysiac
orgies with the Delphian Thyiades, received
themselves the name of Thtiades or Thtadbs.
This word, however, comes from 3^, and
properly signifies the raging or frantic

THYMBRA (.ae). (1) A city of the Troad,
N. of Ilium Vetus, with a celebrated temple
of Apollo, who derived trom. this place the
epithet Thymbraeus. — (2) A wooded district
in Phrygia, no doubt connected with

THYMBR!uM (-i), a small town of Phry-
gia, 10 parasangs W. of Tyriaeum, with the
so-called fountain of Midas.

THYMBRIUS (-i : Thimbrek), a river of
the Troadj^ falling into the Scamander.

THtMELfi (-Ss), a celebrated mima or
female actress in the reign of Domitian, with
whom she was a great favourite.

THtlIO£T£S (.ae), one of the elders of

Troy, whose son was killed by the order of
Priam, because a soothsayer had predicted
that Troy would be destroyed by a boy, bom
on theday on which this child was bom.

THTNI (-orum), a Thracian i>eople, whose
original abodes were near Salmydessus, but
who afterwards passed over into Bithtioa.

THYNIA (-ae). (1) The land of the Thyni
in Thrace. — (2) Another name for Bithyxia.

THI'ONE (-5s), the name of Sem^le, under
which Dionysus (Bacchus), fetched her from
Hades, and introduced her among the im-
mortals. Hence Dionysus is also called

' THtREA (-ae), the chief town in Cyna.
ria, the district on the borders of Laconia and
Argolis, was situated upon a height on the bay
of the sea called after it Simis Thyksates.
The territory of Thyrea was called Thtbeatis.

THYSSAGETAE (-arum), a people of Sar-
matia Asiatica, on the E. shores of the Palus

TlBARfiNI or TIBARI (-orum), a quiet
agricultural people on the N. coast of Pontns,
E. of the river Iris.

TIBERIAS. (1) A city of Galilee, on tho
S.W. shore of the Lake of Tiberias, built by
Herod Antipas in honour of the emperor
Tiberius. — (2) Or GEinrBSARBT, also the Sb»
OP Galilee, in the O.T. Chinmsreth {Bahf
Tubariyeh)t the 2nd of the 3 lakes in Pales-
tine, formed by the course of the Jordan.
[JoRDAMEs.] Its length is 11 or 12 geogra-
phical miles, and its breadth trom 5 to 6. It
lies deep among fertile liills, has very clear
and sweet water, and is full of excellent fish.

TIBERlNUS (-i; one of the mythical
kings of Alba, son of Capetus, and father of
Agrippa, is Mdd to have been drowned in
crossing the river Albula which was hence
called Tiberis.

(-is or-Ydis), AMNIS TIBERlNUS or simply
TIBERlNUS (.i : Tiber or Tevere), the chief
river in central Italy, on which stood the
city of Rome. It is said to have been origi.
nally called AlbtUat and to have received the
name of Tiberis in consequence of Tiberinus,
king of Alba, having been drowned in it
The Tiber rises trom 2 springs of limpid
water in the Apennines, near Tifemum, and
flows In a S.W.-ly direction, separating
Etruria trom Umbria, the land of the Sabined,
and Latium. After flowing about 110 miles
it receives the Nar (Nera)^ and from its con.
fluence with this river its regular navigation
begins. Three miles above Rome, at the
distance of nearly 70 miles from the Nar, it
receives the Anio (Teverone), and f^om this
point becomes a river of considerable impor-
tance. Within the walls of Rome, the Tibex

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is about 300 feet wide, an^ ftrom 12 to 18
feet deep. After heavy rains the river in
ancient times, as at tiie present day, fre-
qnently overflowed its banks, and did con-
siderable mischief to the lower parts of the
city. (Hor. Carm. i. 2.) The waters of the
river are muddy and yellowish, whence it is
frequently called by the Boman poets flavtu
Tiberis. The poets also give it the epithets
of Tyrrhenu»t because it flowed past Etruria
during the whole of its course, and of LyditUy
because the Etruscans are said to have been of
Lydian origin,

