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Armenia Minor, and afterwards to the king-
dom of Pontus. Under the Romans, it was
made a free city, probably by Pompey, and,
by Trajan, the capital of Pontus Cappadocius.
Hadrian constructed a new harbour ; and
the city became a place of first-rate com-
mercial importance. It was taken by the
Goths in the reign of Valerian ; but it had
recovered, and was in a flourishing state in
the time of Justinian, who repaired its forti-
fications. In the middle ages it was for some
time the seat of a fragment of the Greek
empire called the empire of Trebizond. It ij«
now the second commercial port of the Black
Sea, ranking next after Odessa.

rugia)t sometimes, but not correctly written,
THRASYMENUS, a lake in Etruria, between
Clusium and Perusia, memorable for the vic-
tory gained by Hannibal over the Romanb
under Flaminius, b.c. 217.

TREBA (-ae : 2V«n), a town in Latium,
near the sources of the Anio, N.E. of Anagnivu


FF 2

Digitized by VjOOQ IC




TREBELLltTS (-i) POLLIO (^nis), one of |
the 6 Scriptoret Historian Auf^uitae, flourished
ander Ccmstantine.

TR^IA (-ae : lyMia), a small river in
Gallia Cisalpina, falling into the Po near
Plaoentia. It is memorable for the rictory
which Hannibal gained orer the Bomans, b.c.
218. ^

TBEBOnIuS (4), C, played rather a pro.
minent part in the last days of the republic.
He commenced public life as a supporter of
the aristocratical party, but changed sides
soon afterwards, and in his tribunate of the
plebs (55) he proposed the Lex TV'^Hmiaf by
which Pompey obtained the 2 Spains, Crassus
Syria, and Caesar the Gauls and lUyiicum for
another period of 5 years. For this service he
was rewarded by being appointed one of
Caesar's legates in GauL In 48, Trebonius was
city.praetor, and towards the end of 47 sue
ceeded Q. Cassius Longinus as pro-praetor in
the goremment of Farther Spain. Caesar
raised him to the consulship in October, 45, and
promised him the province of Asia. In return
for all these honours and favours, Trebonius
was one of the prime movers in the conspi-
racy to assassinate Caesar, and after the
murder of his patron (44) he went as pro-
consul to the province of Asia. In the fol-
lowing year (4S), Dolabella surprised the
town of Smyrna, where Trebonius was
residing, and slew him in his bed.

TREbCLA (-ae). (1) {T^epghia), a town
in Samnium situated in the S.E. part of the
mountains of Ccffazso. — (2) MmroscA, a town
of the Sabines of uncertain site. — (3) Suftkna,
also a town of the Sabines, and of uncertain

TRfiRUS (-i : Sacco)^ a river in Latium,
and a tributary of the Liris.

TRE8 TABERNAE (4b:um). (1) A station
on the Via Appia in Latium, between Aricia
and Forum Appii. It is mentioned in the
account of St. Paul's Journey to Rome. —
(2) {Borghetto)^ a station in Gallia Cisalpina,
on the road from Placentia to Mediolanum.

TREVIRI or TREVERI (-6rum), a power-
ful people in Gallia Belgica, who were faithful
allies of the Romans, and whose cavalry was
the best in all GauL The river Mosella
flowed through their territory, which ex-
tended W.-ward from the Rhine as far as>the
Remi. Their chief town was made a Roman
colony by Augustus, and was called Augusta
TuEviBoaxm {Trier or Treves), It stood on
the right bank of the Mosella, and became
under the later empire one of the most
flourishing Roman cities N. of the Alps. It
was the capital of Belgica Prima ; and after
the division of the Roman world by Diocle-
tian (a.d. 292) into 4 districts, it became the

residence of the Caesar who had the govern-
ment of Britain, Gaul, and Spain. The
modem city still contains many interesting
Roman remains.

TRIBALLI (-drum), a powerfol people in
Thrace, a branch of the Getae dwelling along
the Danube, who were defeated by Alexander
the Great, b.c 835.

