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atituendaef for the next 5 years. The mutual
enemies of each were proscribed, and in the
numerous executions that followed, Cicero,
who had attacked Antony in his Philippic
Orations, fell a victim to Antony. In 42
Antony and Octavianus crushed the repub-
lican party by the battle of Philippi, in which
Brutus and Cassius fell. Antony then went
to Asia, which he had received as his share
of the Roman world. In CUicia he met with
Cleopatra, and followed her to Egypt, a cap-
tive to her charms. In 41 Fulvia, tiie wife
of Antony, and his brother L. Antonius, made
war upon Octavianus in Italy. Antony pre-
pared to support his relatives, but the war
was brought to a close at the beginning of 41/,
before Antony could reach Italy. The oppor-
tune death of Fulvia facilitated the reconcili-
ation of Antony and Octavianus, which was
cemented by Antony marrying Octavia, the
sister of Octavianus. Antony remained in
Italy till 39, when the triumvirs concluded a
peace with Sext. Pompey, and he afterwards
went to his provinces in the East. In thi«
year and the following Ventidius, the lieu-
tenant of Antony, defeated the Parthians.
In 37 Antony crossed over to Italy, when the
triumvirate was renewed for 5 years. He
then returned to the East, and shortly after-
wards sent Octavia back to her brother, and
surrendered himself entirely to the charms of
Cleopatra. In 86 he invaded Parthia, but
he lost a great number of his troops, and was
obliged to retreat. He was more successful
in his invasion of Armenia in 34, for he
obtained possession of the person of Arta-
vasdes, the Armenian king, and carried him
to Alexandria. Antony now laid aside
entirely the character of a Roman citizen,
and assumed the i)omp and ceremony of an
Eastern despot. His conduct, and the un-
bounded infiuence which Cleopatra had
acquired over him, alienated many of his
friends and supporters ; and Octavianus saw
that the time had now come for crushing his .

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rival. The contest 'was decided by the
memorable sea-fight off Actium, September
2nd, 31, in which Antony's fleet was com-
pletely defeated. Antony, accompanied by
Cleopatra, fled to Alexandria, where he put an
end to his own life in the foUowing year (30),
when Octavianus appeared before the city.
— (5) C, brother of the triumvir, was praetor
in Macedonia in 44, fell into the hands of M.
Brutus in 43, and was put to death by Brutus
in 42, to revenge the murder of Cicero. — (6)
L.y youngest brother of the triumvir, was
consul in 41, when he engraged in war against
Octavianus at the instigation of Fulvia, his
brother's wife. He threw himself into the
town of Perusia, which he was obliged to
surrender in the following year. His life was
spared, and he was afterwards appointed by
Octavianus to the command of Iberia. — (7) M.,
elder son of the triumvir by Fulvia, was exe-
cuted by order of Octavianus, after the death
of his father in 30. — (8) Julus, younger son
of the triumvir by Fulvia, was brought up by
his step-mother Octavia at Rome, and received
great marks of favour fh)m Augustus. He
was consul in b. c. 10, but was put to death
in 2, in consequence of his adulterous inter-
course with Julia, the daughter of Au-



ANTONIUS primus. [Primvs.]

ANTRON (-onis), a town in Phthiotis in
Thessaly, at the entrance of the Sinus

AN0BIS (-is), an Egyptian divinity, wor-
Rhipped in the form of a human being with a
dog's head. The Greeks identifled him with
their own Hermes (the Roman Mercury), and
thus speak of Hermanuphis in the same man-
ner as of Zeus (Jupiter) Ammon. His wor-
ship was introduced at Rome towards the end
of the republic.

ANXUR. [Tarracina.]

ANtTUS (-i), a wealthy Athenian, the most
influential and formidable of the accusers of
Socrates, b. c. 399. He was a leading man
of the democratical party, and took an active
part, along with Thrasybulus, in the over-
throw of the 30 Tyrants.

XONES (-um), an ancient race in Boeotia.
Hence the poets frequently use Aonitts as
equivalent to Boeotian. As Mount Helicon
and the fountain Aganippe were in Aonia,
the Muses are called Adnides,

AORSI or ADORSI (-orum), a powerful
people of Asiatic Sarmatia, chiefly found be-
tween the Palus Maeotis {Sea of Azof) and
the Caspian, whence they spread far into
European Sarmatia.

aOUS (-i) or AEAS (-antis), the principal

river of the Greek part of niyricum, rismf?
in M. Lacmon, and flowing into the Ionian
sea^n^r Apollonia.

