William Smith.

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Carthaginians from that island. He obtained
possession of Syracuse, and then proceeded to
expel the tyrants from the other Greek cities,
of Sicily, but was interrupted in this under-
taking by a formidable invasion of the Car-
thaginians, who landed at Lilybaeum in 839,
with an immense army, under the command
of Husdrubal and HamOcar, consisting of
70,000 foot and 10,000 horse. Timoleon
could only induce 12,000 men to march with
him agrainst the Carthaginians ; but with this
small force he gained a brilliant victory over
the Carthaginians on the river Crimissus
(339). The Carthaginians were glad to con-
clude a treaty with Timoleon in 838, by
which the river Halycus was fixed as the
boundary of the Carthaginian and Greek do-
minions in Sicily* Subsequently he expelled
almost all the tyrants from the Greek cities
in Sicily, and established democracies instead.
Timoleon, however, was in reality the ruler
of Sicily, for all the states consulted him on
every matter of importance ; and the wisdom
of his rule is attested by the flourishing con-
dition of the island for several years even
after his death. He died in 337.

TiMON (-Snis). (1) The son of Timarchus
of Phlius, a philosopher of the sect of the
Sceptics, flourished in the reign of Ptolemy
Philadelphus, about B.C. 279, and onwards.
He taught at Chalcedon as a sophist with
such success that he realised a forttme. He
then removed to Athens, where he passed the
remainder of his life, with the exception of a
short residence at Thebes. He died at the
age of almost 90. — (2) The Misanthrope, an
Athenian, lived in the time of the Pelopon-
nesian war. In consequence of the ingrati-
tude he cxperieneed, and the disappointments
he suffered, from his early firiends and com.
panions, he secluded himself entir^y from
the world, admitting no one to his society
except Alciblades. He is said to have died
in consequence of refusing to have a broken
Umb set

TIMOTHEUS (-i). (1) A celebrated mu-
doian and poet of the later Athenian dithy-
ramb, was a native of Miletus, and the son of
Thersander. He was bom b.c. 446, and died
In 857, in the 90th year of his age. He was
at first unfortunate in his professional efforts.

Even the Athenians, fond as they were of
novelty, were offended at the bold innovations
of Timotheus, and hissed off his performance.
On this occasion it is said that Euripides en-
couraged Timotheus by the prediction that
he would soon have the theatres at his feet.
This prediction appears to have l>een accom-
plished in the vast popularity which Timo-
theus afterwards enjoyed. He delighted in
th» most artificial and intricate forms of
musical expression, and he used instrumental
music, without a vocal accompaniment, to a
greater extent than any previous composer.
Perhaps the most' important of his innova-
tions, as the means of introducing all the
others, was his addition to the number of the
strings of the eitharay which he seems to
have increased to 11. - -(2) A disting^hed
flute-player of Thebes, flourished under Alex-
ander the Great.

TINGIS (-is : Tangier)^ a city of Maure-
tania, on the S. coast of the Fretum Gadi-
tanum {Strait* of Oibraltar), was a place of
very great antiquity. It was made by Augus-
tus a free city, and by Claudius a colony, and
the oapjtal of Mauretania Tingitana.

TINIa (-ae), a small river in Umbria, ris-
ing near Spoletium, and falling into the Tiber.

TiRESlAS (-ae), a Theban, was one of the
most renowned soothsayers in all antiquity.
He was blind from his seventh year, but lived
to a very old age. The occasion of his blind-
ness and of his prophetic power is variously
related. In the war of the Seven against
Thebes, he declared that Thebes should be
victorious, if Menoeceus would sacrifice him-
self ; and during the war of the Epig^ni,
when the Thebans had been defeated, he ad-
vised them to commence negotiations of
peace, and to avail themselves of the oppor-
tunity that would thus be afforded them, to
take to flight. He himself fled with them
(or, according to others, he was carried to
Delphi as a captive), but on his way he drank
from the well of Tllphossa, and died. Even
in the lower world Tiresias was believed to
retain the powers of perception, while the
souls of other mortals were mere shades, and
there also he continued to use his golden staff.
The blind seer Tiresias acts so prominent a
part in the mythical history of Greece, that
there is scarcely any event with which he is
not connected in some way or other ; and this
introduction of the seer in so many occur-
rences separated by long int«rvals of time,
was facilitated by the belief in his long life.