TRIBOCCI (-drum), a German people,
settled in Gallia Belgica, between Mt. Vogesus
and the R'nine, in the neighbourhood of

(-5rum), a people in Gallia Lugdunensis, £.
of the Senones, whose chief town was
Augustobona, afterwarda Tricassae {Troyee).

TRICASTlNI (-6rum), a people in Gallia
Narbonensis, inhabiting a narrow slip of
country between the Drome and the Is^re.
Their chief town was Augusta Tricastinorum,
or simply Augusta {Amute).

TRICCA (-ae), subsequently TRICALA
{TrHckala\ an ancient town of Thessaly m
the district Hestiaeotis, situated on the
Lethaeus, N. of the Peneus. Homer repre-
sents it as governed by the sons of Aescu-
lapius; and it contained in later times a
celebrated temple of this god.

TRICORII (-drum), a Ligurian people in
Gallia Narbonensis, a branch of the Sallyi, in
the neighbourhood of Massilia and Aquae

TRIDENTUM (-i ; Trent, in Italian
jfVtfnto), the capitsJ of the Tbidentini, and
the chief town of Rhaetia, situated on the
river Athesis {Adige), and on the pass of the
Alps leading to Verona.


TRINOBANTES (-um), one of the most
powerful people of Britain, inhabiting the
modeni Essex.

TRIOPAS (-ae), son of Poseidon (Neptune)
and Canace, a daughter of Aeolus, or of
Helios (the Sun) and Rhodos, and the father
of Iphimedia and Erysichthon. Hence, hi&
son Erysichthon is called Triop'iXus, and his
grand-daughterMestra or Metra, the daughter
of Erysichthon, Triopeis.

TRIOPIUM (-i : C. Krio), the promontory
which terminates the peninsula of Cnidus,
forming the S.W. headland of Caria and of
Asia Minor.

TRIPHTLIA (-ae), the S. portion of Elis,
lying between the Alpheus and the Neda, is
said to have derived its name from the 8
different tribes by which it was peopled. Its
chief town was Pylos.

TRIPOLIS (-is), properly the name of a
confederacy composed of 3 cities, or a district
containing 3 cities, but it is also applied to
single cities which had some such relation

Digitized by





to others as to make the name appropriate.

(1) {Kash Yenvi)t a city on the Maeander,
12 miles W. of Hierapolis, on the borders of
Phrygia, Caria, and Xiydia, to each of which
it is assigned by different authorities. —

(2) ( Tireboli), a fortress on the coast of Pontus,
on a river of the same name (TYre&o/t 8u)f
90 stadia £. of the Prom. Zephyrium (C.
Ze^eh). - iS) {I^rtpoU, Tarabultu), on the
coast of Phoenicia, consisted of 8 distinct
cities, 1 stadium (600 feet) apart, each having
its own walls, but all united in a common
constitution, having one place of assembly,
and forming in reality (me city. They were
colonies of Tyre, Sidon, and Aradus respec
tively. It is now a city of about 15,000
inhabitants, and the capital of one of the
pachalieks of Syria, that of IWpoK.— (4) The
district on the N. coast of Afirica, between
the 2 Syrtes, comprising the S cities of
Sabrata (or Abrotonum), Oea, and Leptis
Magna, and also called Tripcditana Begio.

TRIPTOLEMUS (4), son of Celeus, king
of Eleusis, and Metanira or Polymnia.
Others describe him as son of king Eleusis
by Gothonea, or of Oceanus and Gaea, or of
Trochilus by an Eleusinian' woman. Tripto-
lemus was the favourite of Demeter (Ceres),
and the inventor of the plough and agricul-
txure, and of civilisation, which is the result
of it. He was the great hero in the Eleusinian
mysteries. According to the common legend
he hospitably received Demeter at Eleusis,
when she was wandering in search of her
daughter. The goddess, in return, wished to
make his son Donophon immortal, and placed
him in the fire in order to destroy his mortal
parts; but Metanira screamed out at the
sight, and the child was consumed by the
flames. As a compensation for this bereave,
ment, the goddess gave to Triptolemus a
chariot with winged dragons and seeds of
wheat. In this chariot Triptolemus rode
over the earth, making man acquainted with
the blessings of agriculture. On his return
to Attica, Celeus endeavoured to kill him,
but by the command of Demeter he was
obliged to give up his country to Triptolemus,
who now established the worship of Demeter,
and instituted the Thesmophoria. Tripto-
lemus is represented in works of art as a
youthful hero, sometimes with the petasus,
on a chariot drawn by dragons, and holding
in his hand a sceptre and com ears.

