William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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Trojan hero his daughter Lavinia, who had
been previously promised to Turnus. He
appears in the Aeneid as a brave warrior ;
but in the end he fell by the hand of Aeneas.
— (2) A Roman satiric poet, was a native of
Aunmca, and lived under Vespasian and
Domitian.

TURNUS HERDONIUS. [Herdohitts.]

TURONES (-um), TltRONI or TltRONlI
(-5rum), a people in the interior of Gallia
Lugdunensis, between the Aulerci, Ande^,
and Pictones. Their chief town was Caesa-
KODUNTTM, subscqucutly TuaoMi {Tows), on
t^e Ligrer {Loire).

TURRIS HANNIBXlIS (-is : BourjSaUk.
tahf Ru.), a castle on the coast of Byzacena,
between Thapsus and AchoUa, belonging to
Hannibal, who embarked here when he fled
to Antiochus the Great.

TURRIS STRATONIS. [Caesabka, No. 3.]

TUSCI, TUSCIA. [Eteuria.]
. TUSCULUM (-i : nr. IVaseati, Ru.), an
ancient town of Latium, situated about 10
miles S.E. of Rome, on a lofty summit of
the mountains, which are called after the
town, TuscxTLANi MoNTES. It is said to
have been founded by Telegohus, the son
of Ulysses ; and it was always one of the
most important of the Latin towns. Cato
the Censor was a native of Tusculum. Its
proximity to Rome, its saltibrity, and the



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TTRAS.



beauty of its situation, made it a favourite
residence of the Roman nobles during the
summer. Cicero, among others, had a
favourite villa at this place, which he fre.
quently mentions, under the name of Trrscxr-

LANUM.-

TUTICANUS (4), a Roman poet, and a
firiend of Ovid.

TtANA (-orum : Mz Hiaar, Ru.), a city
of Asia Minor, stood in the S. of Cappadocia,
at the N. foot of Mt. Taurus. Tyana was
the native place of ApoUonius, the supposed
worker of miracles. The S. district of Cappa-
(locitL, in which the citj stood, was called
Tyanltis.

T'S'CHB. (1) FOKTTTNA. (2) STaACUSAlS.

TTDEUS (-68s, -6i, or -el), son of Oeneus,
king of Calydon, and Feriboea. He was
obliged to leave Calydon in consequence of
some murder which he had committed, but
which is differently described by different
authors. He fled to Adrastus at Argos, who
purified him from the murder, and gave him
his daughter Dei'pyle in marriage, by whom
he became the father of Diomedes, who is
hence frequently called Tydides. He accom-
panied Adrastus in the expedition against
Thebes, where he was woimded by Melanip.
pus, who, liowever, was slain by him. When
Tydeus lay on the grround woimded, Athena
(Minerva) appeared to him with a remedy
which she had received from Zeus (Jupiter),
and which was to make him immortal. This,
however, was prevented by a stratagem of
Amphiaraus, who hated Tydeus, for he cutoff
the head of Melanippus, and brought it to
Tydeus, who divided it and ate the brain, or
devoured some of the flesh. Athena, seeing
this, shuddered, and left Tydeus to his fate,
who consequently died, and was buried by
Macon.

TYMPHAEI (-6rum), a people of Epirus,
on the borders of Thessaly, so called from
Mt. Tymphb. Their country was called
Tymphaea.

TYMPHRESTUS (-i: miadha), a moun-
tain in Thessaly, in the country of the Dry-
opes, in which the river Spercheus rises.

TYNDIrEUS (-6i: not Ttndaeus), was
son of Perieres and Gorgophone, or, accords
ing to others, son of Oebalus, by the nymph
Batia or by Gorgophone. Tyndareus and
his brother Icarius were expelled by their
step-brother Hippocoon and his sons ; where-
upon Tyndareus fled to Thestius, in Aetolia,
and assisted him in his wars against his
neighbours. In Aetolia Tyndareus married
Leda, the daughter of Thestius, and was
afterwards restored to Sparta by Hercules.
By Leda, Tyndareus became the father of
limandra, Clytaenmestra, andPhllopoe. One



night Leda was embraced both by Zeus
(Jupiter) and Tyndareus, and the result was
the birth of Pollux and Helena, the children
of Zeus, and of Castor ahd Clytaenmestra,
the children of Tyndareus. The patronymic
Tyndaridab is frequently given to Castor and
Pollux, and the female patronymic Tyndaris
to Helen and Clytaenmestra. When CJEistor
and Pollux had been received among the
immortals, Tyndareus invited Menelaus to
come to Sparta, and surrendered his kingdom
to him.