TIRIDATfiS or TERIdaTES (-is). (1) The
second king of Parthia. [Arsaces II.] — (2)
King of Armenia, and brother of Vologeses I.
(Arsaces XXIIL), king of Parthia. He was
made king of Armenia by his brother, but

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was driyen out of the kingdom by Corbnlo,
the Roman general, and finally receiyed the
Aimenian crown from Nero at Rome in a.d. 63.

TIRO (dnis), M. TULLIUS, the freedman
of Cicero, to whum he was an object of
tender affection. He appears to have been a
man of very amiable disposition, and highly
cultivated intellect He was not only the
amanuensLi of the orator, and his assistant in
literary labour, but was himself an author of
no mean reputation, and notices of several
works from his pen have been preserved by
ancient writers. After the death of Cicero,
Tiro purchased a farm in the neighbourhood
of Puteoli, where he lived until he reached
bis 100th year. It is usually believed that
Tiro was the inventor of the art of short-
hand writing (Notae Tironianae).

TIRTNS (-this), an ancient town in Argo.
lis, 6.E. of Argos, and one of the most ancient
in all Greece, is said to have been founded by
Proetus, the brother of Acrisius, who built
the massive walls of the city with the help of
the Cyclopes. Proetus was succeeded by
Perseus ; and it was here that Hercules was
brought up. Hence we find his mother, Alc-
mena, called Tirynthiaf and the hero
himself, Tirynthius. The remains of the city
are some of the most interesting in all Greece,
and are, with those of Mycenae, the most
ancient specimens of what is called Cyclopean

TISAMENU8 (4). (1) Son of Orestes
and Hermione, was king of Argos, but was
deprived of his kingdom when the Heraclidae
invaded Peloponnesus. He was slain in a
battle against the Heraclidae.


TISSAPHERNES (-is), a famous Persian,
who was appointed satrap of Lower Asia in
B.C. 414. He espoused the cause of the
Spartans in the Peloponnesian war, but he
did not give them any effectual assistance,
since his policy was to exhaust the strength
of both parties by the continuance of the war.
His plans, however, were thwarted by the
arrival of Cyrus in Asia Minor in 407, who
supplied the Lacedaemonians with cordial
and effectual assistance. At the battle of
Cunaxa, in 401, Tissaphemes was one of the
4 generals who commanded the army of
Artazerxes, and his troops were the only
portion of the left wing that was not put to
night by the Greeks. When the 10,000 had
begun their retreat, Tissaphemes promised
to conduct them home in safety ; but in the
course of the march he treacherously arrested
Clearchus and 4 of the other generals. As
a reward for his services, he was invested
by the king, in addition to his own satrapy,
with all the authority which Cyrus had

enjoyed in western Asia. This led to a war
with Sparta, in which Tissaphemes was
unsuccessful ; on which account, as well as
by the influence of Parysatis, the mother of
Cyrus, he was put to death in 395 by order of
the king.