TBITAEA (.ae). (1) A town of Phocis,
N.W. of Cleonae, on tl^e left bank of the
Cephissus and on the frontiers of Locris. —
(2) One of the 12 cities of Achaia, 120 stadia
E. of Pharae and near the frontiers of Arcadia.

TRITO (-as), or TRITOGENIA (-ae), a

surname of Athena (Minerva), derived by
some from lake Tritonis in Libya, by others
from the stream Triton near Alaloomenae in
Boeotia ; and by the grammarians from r^'r^,
which, in the dialect of the Athamanians, is
said to signify ** head."

TRITON (-dnis), son of Poseidon (Neptune)
and Amphitrite (or Celaeno), who dwelt
with his father and mother in a golden
palace in the bottom of the sea, or, according
to Homer, at Aegae. Later writers describe
him as riding over the sea on sea horses or

Triton. (From a Roman Lamp.)

Other monsters. Sometimes we find men.
tion of Tritons in the plural. Their appear-
ance is variously described ; though they arc
always conceived as having the human figure
in the upper part of their bodies, and th«it of
a fish in the lower part. The chief charac-
teristic of Tritons in poetry as well as in
works of art is a trumpet made out of a shell
(concha), which the Tritons blow at the
command of Poseidon, to soothe the restless
waves of the sea.

TRItON (-5nis) FL., TBItONIS (-is), or
TBItONITIS PALU8, a river and lake on
the Mediterranean coast of Libya, which are
mentioned in several old Greek legends, espe-
cially in the mythology of Athena (Minerva),
whom one account represented as bom on the
lake Tritonis. The lake is undoubtedly the
great salt lake, in the S. of Tunis, called £U
Sibkah, Some of the ancient writers gave
altogether a different locality to the legend,
and identify the Triton with the river usually
called Lathon, in Cyrenai'ca.

TBIVICUM (-i : IHvico), a small town in
Samnium, situated among the mountains
separating Samnium from Apulia.

TBOaS (-idis: CTum), the territory of

Digitized by





Ilium or Troy, formed the N.W. part of
Mysia. It was bounded on the W. by the
Aegaean sea, from Pr. Lectum to Pr. Sigenm,
at the entrance of the Hellespont; (m the
N.W. by the Hellespont, as far as the riyer
Rhodius, below Abydus ; on the N.E. and £.
by the mountains which border the Talley of
the Rhodius, and on the S. by the N. coast of
the Gulf of Adramyttium along the S. foot of
Ida ; but on the N.E. and E. the boundary is
sometimes extended so far as to include the
whole coast of the Hellespont and part of the
Propontis, and the country as far as the riyer
Granicus, thus embracing the district of Dar.
dania, and somewhat more. The Troad is for
the most part mountainous, being intersected
by Mt. Ida and its branches : the largest plain
is that in which Troy stood. The chief riyers
were the Satnois on the S., the Rhodius on
the N., and the Scamandbk and Simois in the
centre. These 2 rivers, so renowned in the
legends of the Trojan War, flow fh)m 2 dif.
ferent points in the chain of Mt. Ida, and
unite in the plain of Troy, through which the
united stream flows N.W. and falls into the
Hellespont £. of the promontory of Sigeum.
The precise locality of the city of Troy, or,
according to its genuine Greek name, Blum,
is the subject of much dispute. The most
probable opinion seems to be that which places
the original city in the upper part of the
plain, on a moderate elevation at the foot of
Mt. Ida, and its citadel (called Perg&ma,
lU^yofAm)^ on a loftier height, almost sepa-
rated from the city by a ravine, and nearly
surrounded by the Scamander. This city
seems never to have been restored after its
destruction by the Greeks. The Aeolian co-
lonists subsequently built a new city, on the
site, as they doubtless believed, of the old one,
but really much lower down the plain ; and
this city is the Tboja, or Iltvu Yxtus, of
most of the ancient writers. After the time
of Alexander this city declined, and a new
one was built still farther down the plain,
below the confluence of the SimoTs and 8ca.
mander, and near the Hellespont, and this
was called Ilium Novum. The mythical ac-
count of the origin of the kingdom of Troy is
briefly as follows : — ^Teucer, the flrst king in
the Troad, had a daughter, who married
Dardanus. [Dardania]. From this Tencer the
people were called TeucrL Dardanus had 2
sons, Uus and Erichthonius; and the latter
was the father of Tros, from whom the coim-
try and people derived the names of Troas
and TroSs. Tros was the father of Uus, who
founded the city, which was called after him
Ilium, and also, after his father, Tkoja.
The next king was Laomsdon, and after him
Priam. [Puamus.] In his reign the city