TYNDARIS (-Idis) or TYTJfDARIUM (-i:
Tindare)f a town on the N. coast of Sicily, a
little W. of Messana, founded by the elder
Dionysius, b.c. 896.

TtPHON (-6nis) or TtPHOEUS (-6€5s,
-661, or -6el), a monster of the primitive
world, is described sometimes as a destruct-
ive hurricane, and sometimes as a fire-
breathing giant. According to Homer, he
was concealed in the earth in the country of
the Arimi, which was lashed by Zeus (Jupi>
ter) with flashes of lightning. In Hesiod,
Typhaon and Typhoeus are 2 distinct beings.
Typhaon is represented as a son of Typhoeus,
and a fearful hurricane, and as having become,
by Echidna, the father of the dog Orthus,
Cerberus, the Lemaean hydra, Chimaera, and
the Sphynx. Typhoeus, on the other hand,
is called the youngest son of Tartarus and
Gaea, or of H^ (Juno) alone, because she
was indignant at Zeus having given birth to
Athena (Minerva). He is described as a
monster with 100 heads, fearful eyes, and
terrible voices; he wanted to acquire the
sovereignty of gods and men, but, after a
fearful struggle, was subdued by Zeus with a
thunderbolt. He begot the winds, whence he
is also called the father of the Harpies ; but
the beneficent winds Notus, Boreas, Argestes,
and Zephyrus, were not his sons. ■ He was
buried in Tartarus, under Mt. Aetna, the
workshop of Hephaestus (Vulcan), which is
hence called by the poets Typhoia Aettia.

TtRANNION (-onis). (1) A Greek gram-
marian, a native of Amisus, in Pontus, was
taken captive by LucuUus, and carried to
Rome, B.C. 72. He was given by LucuUus
to Murena, who manumitted him. At Rome
Tyrannion occupied himself in teaching. He
was also employed in arranging the library
of Apellicon, which Sulla brought to Rome,
and which contained the writings of Aris-'
totle. Cicero speaks in the highest terms of
his learning and ability. — (2) A native of
Phoenicia, the son of Artemidorus, and a
disciple of the preceding.

T"?RAS (-ae : Dniester), subsequently
called Dakastris, a river in European Sar-
matia, forming in the lower part of its course



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442



ULUBRAE.



the boundary between Dacia and Sarmatia,
und falling into the Pontus Euxinus, N. of
the Danube.

TYRIAEUM (-1 : Ilghun)^ a city of Lyca-
onia, 20 parasangv W. of Iconiom.

TTRO (-08), dauifuter of Salmoneas and
Alcidice. She was wife of Cretheus, and
beloved by the riyer-god Enipeus in Thessaly,
in whose form Poseidon (Neptune) appeared
to her, and became by her the father of
Pelias and Neleus. By Cretheus she was the
mother of Aeson, Pheres, and Amythaon.

TTRRH£N^, TYRRHfiNIA. [Etrueia.]

TYRRHENUM mare. [ExauRiA.]

TYRRHENUS (-i), son of the Lydian
king Atys and Callithea, and brother of
Lydus, is said to have led a Pelasgian colony
from Lydia into Italy, into the country of the
(Jmbritms, and to have given to the colonists
his name. Others call Tyrrhenus a son of
Hercules by Omphale, or of Telephus and
Iliera, and a brother of Tarchon. The name
Tarchon seems to be only another form of
Tyrrhenus.

TYRRHEU8 (-ei), a shepherd of king
Latinus.