TITANES (-um). (1) The sons and
daughters of Ur&nus (Heaven) and OS
(Earth), originally dwelt in heaven, whence
they are called Uranidae. They were 12 in
number, 6 sons and 6 daughters, namely,
Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, lapStos,
Cronus, Thia, Rhea, Themis, Idnemos^e,
Phoebe, and Tethys; but their names are
different in other accounts. It is said that
Uranus, the first ruler of the world, threw
his sons, the Hecatoncheires, (Hundred-
landed), — Briareus, Cottys, Gyes, — and the
Cyclopes, — Arges, SterCpes, and Brontes —
ii^ Tartarus. Gaea, indignant at this, per-
suaded the Titans to rise against their father,
and gave to Cronus (Saturn) an adamantine
sickle. They did as their mother bade them,
with the exception of Oceanus. Cronus, with
his sickle, unmanned his father, and threw
the part into the sea ; from the drops of his
blood there arose the Erinnyes, — ^Alecto,
Tisiphone, and Megaera. The Titans then
deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who
had been cast into Tartams, and raised Cro-
nus to the throne. But Cronus hurled the
Cyclopes back into Tartams, and married his
sister Rhea. It having been foretold to him
by Gaea and Uranus, that he should be de-
throned by one of his own children, he
swallowed successively his children Hestia
(Vesta), Demeter (Ceres), Hera (Juno),
Pluto, and Poseidon (Neptune). Rhea,
therejpre, when she was pregnant with
Zeus (Jupiter) went to Crete, and gave birth
to the child in the Dictaean Cave, where he
was brought up by the Curetes. When Zeus
had grown up he availed himself of the assist-
ance of Thetis, the daughter of Oceanus, who
g^ve to Cronus a potion which caused bim to
bring up the stone and the children he had
swallowed. United with his brothers and
sisters, Zeus now began the contest against
Cronus and the ruling Titans. This contest
(usually called the Titanomachia) was carried
on in Thessaly, Cronus and the Titans occu-
pying Mt. Othrys, and the sons of Cronus
Mt. Olympus. It lasted 10 years, till at
length Gaea promised victory to Zeus if he
would deliver the Cyclopes and Hecaton-
cheires from Tartams. Zeus accordingly
slew Campe, who guarded the Cyclopes, and
the latter furnished him with thunder and
lightning. The Titans then were overcome,
and hurled down into a cavity below Tar-
tarus, and the Hecatoncheires were set U*

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i^ard them. It must be obserred that the
tight of the Titans is sometimes confounded
by ancient writers with the fight of the Gi-
gantes. — (2) The name Titans is also given
to those divine or semi-divine beings who
were descended from the Titans, such as
Prometheus, Hecate, Latona, Pyrrha, and
especially Helios (the Sun) and SeienS (the
Moon), as the children of Hyperion and
Thia, and even to the descendants of Helios,
such as Circe.

TITABESiUS (-i: Massonitiko or Xera-
ghi)t a river of Thessaly, also called Europus,
rising in Mt. Titarus, flowing through the
country of the Perrhaebi, and falling into the
Peneus, S.E. of Phalanna.

TITHONUS (-i), son of Laomedon and
Strymo, and brother of Priam. By the
prayers of Eos (Aurora), who loved him, he
obtained fh>m the gods immortality, but not
eternal youth, in consequence of which he
completely shrank together in his old age ;
whence a decrepit old man was proverbially
called Tithonus. Eos changed him into a
cicada, or grasshopper.


TITHRAUSTE8, a Persian, who succeeded
Tissaphemes in his satrapy, and put him to
death by order of Artaxerxes Mnemon, B.c.39d.

.\NUS (4), Eoman emperor, a.d. 79—81,
commonly called by his praenomen TITUS,
was the son of the emperor Vespasianus and
his wife Flavia Domitilla. He was bom on
the 30th of December, a.d. 40. When a
young man he served as tribunus militimi in
Britain and in Germany, with great credit.
After having been quaestor, he had the com-
mand of a legion, and served under his father
in the Jewish wars, Vespasian returned to
Italy, after he had been proclaimed emperor
on the Ist of July, a.d. 69 ; but Titus re-
mained in Palestine to prosecute the siege of
Jerusalem, during which he showed the
talents of a general with the daring of a
soldier. The siege of Jerusalem was con-
cluded by the capture of the place, on the 8th
of September, 70. Titus returned to Italy
in the following year (71), and triumphed at
Rome with his father. He also received the
title of Caesar, and became the associate of
Vespasian in the government. His conduct
at this time gave no good promise, and his
attachment to Berenice, the sister of Agn^ippa
II., also made him unpopular, but he sent
her away from Rome after he became empe-
ror. Titus succeeded his father in 79, and
his government proved an agreeable surprise
to those who had anticipated a return of the
times of Nero. During his whole r^gn Titus
displayed a sincere desire for the happiness