was taken and destroyed by the confederated
Greeks, after a 10 years' siege. The chrono-
logers assigned different dates for the capture
of Troy ; the calculation most generally ac
oepted placed it in b.o. 1184.

TROCia or -ll. [GAI.ATL1.]

TROES. [Tboas.]

TROEZEN (.$nis: Dhatnala), the capital
of T&oxzBKiA, a district in the S.E. of Argolis,
on the Saronic gulf, and opposite the island
of Aegina. The town was situated at some
littie distance from the coast, on which it
possessed a harbour called Pooox, opposite
the island of Calauria. Troezen was a very
ancient city, and is said to have been origin-
ally called Poeeidonia, on account of its wor-
ship of Poseidon (Neptune). It received the
name of Troezen from Troezen, one of the
sons of Pelope ; and it is celebrated in mytho-
logy as the place where Pittheus, the mater-
nal grandfather of Theseus, lived, and where
Theseus himself was bom. In the historical
period it was a city of some importance.

TROGIiIaE (4Urum), S small islands, ly-
ing off the promontory of Trogilium.

TROGLODtTA£(-ftrum: i.e. dweUenin
mvm), the name applied by the Greek geogra-
phers to various uncivilised people, who had
no abodes but caves, especially to the inha-
bitants of the W. coast of the Red Sea, along
the shores of Upper Egypt and Aethiopia. ^
There were also Troglodytae in Moesia, on
the banks of the Danube.

TROGUS, P0MPEIU8. [Justihus.]

TROILIUH. [Tbossulum.]

TROIlUS (-i), son of Priam and Hecuba,
or according to others, son of Apollo. He
fell by the hands of Achilles.

TROJA (-ae), the name of the city of Troy
or nium, also applied to the country. [Tboas.]

TRdPHONIUS (4), son of Erginus, king
of Orchomenns, and brother of Agamedes.
He and his brother built the temple at Delphi,
and the treasury of king Hyrieus in Boeotia.
[AoAMXDBS.] Trophonius after his death was
worshipped as a hero, and had a celebrated
oracle in a cave near Lebadea, in Boeotia.
(See Diet, of ArUiq,^ art. OromUum.)

TROS {Ma), son of Erichthonius and As-
tySche, and grandson of Dardftnus. He was
married to CallirrhoS, by whom he became
the father of Uus, Assar&cus, and GanymSdes,
and was king of Phrygia. The country and
people of Troy derived l^eir name from him.
He gave up his son Ganymedes to Zeus (Jupi-
ter), for a present of horses. [Ganymedes.]

TROSSttLUM (-i : Trosso), a town in Etru-
ria, 9 miles from YoMnii, which is said to
have heea. taken by some Roman eqnites,
without the aid of foot-soldiers ; whence the
Roman equites obtained the name of Trossuli.

Digitized by





TRUENTUM (-i), a town of Picenum on
the river Truentns or Truentinus {Tronto).

the N.E. coast of Britain, near the aestuary
Taixa (Tay).