TYRTAEU8 (-i), son of Archembrotus, of
Aphidnae in Attica.^ According to the ulder
tradition, the Spartans during the 2nd
Messenian war were commanded by an oracle
to take a leader from among the Athenians,
and thus to conquer their enemies, whereupon
they chose Tyrtaeus. Later writers em-
Hellish the story, and represent Tyrtaeus as
a lame schoolmaster, of low family and repu-
tation, whom the Athenians, when applied to
by the Lacedaemonians, purposely sent as
the most inefficient leader they could select,
being unwilling to assist the Lacedaemonians
in extending their dominion in the Pelopon-
nesus, but little thinking that the poetry of
Tyrtaeus would achieve that victory which
his physical constitution seemed to forbid
his aspiring to. The poems of Tyrtaeus ex-
erclsed an important influence upon the
Spartans, composing their dissensions at
home, and animating their courage in the
field, in their conflict with the Messenians.
He must have flourished down to b.c. 668,
which was the last year of the 2nd Messenian
war.

Tl?llU8 (-i : Aram. Tura : O. T. Tsor :
Surt Ru.), one of the greatest and most
famous cities of the ancient world, stood
on the coast of Phoenice, about 20 miles S.
of Sidon. It was a colony of the Sidonians,
and is therefore called in Scripture " the
daughter of Sidon." In the time of Solomon,
we find its king, Hiram, who was also king
of Sidon, in close alliance with the Hebrew
monarch. The Assyrian king Shalmaneser



laid siege to Tyre for 5 years, but without
success. It was again besieged for 13 years
by Nebuchadnezzar. At the period when the
Greeks began to be well acquainted with the
city, its old site had been abandoned, and a
new city erected on a small island about half
a mile from the shore. In b.c. 322 the
Tyrians refused to open their gates to Alex-
ander, who laid siege to the city for 7
months, and united the island on which it
stood to the mainland by a mole constructed
chiefly of the ruins of Old Tyre. This mole
has ever since formed a permanent connexion
between the island and the mainland. After
its capture and sack by Alexander, Tyre
never regained its former consequence, and
its commerce was for the most part transferred
to Alexandria. It was, however, a place of
considerable importance in mediaeval history,
especially as one of the last points held by
the Christians on the coast of Syria.



FTbIi (-drum), a German people, who ori-
^ ginally dwelt on the right bank of the
Rhine, but were transported across the river
by Agrippa in b.c. 37, at their own request,
because they wished to escape the hostilities
of the Suevi. They took the name of
Agrippenses, from their town Colomia

Ao&IPPIIfA.

CCALEGON (-Ontis), one of the elders at
Troy, whose house was burnt at the destruc-
tion of the city.

tJFENS (-entis: Ufente), a river in
Latium, flowing f^om Setia, and falling into
the Amasenus.

UFFUGUM (-i), a town in Bruttium,
between Scyllacium and Rhegium.

ULPIANUS (-i), DOMITIUS, a celebrated
Roman jurist, derived his origin from Tyre.
Under Alexander Severus, he became the
emperor's chief adviser, and held the offices
of Scriniorum magister, Praefectus Annonae,
and Praefectus Praetorio. Ulpian perished
in the reigu of Alexander by the hands of
the soldiers, who forced their way into the
palace at night, and killed him in the pre-
sence of the emperor and his mother, a.d. 228.
The great legal knowledge, the good sense,
and the industry of Ulpian place him among
the first of the Roman jurists,

ULTOR (-6ris), " the avenger," a surname
of Mars, to whom Augustus built a temple at
Rome in the Forum, after taking vengeance
upon the murderers of his great-uncle, Julius
Caesar.

tJLI^BRAE (-arum), a small town in La-
tium, of uncertain site, but in the neighbour-
hood of the Pontine Marshes.



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ULYSSES.



^YSSfiS, iJLYXES, or ULIXfiS (-is or -Si,
eT), oaUed ODYSSEUS by the Greeks, one of
the principal Greek heroes in the Trojan war,
was a son of Laertes and Anticl§a, or, accord-
ing to a later tradition, of Sisyphus and Anti-
clea, and was married to Penelope, the daugh-
ter of Icarius, by whom he became the father
of Telemachus. During the siege of Troy he
distinguished himself by his valour, prudence,
and eloquence, and after the death of Achillea
contended for his armour with theTelamonian
Ajax, and gained the prize. He is said by
some to haye devised the stratagem of the
wooden horse, and he was one of the heroes
concealed within it. He is also said to have
taken part in carrying off the palladium.
But the most celebrated part of his story
consists of his adventures after the destruc-
lion of Troy, which form the subject of
Homer's Odyssey. After visiting the Cicones
and Lotophagi, he sailed to the western coast
of Sicily, where with 12 companions he en-
tered the cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus.
This giant devoured 6 of the companions of
Ulysses, and kept Ulysses himself and the 6
others prisoners in his cave. Ulysses, how-
ever, contrived to make the monster drunk,
and having with a burning pole deprived liim