of the people, and be did all that he could
to relieve them in times of distress. He
assumed the office of Pontifex Maximus after
the death of his father, and with the purpose,
as he declared, of keeping his hands free
from blood, a resolution which he kept. The
Ist year of his reign is memorable for the
great eruption of Vesuvius, which desolated
a large part of the adjacent country, and
buried with lava and ashes the towns of Her-
culaneum and Pompeii. Titus endeavoured
to repair the ravages of this great eruption ;
and he was also at grreat care and expense in
repairing the damage done by a great fire at
Bome, which lasted 3 days and nights. He
completed the Colosseum, and erected the
baths which were called by his name. He
died on the 13th of Septembior, a.d. 81, after a
reign of 2 years and 2 months, and 20 days.
He was in the 41st year of his age ; and
there were suspicions that he was poisoned
by his brother, Domitian.

TITI^US (4), son of Gaea, or of Zeus
(Jupiter) and Elara, the daughter of Orcho-
menus, was a giant in Euboea. Instigated
by Hera (Jimo), he attempted to offer violence
to Artemis (Diana), when she passed through
Panopaeus to Pytho, but he was killed by
the arrows either of Artemis or Apollo;
according to others, Zeus destroyed him with
a flash of lightning. He was then cast into
Tartarus, and there he lay outstretched on
the ground, covering 9 acres, whilst 2 vultures
or 2 snakes devoured his liver.

TLEPOLEMUS (4), son of Hercules by
Astyoche, daughter of Phylas, or by Asty-
damia, daughter of Amyntor. He was king
of Argos, but after slaying his uncle Licym-
nius, he settled in Rhodes. He joined tho
Greeks in the Trojan war with 9 ships, and
was hlain by Sarpedon.

TLOS, a considerable city, in the interior
of Lycia, about 2^ miles £. of the river

TMOLUS (4). (1) God of Mt. Tmolus
in Lydia, is described as the husband of
Pluto (or Omphale) and father of Tantalus,
and is said to have decided the musical con-
test between Apollo and Pan — (2) {Dagh)^ a
celebrated moxmtain of Asia Minor, running
E. and W. through the centre of Lydia, and
dividing the plain of the Hermus, on the N.,
from that of the Cayster, on the S.

TOLfiNUS or TELONTUS (4 : Turano), a
river in the land of the Sabines, rising in the
coxmtry of the Marsi and Aequi, and falling
into the Velinus.

TOLETUM (4 : Toledo), the capital of the
Carpetani in Hispania Tarraconensis, situated
on the river Tagus, which nearly encom
passes the town.

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TOLO^A (^e : TntUouu), a town of Gallia
Narbonensis, and the capital of tbeTectoea^es,
was situate on the Garumna, near the fron.
tiers of Aqnitania. It was subsequently made
a Boman colony, and was somamed Palladia.
It was a large and wealthy town, and con-
tained a celebrated temple, in which is said
to hare been preserred a great part of the
booty taken by Brennus ftrom the temple of
DelphL The town and temple were plun-
dered by the consul Q. Servilius Caepio, in
B.C. 106.

tClUMNIuS (-i) LiR (-tis), king of the
Veientes, to whom Fidenae revolted in b.c.
438, and at whose instigation the inhabitants
of Fidenae slew the 4 Roman ambassadors
who had been sent to inquire into the reasons
of their recent conduct. In the war which
followed, Tolumnius was slain in single
combat by Cornelius Cossus.

TOMI (-6rum) or TOMIS (-is : Tomiswar
or Jegni Pangola)^ a town of Thrace (subse-
quently Moesia), situated on the W. shore of
the Euxine, and at a later time the capital
of Scythia Minor. It is renowned as the
place of Ovid's banishment.

TOMtRIS (.is), a queen of the Massagetae,
by whom Cyrus was slain in battle, b.o. 529.

t5r0n£ (.es), a town of Macedonia, in
the district of Chalcidice, and on the S.W.
side of the peninsula Sithonia, from which
the grulf between the peninsulas Sithonia and
Pallene was called Sinus Toronaicus.