TIBERIUS (4), Emperor of Rome, a.d.
14 — 37. His full name was Tibekiits Clau.
oius Nkso Cabsab. He was the son of T.
Claudius Nero and of livia, and was bom on
the 16th of November, B.C. 42, before Ms
mother married Augustus. He was carefully
educated and became well acquainted with
Greek and Latin literature. In 20 he was
sent by Augustus to restore Tigranes to the
throne of Armenia. In 13, Tiberius was
consul with P. Quintilius Varus. In 11,
while his brother Drusus was fighting against
the Germans, Tiberius conducted the war
against the Dalmatians and Pannonians.
In 6 he obtained the tribunitia potestas for
5 years, but during this year he retired with
the emperor's permission to Rhodes, where
he spent the next 7 years. His chief reason
for this retirement was to get away from his
wife Julia, the daughter of Augustus, whom
he had been compelled by the emperor to
marry. He returned to Rome a.d. 2. From
the year of his adoption by Augustus, a.d. 4,
to the death of that emperor, Tiberius was in
command of the Roman armies, though he
visited Rome several times. On the death
of Augustus at Nola, on the 19th of August,
A.D. 14, Tiberius, who was on his way to
' lUyricum, was immediately summoned home
by his mother Livia, and took possession of
the imperial power without any opposition.
He began his reign by putting to death
Postumus Agrippa, the surviving grandson
of Augustus. 'When he felt himself sure in
his place, he began to exercise his craft. He
took from the popular assembly the election
of the magistrates, and transferred it to the
senate. Notwithstanding his suspicious na-
ture, Tiberius gave his complete confidence to
Sejanus, who for many years possessed the real
government of the state. In a.d. 26 Tiberius
left Rome, and withdrew into Campania.
He never returned to the city. He left on
the pretext of dedicating temples in Cam-
pania, but his real motives were his dislike
to Rome, where he heard a great deal that
was disagreeable to him, and his wish to
indulge his sensual propensities in private.

In order to secure still greater retirement,
he took up his residence (27) in the island
of Capreae, at a short distance from the
Campanian coast. In 31, Sejanus who aimed
at nothing less than the imperial power, was
put to an ignominious death, which was
followed by the execution of his friends ; and
for the remainder of the reign of Tiberius,
Rome continued to be the scene of tragic
occurrences. Tiberius died on the 16th of
March 37, at the villa of Lucullus, at Mise-
num ; having been smothered by the order
of Macro, the prefect of the praetorians.

TIBISCUS or TIBISSUS (4), probablv
the same as the PARTHISCUS or PAR- •
THISSU8 {Theus)y a river of Dacia, form-
ing the W. boundary of that country.

TIBULLUS (-i), ALBIUS, the Roman
poet, was of equestrian family. His birth is
placed by conjecture b.c. 54, and his death
B.C. 18. Of his youth and education,
absolutely nothing is known. The estate
belonging to the equestrian ancestors of Ti-
bullus was at Pedum, between Tibur and
Praeneste, and the poet spent there the
better portion of his short, but peaceful and
happy life. His great patron was Messala,
whom he accompanied in 31 into Aquitania,
and the following year into the East. Ti-
bijllus, however, was taken ill, and obliged
to remain in Corcyra, from whence he
returned to Rome. So ceased the active life
of Tibullus ; his life is now the chronicle of
his poetry and of those tender passions which
were the inspiration of his poetry. His
elegies are addressed to two mistresses, under
the probably fictitious names of Delia and
Nemesis ; besides whom, as we learn from
Horace (Od. i. 33), he celebrated another
beauty named Glycera. The poetry of his
contemporaries shows Tibullus as a gentle
and singularly amiable man. To Horace
especially he was an object of warm attach-
ment, and his epistle to Tibullus gives the
most ftill and pleasing view of his poetical
retreat, and of his character.

TIBtJR (-ttris: Tivoli)^ one of the most
ancient towns of Latium, 16 miles N.E. of
Rome, situated on the slope of a hill (hence
called by Horace mpinum IVftwr), on the left
bank of the Anio, which here forms a magnifi-
cent waterfall. It became subj ect to Rome with
the other Latin cities on the final subjugation
of Latium, in b.c. 338. Under the Romans
Tibur continued to be a large and flourishing
town, since the salubrity end beautiftil
scenery of the place led many of the most
distinguished Roman nobles to build here
magnificent villas. Of these the most splen-
did was the villa of the emperor Hadrian,
in the extensive remains of which many

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▼ftluable specimens of ancient art have been
discovered. Here also the celebrated Ze.
aobia lired after adorning the tiiumph of her
conqueror Aurelian. Horace likewise had a
country house in the neighbourhood of Tibur,
which he preferred to all his other resi-

TIcInUM (-i: Ptwia), a town of the
Laeri, or, according to others, of the Insu-
bres, in Oallia Cisalpina, on the left bank of
the Ticinus.

TICINU8 (-1: Te$$iHo\ an important
river in Gallia Cisalpina, rises in Mons
Adula, and after flowing through Lacus
* Verbanus {Logo Maggiore)^ falls into the Po,
near Ticinum. It was upon the bonk of this
river that Hannibal gained his first victory
over the Bomans by the defeat of P. Scipio,
B.O. 218.