of his one eye, succeeded in making his escape
with his fidends, by concealing himself and
them under the bodies of the sheep which the
Cyclops let out of his cave. Ulysses next
arrived at the island of Aeolus ; and the god
on his departure gave him a bag of winds,
which were to carry him home ; but the com.
panions of Ulysses opened the bag, and the
winds escaped, whereupon the ships were
driven back to the island of Aeolus, who in-
dignantly reftised all further assistance. After
a visit to Telepylos, the city of Lamus, his
fate carried him to Aeaea, an island inhabited
by the sorceress Circe. Ulysseb sent part of
his people to explore the island, but they were
changed by Circe into swine. Eurylochus
alone escaped, and brought the sad news to
Ulysses, who, when he was hastening to the
assistance of his friends, was instructed by
Hermes how to resist the magic powers of
Circe. He succeeded in liberating his com-
panions, who were again changed into men,
and were most hospitably treated by the sor-
ceress. By her advice he sailed across the
river Oceanus, and having landed in the coun-
try of the Cimmerians, he entered Hades, and
consulted Tiresias about the manner in which
he might reach his native island. Ulysses



UlyMM and Tiresias. (Winckelmann Hon. Ined., No. 157.)



then returned with his companions to Aeaea,
when Circe again sent them a wind which
carried them to the island of the Sirens.
Ulysses, in order to escape their enticing but
dangerous songs, filled the ears of his com-



panions with wax, and fastened himself to
the mast of his ship, until he was out of reach
of their voices. In sailing between Scylla
and Charybdis, the former monster carried off
and devoured 6 of the companions of Ulysses.



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T7LYSSES.



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ULYSSES.



Having next landed on Thrinaeia, his com- in consequence of whicli, when they next pat
panions, contrary to the admonitions of i to sea, Zeus destroyed their ship hy lightning,
Tiresias, killed some of the oxen of Helios ; I and all were drowned with the exception of



Ul^rvKM and the Sireus. (From a Vase in the firitlth MuBeum.)



Ulysses, who eayed himself hy means of the
mast and planks, and after 10 days reached
the island of Ogygia, inhabited by the nymph
Calypso. She receiyed him with kindness,
and desired him to marry her, promising
immortality and eternal youth. But Ulysses,
who had spent 8 years with Calypso, longed
for his home; and at the intercession of
A.thena (Minerva), Hermes (Mercury) carried
to Calypso the command of Zeus to dismiss
Ulysses. The nymph obeyed, and taught
tiim how to build a raft, on which he left the
island. In 1 8 days he came in sight of Scheria,
the island of the Phaeacians, when Poseidon
(Neptune) sent a storm, which cast him off the
raft ; but by the assistance of Leucothea and
Athena he swam ashore. The exhausted
hero slept on the shore until he was awoke
by the voices of maidens. He found Nau-
ficaa, the daughter of king Alcinous and
Arete, who conducted the hero to her father's
court. Here the minstrel Demodocus sang
of the fall of Troy, which moved Ulysses to
tears, and being questioned about the cause
of his emotion, he related his whole history.
A ship was provided to convey him to Ithaca,
from which he had been absent 20 years.
During hiB absence his father Laertes, bowed



down by grief and old age, had withdrawn
into the country, his mother Anticl6a had
died of sorrow, his son Telemachtis had gnrown
up to manhood, and his wife Penelope had
rejected all the offers that had been made to
her by the importunate suitors from the
neighbouring islands. In order that he
might not be recognised, Athena metamor-
phosed Ulysses into an unsightly beggar. He
was kindly received by Eumaeus, the swine-
herd, a faithful servant of his house; and
while staying with Eumaeus, Telemachus
returned from Sparta and Pylos, whither he
had gone to obtain information concerning
his father. Ulysses made himself known to
him, and a plan of revenge was resolved on.
Penelope, with great difficulty, was made to
promise her hand to him who should conquer
the others in shooting with the bow of
Ulysses. As none of the suitors was able to
draw this bow, Ulysses himself took it up,
and, directing his arrows against the suitors,
slew them all. Ulysses now made himself
known to Penelope, and went to see Ms agod
father. In the meantime the report of the
death of the suitors was spread abroad, and
their relatives rose in arms against Ulysses ;
but Athena, who assumed the appearance



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UXII.



of Mentor, brought about a reconciliation
between the people and the king.