TORQUATUS (-1), the name of a patrician
family of the Manila Gens. (1) T. Manlius
Impkuosus ToaauATirs, the son of L. Manlius
Capitolinus Imperiosus, dictator b.o. 868, was
a favourite hero of Roman story. Manlius is
said to have been dull of mind in his youth,
and was brought up by his father in the
closest retirement in the country. In 861
he served under the dictator T. Quintius
Pennus in the war against the Gauls, and in
this campaign earned immortal glory by
slaying in single combat a gigantic Gaul.
From the dead body of the barbarian he took
the chain {torquet) which had adorned him,
and placed it around his own neck ; and from
this circumstance he obtained the surname
of Torquatus. He was dictator in 858, and
again in 349. He was also three times consul,
namely in 347, 344, and in 340. In the
last of these years Torquatus and Ms colleague,
P. Decius Mus, gained the great victory over
the Latins at the foot of Vesuvius, which
established for ever the supremacy of Rome
over Latium. Shortly before the battle, when
the two armies were encamped opposite to
one another, the consuls published a pro-

clamation that no Roman should engage in
single combat with a Latin on pain of death.
This command was violated by young Man-
lius, the consul's son, who was in consequence
executed by the lictor in presence of the as-
sembled army. This severe sentence rendered
Torquatus an object of detestation among the
Roman youths as long as he lived ; and the
recollection of his severity was preserved in
after ages by the expression Manliana imperia.
— (2) T. Makuus TonauATUs, consul b.c.
235, when he conquered the Sardinians;
censor 231 ; and consul a 2nd time in 224.
He possessed the hereditary sternness and
severity of his family ; and we accordingly
find him opposing in the senate the ransom
of those Romans who had been taken pri-
soners at the fatal battle of Cannae. He was
dictator in 210. — (3) L. BiAULius ToRauATus.
consul B.C. 65 with L. Aurelius Cotta. He
took an active part in suppressing the Catili-
narian conspiracy in 63 ; and *he also sup-
ported Cicero when he was banished in 58. —
(4) L. MANLnrs ToRauATus, son of No. 3,
belonged to the aristocratical party, and ac-
cordingly opposed Caesar on the breaking out
of the civil war in 49. He was praetor in
that year, and was stationed at Alba with 6
cohorts. He subsequently joined Pompey in
Greece, and in the following year (48) he
had the command of Oricum intrusted to him,
but was obliged to surrender both himself
and the town to Caesar, who, however, dis-
missed Torquatus uninjured. After the battle
of Pharsalia Torquatus went to Africa, and
upon the defeat of his party in that country
in 46 he attempted to escape to Spain along
with Scipio and others, but was taken pri-
soner by P. Sittius at Hippo Regius and slain
togrether with his companions. Torquatus
was well acquainted with Greek literaturt-,
and is praised by Cicero, with whom, in early
life, he was closely connected, as a man well
trained in every kind of learning.— (5) A.
Manlius ToaaxTATrs, praetor in 52, when he
presided at the trial of Milo for bribery. On
the breaking out of the civil war he espoused
the side of Pompey, and after the defeat of
the latter retired to Athens, where he was
living in exile in 45. He was an intimate
friendof Cicero.

TRABEA (-ae), Q., a Roman comic dra-
matist who occupies the eighth place in the
canon of Volcatius Sedigitus. The period
when he flourished is uncertain, but he has
been placed about b.c. ISO.