APAMEA or -lA (-ae). (1) A. Ad Orontem
a city of Syria, built by Seleucus Nicator on
the site of the older city of Pblla, in a very
strong position on the river Orontes or Axius,
and named in honour of his wife Apama. — (2)
A. CibStus or Ad Mabamdrum, a great city
of Phrygia, on the Maeander, close above
its confluence with the Marsyas. It was
built by Antiochus I. Soter, who named it in
honour of his niother Apama. — (3) A. Mtr-
LEOK, in Bithynia. [Mtrlka.]

APELLES (-is), the most celebrated of Gre-
cian painters, was bom, most probably, at Co-
lophon in Ionia, though some ancient writers
call him a Coan and others an Ephesian. He
was the contemi)orary of Alexander the Great
(B.C. 336 — 323), who entertained so high an
opinion of him, that he was the only person
whom Alexander would permit to take his
portrait. We are not told when or where he
died. Throughout his life Apelles laboured
to improve himsdf, especially in drawing,
which he never spent a day without practis-
ing. Hence the proverb Nulla dies sitie linea.
Of his portraits the most celebrated was that
of Alexander wielding a thunderbolt ; but
the most admired of all his pictures was
the " Venus Anadyomene," or Venus rising
out of the sea. The goddess was wringing
her hair, and the falling drops of water
formed a transparent silver veil around her

APELLICON, of Teos, a Peripatetic philo-
sopher and great collector of books. His
valuable library at Athens, containing the
autogfaphs of Aristotle's works, was carried
to Rome by Sulla (b.o. 83) : Apellicon had
died just before.

5.PENNINU8 (-i) MONS, (probably from
the Celtic Pen "a height"), the Apennines^ a
chain of mountains running throughout Italy
from N. to S., and forming the backbone of the
peninsula. It is a continuation of the Mari-
time Alps [Alpes], and begins near Genua.
At the boundaries of Samnium, Apulia,
and Lucania, it divides into two main
branches, one of which runs E. through
Apulia and Calabria, and terminates at the
Salentine promontory, and the other W.
through Bruttium, terminating apparently at
Rhegium and the straits of Messina, but in
reality continued throughout Sicily.

APER (-ri), ARRIUS (-i), praetorian pre-
fect, and son-in-law of the emperor Nume-
rian, whom he was said to have murdered :
he was himself put to death by Diocletian on
his accession va. a.d. 28 (.

APERANTIA (-ae), a town and district

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of Aetolia near the Acheloos, inhabited by
the Aperantii.

ApHACA (-ae), a town of Coele-Syria, be-
tween Heliopolis and Byblus, celebrated for
the worship and oracle of Aphrodite (Venus).

APHAREUS (-ei), father of Idas and
Lynceus, the Aphiiretldae (also Aph&rila
proles), celebrated for their fight with Castor
and Pollux.

APHIDNA (-ae), an Attic demus not far
from Decelea, was originally one of the 12
towns and districts into which Cecrops is said
to have divided Attica. Here Theseus con-
cealed Helen, but her brothers Castor and
Pollux took the place and rescued their

APHODIrSIAS (-ftdis), the name of seve-
ral places famous for the worship of Aphrodite
V Venus). — (1) A town in Caria on the site
of an old to>vn of the Leleges, named Ninde :

under the Romans a free city and asylum,
and a flourishing school of art. — (2) ALkj
called Vbne&is Oppidum, a town, harbour,
and island on the coast of Cilicia, opposite to

APHR(5DlTfi (-6s), called V^NUS (firis),
by the Romans, the goddess of love and beauty.
In the Iliad she is represented as the daughter
of Zeus and Didn§ ; but later poets frequently
relate that she was sprung from the foam of
the sea, whence they derive her name. She
was the wife of Hephaestus (Vulcan) ; but
she proved faithless to her husband, and
was in love with Ares (Mars), the god of war.
She also loved the gods Dionysus (Bacchus),
Hermes (>Jercury), and Poseidon (Neptune),
and the mortals AJtchisks and Adonis. She
surpassed all the other goddesses in beaut}-,
and hence received the prize of beauty f^om
Paris. [PAAib.] She likewise had the power