UMBRIA (-ae) called by the Greeks OM-
BRICA, a district of Italy, bounded on
ihe N. by Gallia Cisalpina, from which it
was separated by the river Rubicon ; on the
E. by the Adriatic sea; on the S. by the
rivers Aesis and Nar ; and on the W. by
the Tiber. Its inhabitants, the Umbbi
(sing. Umber), called by the Greeks Umbrici,
were one of the most ancient and powerful
peoples in central Italy, and originally ex.
tended across the peninsula from the Adriatic
to the Tyrrhene seas. Thus they inhabited
the country afterwards called Etruria ; and
we are expressly told that Crotona, Perusia,
Clusium, and other Etruscan cities, were
built by the Umbrians. They were after-
wards deprived of their possessions "W. of the
Tiber by the Etruscans, and their territories
were still further diminished by the Senones,
a Gallic people, who took possession of the
whole counlry on the coast, from Ariminum
to the Aesis. The Umbri were subdued by
the Romans, b.c. 307 ; and after the conquest
of the Senones by the Romans in 283, they
again obtained possession of the country on
the coast of the Adriatic. The chief towns of
Umbria were Abiminxjm, Fantm Fortunab,
Mbvania, Tudeb, Nabnia, and Spoletium.

UMBRO (-onis : Ombrone)j one of the
largest rivers in Etruria, falling into the
Tyrrhene sea, near a town of the same name.

UNELLI (-orum), a people on the N, coast
of Gaul, on a promontory opposite Britain (the
modem Cotantin)^ belonging to the Armorici.

tJPIS. (1) A surname of Artemis (Diana),
as the goddess assisting women in child-birth.
— (2) The name of a mythical being, who
is said to have rieared Artemis, and who is
mentioned by Virgil as one of the nymphs in
her train. The masculine Upis is mentioned
by Cicero as the father of Artemis.

UR;^ [Edessa.J

■ORANIA (-ae). (1) One of the Muses, a
daughter of Zeus (Jupiter) by Mnemosyne.
The ancient bard Linus is called her son by
Apollo, and Hynenaeus also is said to have
been a son of Urania. She was regarded, as
her name indicates, as the Muse of As-
tronomy, and was represented with a celestial
globe, to which she points with a small staff.
— (2) Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, who
also occurs as a nymph in the train of Per-
sephone (Proserpine) .-r-(3) A surname of
AphrodltS (Tenus) describing her as "the
heavenly," or spiritual, to distinguish her
from Aphrodite Pandemos. Plato represents
her as a daughter of Uranus, begotten with-
out a mother. Wine was not used in the
libations offered to her.



tJRANUS (-i) or HEAVEN, sometimes
called a son, and sometimes the husband of
Gaea (Earth). By Gaea Uranus became the
father of Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion,
lapetus, Thia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne,
Phoebe, Tethys, Cronos ; of the Cyclopes,
— ^Brontes, Steropes, Arges; and of the
Hecatoncheires — Cottus, Briareus, and Gyes.
According to Cicero, Uranus was also the
father of Mercury by Dia, and of Venus by
Hemera. Uranus hated his children, and
immediately after their birth he confined
them in Tartarus, in consequence of which
he was immanned and dethroned by Cronos
at the instigation of Gaea. Out of the drops
of his blood sprang the Gigantes, the Melian
nymphs, and, according to some, Silenus, and
from the foam gathering around his limbs in
the sea sprang AphrodltS.

URBINUM (-i). (1) HoBTEKSE {UrUno),
a town in Umbria and a municipium. — (2)
Metaxjbxmsb {Vrbania)j a town in Umbria on
the river Metaurus, and not far from its
source.

URIA (-ae: Oria) called HYRIA by
Herodotus, a town in Calabria, on the road
from Brundisium to Tarentum, was the an-
cient capital of lapygia, and is said to have
been fpimded by the Cretans under Minos.