TIFlTA, a mountain in Campania, E.'of
Capua. '

TIFEENUM (4). (1) Tibkeiotm (Cl«a
di C(ut«Ilo)f a town of Umbria, near the
sources of the river Tiber, whence its sur-
name, and upon the confines of Etruria. — (2)
MBTAxmsMSB {S. Angela in Fado), a town in
Umbria, E. of the Tieceding, on the river
Metaurus.— <3) A town in Samnium, on the
river Tifemus.

TIFERNUS (-i : Bifemo\ a river of 8am-
nium, rising in the Apennines, and flowing
through the country of the Frentani into the

TIGELLlNUS, SOPHONIUS (-i), son of a
native of Agrigentum, the minister of Nero's
worst passions, and of all his favourites the
most obnoxious to the Roman people. On
the accession of Otho, Tigellinus was com-
pelled to put an end to his own life.



TIGRlNES (-is), kings of Armenia. (I.)
Reigned b.c. 96 — 56 or 55. In 83 he made
hitnself master of the whole Syrian mo-
narchy, from the Euphrates to the sea.
In 69, having refused to deliver up his
son-in-law, Mithridates, to the Romans,
Lucullus invaded Armenia, defeated the
mighty host v^ch Tigranes led against him,
and followed up his victory by the capture of
Tigranocerta. Subsequently Tigranes reco-
vered his dominions ; but on the approach of
Pompey, in 66, he hastened to make overtures
of submission, and laid his tiara at Ms feet,
together with a sum of 6000 talents. Pompey
left him in possession of Armenia Proper with
the title of king. Tigranes died in 56 or
55, — (n.) Son ofArtavasdes, and grandson of
the preceding.

TIGRANOCERTA (-orum, i.e., in Arme-
nian, the City of Tigranes : Sert, Ru.)i the

later capital of Armenia, built by Tigranes
on a height by the river Nicephori^, in the
valley between Mt Masius and Niphates.

TIGRIS (-Idis and -is), a great river of W.
Asia, rises ftom several sources on the 8.
side of that part of the Taurus chain called
Niphates, in Armenia, and flows S.E., first
through the narrow valley between Mt.
Masius and the prolongation of Mt. Niphates,
and then through the great plain which is
bounded on the E. by the last-named chain,
till it falls into the head of the Persian GuU,
after receiving the Euphrates from the W.

TIGUIB^I (-orum), a tribe of the Helvetii,
who joined the Cimbri in invading the
country of the Allobroges in Gaul, where
they defeated the consul L. Cassius Longinns,
B.C. 107. They formed in the time of Caesar
the most important of the 4 cantons {pagi)
into which the Helvetii were divided.

TILPHtSIUM (-i), a town in Boeotia,
situated upon a mountain of the same name,
S. of lake Copais, and between Coronea and
Haliartus. It derived its name from the
fountain TilphQsa, which was sacred to
Apollo, and where Tiresias is said to have
been buried.

TImaEUS (-i). (1) The historian, was
the son of Andromachus, tyrant of Taurome-
nium in Sicily, and was bom about b.c 352.
He was banished from Sicily by Agathooles,
and passed his exile at Athens, where he had
lived 50 years when he wrote the 34th book
of his history. He probably died about 256.
The great work of Timaeus was a history of
Sicily from the earliest times to 264.— (2) Of
Locii, in Italy, a Pythagorean philosopher,
is said to have been a teacher of Plato.

TIMIGENES (-is), a rhetorician and an
historian, was a native of Alexandria, from
which place he was carried as a prisoner to
Rome, where he opened a school of rhetoric,
and taught with great success.

TIMANTHES (-is), a celebrated Greek
painter at Sicyon, contemporary with Zeuxis
and Parrhasius, about b.o. 400. The master-
piece of Timanthes was his celebrated picture^
of the sacrifice of Iphigenia, in which Aga-
memnon was painted with his face hiddm in
his mantle.

tImAVUS (-i), a smaU river in the N. of
Italy, forming the boundary between Istria
and Venetia, and falling into the Sinus Ter^
gestinus in the Adriatic, between Tergeate
and Aquileia.

TiMOCREON (-ontis), of Rhodes, a lyric
poet, celebrated for the bitter and pugnacious
spirit of his works, and especially for his
attacks on Themistocles and Simonides.

TIM5lE0N (-6ni8), son of Timodemus or
Timaenetus and Demariste, belonged to one

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of the noblest families at Corinth. His early
life was stained by a dreadful deed of blood.
We are told that so ardent was his love of
liberty, that when his brother Timophanes
endeavoured to make himself tyrant of their
native city, Timoleon murdered him rather
than allow him to destroy the liberty of the
state. At the request of the Greek cities of
Sicily, the Corinthians dispatched Timoleon
with a small force in b.c. 344 to repel the

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