Aphrodite (Venui) and Xros (Cupid). (Causei,
Museum Rnmanom, voL 1. ut. 40.)

of granting beauty and invincible charms to
others, and whoever wore her magic girdle
immediately became an object of love and de-
sire. In the vegetable kingdom the myrtle,
rose, apple, poppy, &c., were sacred to her.
The animals sacred to her, which are often
mentioned as drawing her chariot or serving
as her messengers, are the sparrow, the

dove, the swan, the swallow, and a bird
caUed iynx. She is generaUy represented
in works of art with her son Eros (Cupid).
The principal places of her worship in Greece
were the islands of Cyprus and Cythera.
Her worship was of Eastern origin, and pro-
bably introduced by the Phoenicians to the
islands of Cyprus and Cythera, from whence it

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gpread all over Greece. She appears to have
been origioallj identical with Astarte, called
by the Hebrews Ashtoreth.

APHTflONIUS (-i), of Antioch,a Greek rhe-
torician, lived about a.d. 315, and wrote the
introduction to the study of rhetoric, entitled
FrogymtMsmata. It was used as the common
school-book in this branch of education for
several centuries.

APHTnS (-is), a town in the peninsula
Pallene in Macedonia, with a celebrated
temple and oracle of Zeus (Jupiter) Ammon.

APIA^ [Apis.]

APICiUS (-i), the name of three notorious
gluttons. — (1) The first lived in the time of
Sulla.-r-(2) The second and most renowned,
M. Oabitts Apieius^ flourished under Tiberius.
Having squandered his fortune on the plea-
sures of the table, he hanged himself.— <3) A
contemporary of Trajan, sent to this emperor,
when he was in Parthia, fresh oysters, pre-
served by a skilful process of his own. — ^The
work on Cookery ascribed to Apicius, was
probably compiled at a late period by some
one who prefixed the name of Apicius, in
order to insure the circulation of his book.

APIDANUS (4), a river in Thessaly, flow-
ing Into the EnTpeus near Pharsalus.

APIOLAE (-arum), a town of Latium,
destroyed by Tarquinius Priscus,

APION, a Greek grammarian, and a native
of Oasis in Egypt, taught rhetoric at Rome
in the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. He
wrote a work against the Jews, to which
Josephus replied in his treatise Against Apion.

APION, PTOLEMAEUS. [Ptolkmaeus.]

XPIS (-is). (1) Son of Phoroneus and Lao-
dice, kingof Argos, from whom Peloponnesus,
and more especially Argos, was called Apla.. —
(2) The sacred Bull of Memphis, worshipped
as a god among the Egyptians. There were
certain signs by which he was recognised to
be the god. At Memphis, he had a splendid
residence, containing extensive walks and
courts for his amusement. His birthday,
which was celebrated every year, was a day
of rejoicing for all Egypt. His death was a
season of public mourning, which continued
till another sacred bull was discovered by the

APODOTI (-drum), a people in the 8.E. of
Aetolia, between the Evenus and Hylaethus.


APOLLINIS PR., a promontory in N. Africa,
forming the W. point of the gulf of Carthage.

APOLLO (-Inis), one of the great divinities
of the Greeks, son of Zeus (Jupiter) and Leto
(Latona) and twin brother of Artemis (Diana),
was bom in the island of Delos, whither Leto
had fled from the jealous Hera (Juno).
[Leto.] The powers ascribed to Apollo are

apparently of different kinds, but all are con-
nected with one another, as will be seen from
the following classification. He is — 1. Tfie
god who punishes^ whence he is represented
with a bow and arrows. All sudden deaths
were believed to be the effect of his arrows ;
and with them he sent the plague into the camp
of the Greeks before Troy. — 2. The god who
affords help and wards off evil. As he had the
power of ptmishing men, so he was also able
to deliver men, if duly propitiated. From hie
being the god who afforded help, he is the
father of Aesculapius, the god of the healing
art, and was also identified in later times
with Paeeon, the god of the healing art in
Homer. — 8. The god of prophecy, Apollo
exercised this i)ower in his nimierous oracles,
and especially in that of Delphi. Hence he
is frequently called the Pythian Apollo, from
Pytho, the ancient name of Delphi. He had the
power of communicating the gift of prophecy
both to gods and men, and all the ancient
seers and prophets are placed in some rela-
tionship to him. — 4. The god of song and
music. We find him in the Iliad dedghting
the immortal gods with his phorminx ; and
the Homeric bards derived their art of song
either from Apollo or the Muses. Hence