T0BERO (-5ni8), AELIuS. (1) Q., son-
in-law of L. Aemilius Paolus, served under
the latter in his war against Perseus, king
of Macedonia. — (2) Q., son of the preceding,
was a pupil of Panaetius, and is called the
Stoic. He had a reputation for talent and
legal knowledge. He was praetor in 123,
and consul suffectus in 118. He was an op-
ponent of Tib. Gracchus, as well as of C.
Gracchus, and delivered some speeches against
the latter, 123. Tubero is one of the speakers
in Cicero's dialogue De Bepublica.—iS) L.,
an intimate Mend of Cicero. On the break-
ing out of the civil war, Tubero espoused the
party of Pompey, under whom he served in
Greece. He was afterwards pardoned by
Caesar, and returned with his son Quintus
to Rome. Tubero cultivated literature and
philosophy. — (4) Q., son of the preceding,
obtained considerable reputation as a jurist,
and is often cited in the Digest.

TUCCA (-ae), PLOTIUS, a friend of Horace
and Virgil, to whom and Yarius the latter
bequeathed his unfinished works.

TINDER (-Sris : Todi), an ancient town of
Umbria, situated on a hill near the Tiber,
and on the road fh)m Mevania to Rome.

TULLIA (-ae), the name of the 2 daughters
uf Servius Tullius, the 6th king of Rome.

TULLIA (-ae),^ frequently called by the
diminutive TULLIClA, was the daughter of
M. Cicero and Terentia, and was prpbably
horn B.C. 79 or 78. She was betrothed in
67 to C. Calpumius Piso Frugi, whom she
married in 63, during the consulship of her
father. During Cicero's banishment TuUia
lost her first husband. She was married
again in 66 to Furius Crassipes, a young man
of rank and large property ; but she did not
live with him long, though the time and the
reason of her divorce are alike imknown.
In 50 she was married to her 3rd husband,
P. Cornelius Dolabella, who was a thorough
profligate. The marriage took place during
Cicero's absence in Cilicia, and, as might
have been anticipated, was not a happy one.
In 46 a divorce took place by mutual consent.
At the beginning of 45 Tullia was delivered
of a son, her 2nd child by Dolabella. As
Koon as she was sufficiently recovered to bear
the fatigues of a journey, she accompanied
her father to Tusculum, but she died there in

TULLIANUM (-i), a dismal subterranean
dungeon, added by Servius Tullius to the
Career Mamcrtinus. It now serves as a

chapel to a small church built on the spot,
called 8. Pietro in Carcere.

TULLIUS, SERVIUS (-i), the 6th king of
Rome. The account of the early life and
death of Servius Tullius is full of marvels,
and cannot be regarded as possessing any
title to a real historical narrative. His
mother, Ocrisia, was one of the captives
taken at Comiculum, and became a female
slave of Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius
Prisctis. He was bom in the king's palace,
and notwithstanding his servile origin was
brought up as the king's son, since Tanaquil
by her powers of divination had foreseen the
greatness of the child ; and Tarquinius placed
such confidence in him, that he gave him his
daughter in marriage, and entrusted him
with the exercise of the government. The
sons of Ancus Marcius, fearing lest he should
deprive them of the throne which they claimed
as their inheritance, procured the assassination
of Tarquinius [TAnauiNius] ; but Tanaquil,
by a stratagem, preserved the royal power
for Servius. Three important events are
assigned to his reign by universal tradition.
First, he gave a new constitution to the
Roman state. The two main objects of this
constitution were to give the plebs political
independence, and to assign to property that
infiuenoe in the state which had previously
belonged to birth exclusively. [For details
see Diet, of Antiq. art. Contitia.] Secondly,
he extended the pomoerium, or hallowed
boundary of the city, and completed the city by
incorporating with it the Quirinal, Viminal,
and Esquiline hills. [Roma.] Thirdly, he esta.
blished an important alliance with the Latins,
by which Rome and the cities of Latium be-
came the members of one great league. By his
new constitution Servius incurred the hostility
of the patricians, who conspired with L. Tar-
quinius to deprive him of his life and of his
throne. According to the legend, Tullia, one
of the daughters of Servius, an ambitious
woman, who had paved the way for her
marriage with L. Tarquinius by the murder
of her former husband, Aruns, and of her
sister, the former wife of Tarquinius, was
one of the prime movers in this conspiracy.
At her instigation Tarquinius entered the
forum arrayed in the kingly robes, seated
himself in the royal chair in the senate-house,
and ordered the senators to be summoned to
him as their king. At the first news of the
commotion, Servius hastened to the senate-
house, and, standing at the doorway, ordered
Tarquinius to come down from the throne.
Tarquinius sprang forwards, seized the old
man, and fiung him down the stone steps.
Covered with blood, the king was hastening