TRACHIS or TRiCHIN (-Inis). (1) Also
called Hbraclea Trachinxab, or Hebaolka
Phthiotidis, or simply Hkraclea, a town of
Thessaly in the district Malis, celebrated as
the residence of Hercules for a time. — (2) A

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town of Phocis, on the frontiers of Boeotia,
and on the slope of Mt. Helicon in the neigh,
bourhood of Lebadea.

trict of Palestine beyond the Jordan, lay
between Anti-Libanus and the mountains of
AraWa, and was bounded on the N. by the
territory of Damascus, pn the E. by Auranitis,
on the S. by Ituraea, and on the W. by

TRAJANUS (-1) M. ULPIUS, Roman em-
peror A.D. 98 — 117, was born at Italica, near
Seville, the 18th of September, 52, He was
trained to arms, and served with distinction
in the East and in Germany. He was consul
in 91, and at the close of 97 he was adopted
by the emperor Nerva, upon whose death in
the following year Trajan succeeded to the
empire with the title of Imperator Caesar
Nerva Trqfamis Augustus, His accession
was hailed with joy, and he did not disap-
point the expectations of the people. At the
time of Nerva's death, Trajan was at Cologne,
and did not return to Rome for some months,
when he entered it on foot, accompanied by
his wife Pompeia Plotina. Trajan was em-
ployed for the next 2 or 3 years in a war with
Decebalus, king of the Daci, whom he de-
feated, and compelled to sue for peace.
Trajan assumed the name of Dacicus, and
entered Rome in triumph (108). In the
following year (104) he commenced his 2nd
Dacian war against Decebalus, who, it is
said, had broken the treaty. Decebalus was
completely defeated, and put an end to his
life CI 06). After the death of Decebalus,
Dacia was reduced to the form of a Roman
province ; strong forts were built in various
places, and Roman colonies were planted.
On his return Trajan had a triumph, and he
exhibited games to the people for 123 days.
About this time Arabia Petraea was subjected
to the empire by A. Cornelius Palma, the
governor of Syria ; and an Indian embassy
came to Rome. In 114 Trajan left Rome to
make war on the Armenians and the Parthians.
He spent the winter of 114 at Antioch, and
in the following year he invaded the Parthian
dominions. The most striking and brilliant
success attended his arms. In the course of
2 campaigns (115 — 116), he conquered the
gnreater part of the Parthian empire, and took
the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. In 116
he descended the Tigris, and entered the
Erythraean Sea (the Persian Gulf), While
he was thus engaged the Parthians rose
against the Romans, but were again subdued
by the generals of Trajan. On his return to
Ctesiphon, Trajan determined to give the
Parthians a king, and placed the diadem on
the head of Parthamaspates. In 117 Trajan

fell ill, and as his complaint grew worse hfl
set out for Italy. He lived to reach Selinua
in Cilicia, afterwards called Trajanopolis,
where he died in August, 117, after a reign
of 19 years, 6 months, and 15 days. He left
no children. Trajan was strong and laborious,
of majestic appearance, and simple i^ his
mode of life. Though not a man of letters,
he had a sound judgment, and felt a sincere
desire for the happiness of his people.
Trajan constructed several great roads in the
empire ; he built libraries at Rome, one of
which, called the Ulpia BibliotJieea, is often
mentioned; and a theatre in the Campus
Martins. His great work was the Forum
Trajanum, in the centre of which was placed
the column of Trajan.

TRAJECTUM C-i : TTtrecM), a town of the
Batavi on the Rhine, called at a later time
Trcyectus Bheni or Ad Bfienum.

TRALLES (-ium), or TRALLIS (-is:
OMuzel-Hisar^ Ru., near Aidin)^ a flourish-
ing commercial city of Asia Minor, reckoned
sometimes to Ionia, and sometimes to Caria.
It stood on a quadrangular height at the S.
foot of Mt, Messogis (with a citadel on a
higher point), on the banks of the little
river Eudon, a N. tributary of the Maeander,
from which the city was distant 80 stadia (8
geog. miles). Under the Seleucidae it bore
the names of Seleucia and Antiochia.

TRAPEZUS (-untis). (1) (Near Mavria),
a city of Arcadia, on the Alpheus. — (2) Ta-
rdbosan^ TYabezun^ or 2Vc6izond), a colony of
Sinopo, at almost the extreme E. of the>i'.
shore of Asia Minor. After Sinope lost hci
independence, Trapezus belonged, first to

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