Apollo Musagetes. (Osterlejr, Denk. der alten
£unit, UT. 3*2.)

he is placed in close connexion with the
Muses, and is called MusageteSy as leader of the
choir of the Muses. Later tradition ascribed
to Apollo even the invention of the flute and

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lyre, while it is more commonly related that
he received the lyre from Hermes (Mercury).
Be«pecting Ms musical contests, see Mar-
8TA.fl, MiDAB. — 5. The god who protect* the
flocks and cattle. There are in Homer
only a few allusions to this feature in the

Apollo, with Lyre and Bow. (Zoega, BMsirilieTi,

character of Apollo, hut in later writers it
assumes a very prominent form, and in the
story of Apollo tending the flocks of Admetus

Ttie Pythian Apollo. (Audran, Proportion du Corps
Hmnain. pL 18.)

at Pherae in Thessaly, the idea reaches its
height. — 6. The god who delights in the foun-
dation of towns and the establishment of civil

constitutions. Henc^ a town or a colony was
neyer founded by the Greeks without con-
sulting an oracle of Apollo, so that in every
case he became, as it were, their spiritual
leader. — 7. Tfie god of the Sun. In Homer,
Apollo and Helios, or the Sun, are perfectly
distinct, and his identification with the Sun,
though almost universal among later writers,
was the result of later speculations and of
foreign, chiefty Egyptian, influence. — ^Apollo
had more influence upon the Greeks than any
other god. It may safely be asserted, that
the Greeks would never have become what
they were, without the worship of Apollo : in
him the brightest side of the Grecian mind is
reflected. In the religion of the early Romans
there is no trace of the worship of Apollo.
The Romans became acquainted with this
divinity through the Greeks, and adopted all
their notions about him fh>m the latter people.
During the second Punic war, in 212, the
ludi Apollinares were instituted in his honour.
— ^The most beautiful among the extant
representations of Apollo/ is the Apollo Bel.
vedere at Rome, in which he appears as the
perfect ideal of youthful manliness.

APOLLODORUS (-i), of Athens, flourished
about B.C. 140. His work, entitled Biblio.
theca^ contains a well arranged account of
the Greek mythology.

APOLLONIA (-ae). (1) An important
town in Illyria, not far from the mouth
of the Aous, and 60 stadia from the sea.
It was founded by the Corinthians and Cor>
cyraeans, and was equally celebrated as a
place of commerce and of learning. Many
distinguished Romans, among others the
young Octavius, afterwards the emperor
Augustus, pursued their studies here. Per.
sons travelling from Italy to Greece and the
Sast, usually landed either at Apollonia or
Dyrrhaciimi.— <2) A town in Macedonia,
on the Via Egnatia, between Thessalonica
and Amphipolis, and S. of the lake uf
Bolbe. — (3) A town in Thrace on the Black
Sea, a colony of Miletus, had a celebrated
temple of Apollo, from which Lucullus
carried %way a colossus of this god, and
erected it on the Capitol at Rome. — (4) A
castle or fortified town of the Locri Ozolae,
near Naupactus. — (5) A town on the N. coast
of Sicily. — (6) A town in Bithynia on the
lake ApoUoniatis, through which the river
Rhyndacus flows. — (7) A town in Cyrenaica
and the harbour of Cyrene, one of the 5 towns
of the Pentapolis in Libya : it was the birth-
place of Eratosthenes.

APOLL(>NIS (-is), a city in Lydia, between
Pergamus and Sardis, named after Ai)ollonis,
the mother of king Eumenes.