Digitized by





home; but, before he reached it, he was
overtaken by the serrants of Tarqainios, and
murdered. Tullia drove to the senate-house,
and greeted her husband as king ; but her
transports of joy struek even him with
horror. He bade her go home ; and as she
was returning, her charioteer pulled up, and
pointed out the corpse of her father lying in
his blood across the road. She commanded
him to drive on: the blood of her father
spirted over the carriage and on her dress ;
and fh)m that day forward the street bore the
name of the Vicus Sceleratua, or Wicked
Street. Servius had reigned 44 years. His
memory was long cherished by the plebeians.

TULLiUS TiRO. [Tiao.]

TULLU8 HOSTlLiUS (4), 8rd king of
Rome, is said to have been the grandson of
Hostus Hoetilius, who fell in battle against
the Sabines in the reign of Romulus. His
legend ran as follows : TuUus Hoetilius de-
parted from the peaceful ways of Numa, and
aspired to the martial renown of Romulus.
He made Alba, acknowledge Rome's su-
premacy in the war wherein the 8 Roman
brothers, the Horatii, fought with the S
Alban brothers, the Curiatii, at the Fossa
Cluilia. Next he warred with Fidenae and
with Veil, and being straitly pressed by their
joint hosts, he vowed temples to Pallor and
Pavor — Paleness and Panic. And after the
fight was won, he tore asunder with chariots
Mettius Fufetius, the king or dictator of Alba,
because he had desired to betray Rome;
and he utterly destroyed Alba, sparing only
the temples of the gods, and bringing the
Alban people to Rome, where he gave them
the Caelian hill to dwell on. Then he turned
himself to war with the Sabines ; and being
again straitened in fight in a wood called the
Wicked Wood, he vowed a yearly festival to
Saturn and Ops, and to double the number
of the Salil, or priests of Mamers. And
when, by their help, he had vanquished the
Sabines, he performed his vow, and its records
were the feasts Saturnalia and Opalia. In
his old age Tullus grew weary of warring ;
and when a pestilence struck him and his
people, and a shower of burning stones fell
from heaven on Mt. Alba, and a voice as of
the Alban gods came forth from the solitary
temple of Jupiter on its summit, he remem-
bered the peaceful and happy days of Numa,
and sought to win the favour of the gods, as
Numa had done, by prayer and divination.
But the gods heeded neither his prayers nor
his charms, and when he would inquire of
Jupiter Elicius, Jupiter was wroth, and
«mote Tullus and his whole house with fire.
Perhaps the only historical fact embodied in
the legend of Tullus is the ruin of Alba.

T0NES or TCNIS (.is : Timia), a strongly
fortified city of N. Africa, stood at the
bottom of the Carthaginian gulf, 10 miles
S.W. of Carthage, at the mouth of the little
river Catada.

TUNGRI (-jtarun), a German people, who
crossed the Rhine, and settled in Gaul in the
country formerly oceupied by the Aduatioi
and the Eburones. Their chief town was
called TuxoBi or Adttaca Tonobo&uv {Ton-

TURDETANI (-drum), the most numerous
people in Hispania Baetica, dwelt in the S.
of the province, on both banks of the Baetis,
as far as Lusitania.

TURDClI (.drum), a people in Hispanin
Baetica, situated to the £. and 8. of the Tur-
detani, with whom they were closely con-

TCRIA (-ae), or TtRIUM (-i : Gttadal.
(»oiar)f a river on the E. coast of Spain,
flowing into the sea at Valentia, memorabl*'
for the battle fought on its banks between
Pompey and Sertorius.

TURNUS (-i). (1) Son of Daunus and
Venilia, and king of the Rutuli at the tune
of the arrival of Aeneas, in Italy. He was a
brother of Juturna, and related to Amata, the
wife of king Latinus ; and he fought against
Aeneas, because Latinus had given to the

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