URIUM (-i), a small town in Apulia, from
which the Sinus Urius took its name, being
the bay on the N. side of Mt. Garganus
opposite the Diomedean islands.

USIPETES (-um) or USIPII (-orum) a
German people who, in the time of Caesar,
took up their abode on the Lippe. At a later
time they become lost under the general
name of Alemanni.

USTiCA (-ae), a valley near the Sabine
villa of Horace.

tJTICA ( -ae : Bou-Shater^ Ru. ), the
greatest city of ancient Africa, after Carthage,
was a Phoenician colony, older than Car-
thage, and rather her ally than subject. It
stood on the shore of the N. part of the Car-
thaginian Gulf,' a little W. of the mouth of
the Bagradas, and 27 Roman miles N.W. of
Carthage. In the 3rd Punic War, Utica took
part with the Romans against Carthage, and
was rewarded with the greatest part of the
Carthaginian territory. It afterwards be-
came renowned to all future time as the
scene of the last stand made by the Pompeian
party against Caesar, and of the glorious,
though mistaken self-sacrifice of the yoxmger
Cato. [Cato.]

UXELLODfJNUM (-i), a town of the
Cadurci in Gallia Aquitanica.

UXENTUM (-i : Ugento), a town in Cala-
bria, N.W. of the lapygian promontory.

UXil (-orum), a warlike people, of pre-



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VALERIUS.



datory habits, who had their strongholds in
Mt. Parachoathras, on the N. border of
Persis, in the district called Uxia, but who
also extended oyer a considerable tract of
country in Media,



yACCA, VAGA, or VABA (^^a), a city of
^ Zeugitano in N. Africa, a good day's jour-
ney 8. of Utica. It was destroyed by Metellus
in the Jugurthine War, but was restored and
colonised by the Romans. Justinian named
it Theodorias in honour of his wife.

VACCAEI (-orum), a people in the interior
of Hispania Tarraconensis, occupying the
modem 2bro, Palenciay Burgos^ and VaU
kulolid. Their chief towns were Palantia
and Intbrcatia.

VADIMONIS lXcUS {Logo di Bassano), a
small lake of Etruria of a circular form, Mdth
sulphureous waters, and renowned for its
floating islands. It is celebrated in history
for the defeat of the Etruscans in 2 great
battles, first by the dictator Papirins Cursor,
in B.C. 809 ; and again in 283, when the
allied forces of the Etruscans and Gauls were
routed by the consul Cornelius Dolabella.

YAGIENNI (-orum), a small people in
Liguria, whose chief town was Augusta
Vagiennorum.

VAHXlIS. [Rhenus.]

TALENS (-entis), emperor of the East a.d.
364 — 378, was bom about a.d. 328. He was
defeated by the Goths, near Hadrianople, on
the 9th of August, 378, and was never seen
after the battle.

VALENTIA (-ae). (1) {Valencia), the
chief town of the Edetani on the river Turia,
3 miles firom the coast, and on the road from
Carthago Nova to Castulo. — (2) ( Valence), a
town in Gallia Narbonensis on the Rhone,
and a Roman colony — (3) A town of Sardinia
of uncertain site. — (4) Or Valentitjm, a town
in Apulia, 10 miles from Brundusium. — (5)
A province in the N. of Britain, beyond the
Roman wall. It existed only for a short
time. [Britannia.]

VALENTINllNUS (-i), (I.), Roman em-
peror A.D. 864 — 375, was the son of Gra-
tianus, and was bom a.d. 321, at Cibalis in
Pannonia. He expired suddenly at Bregetio,
while giving an audience to the deputies of
the Quadi, on the 17th of November, 376. —
(II.), Roman emperor a.d. 375 — 392, younger
son of the preceding, was proclaimed Au-
gustus by tbe army after his father's death,
though he was then only 4 or 6 years of age.
In 392 Yalentinian was murdered by the
general Arbogastes, who raised Eugenius to
the throne. — (III.), Roman emperor a.d. 425



— 455, was bom 419, and was the son of
Constantius III. He was slain in 455 by
Petronius Maximus, whose wife he had
violated.

VALERIA GENS, one of the most ancient



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