APOLLONIUS (-i). (1) Of AijLBANtA in

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Caria, a rhetorician, taught rhetaric at
Rhodes, about b.c. 100. — C2) Of At^banda,
sumamed Molo, likewise a rhetorician,
taught rhetoric at Rhodes. In b.c. 81, Apol-
lonius came to Rome as ambassador of the
Rhodians, on which occasion Cicero heard
him ; Cicero also received instruction from
Apollonius at Rhodes a few years later. —
(3) Peboakus, firom Perga in Pamphylia,
one of. the g^reatest mathematicians of anti-
quity, commonly called the " Great Geometer,"
was educated at Alexandria under the suc-
cessors of Euclid, and flourished about b.c.
250 — 220. — (4) Rhoditjs, a poet and gram-
marian, was bom at Alexandria, and flourished
in the reigns of Ptolemy Philopator and
Ptolemy Epiphanes (b.c. 222 — 181). In his
youth he was instructed by Callimachus ; but
they afterwards became bitter enemies. Apol-
lonius taught rhetoric at Rhodes with so
much success, that the Rhodians honoured
him with their franchise : hence he was
called the "Rhodian." He afterwards re-
turned to Alexandria, where he succeeded
Eratosthenes as chief librarian at Alexandria.
His poem, called the Argonautica^ gives a
description of the adventures of the Argonauts.
— C5) Ttanensis or Tyanabus, ».«. of TySna
in Cappadocia, a Pythagorean philosopher,
was bom about 4 years before the Christian
era. Apollonius obtained great influence by
pretending to miraculous lowers. His life
is written by Philostratus. After travelling
through the greater part of the then known
world, he settled down at Ephesus, where he
is said to have proclaimed the death of the
tyrant Domitian the instant it took place.

APONUS or APONI FONS, warm medicinal
springs, near Pataviimi, hence called Aquae
Patavinae, were much frequented by the sick.

APPIA viA (-ae), the most celebrated
of the Roman roads, was commenced by Ap.
Claudius Caecus, when censor, b.c. 312, and
was the great line of communication between
Rome and southern Italy. It issued from the
Porta Capena, and terminated at Capua, but
was eventually extended to Brundusium.

APPIANUS (-i), the Roman historian, a
native of Alexandria, lived at Rome during the
reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus
Plus. He wrote a Roman h]sto1*y in .24 books,
of which only part has come down to us. His
style is clear ; but he possesses few merits as
an historian.

APPIAS (-Sdis), a nymph of the Appian
well, which was situated near the temple of
Venus Genetrix in the forum of Julius Caesar.
It was surrounded by statues of nymphs,
called Appiadea.

APPII FORUM. [Forum Appii.]

APPULEIUS or APULEIUS (4), of Madura

in Africa, bom about a.d. 130, received the
first rudiments of education at Carthage, and
afterwards studied the Platonic philosophy
at Athens. He next travelled extensively,
visiting Italy, Greece, and Asia. After faiA
return to Africa he married a very rich widow.
His most important work is the Golden Ass^
which is a kind of romance. The well-knowii
and beautiful tale of Cupid and Psyche forms
an episode in this work.



APRlES, a king of Egypt, the Pharaoh-
Hophra of Scripture, succeeded his father
Psammis, and reigned b.c. 595 — 570. He
was dethroned and put to death by Amasis.

APSUS (-i), a river in lUyria, flowing into
the Ionian sea.

APSYRTUS. [Abstbtus.]

APUANI (-drum), a Ligurian people on the
Macra, subdued by the Romans after a long
resistance and transplanted to Samnium,
B.C. 180.

APULfilUS. [AppULMirs.]

APULIA (-ae), included, in its widest sig.
location, the whole of 'the S. E. of Italy from
the river Frento to the promontory lapygium.
In its narrower sense it was the country E.
of Samnium on both sides of the Aufidns, the
Daunia and Peucetia of the Greeks : the S. E.
part was called Calabria by the Romans. The
Greeks gave the name of Daunia to the N.
part of the coimtry from the Frento to the
Aufldus, of Peucetia to the country from the
Aufldus to Tarentnm and Brundusium, and ol
lapygia or Messapia to the whole of the
remaining S. part: though they tK/metimes
included under lapygia all Apulia in its
widest meaning. The country was very fertile,
especially in the neighbourhood of Tarentum,
and the mountains aflbrded excellent pas-
turage. The population was of a mixed
nature : they were for the most part of Illy-
rian origin, and are said to have settled in
the country under the guidance of lapyx,
Daunius, and Peucetius, three sons of an
lUyrian king, Lycaon. Subsequently many
towns were founded by Greek colonists. The
Apulians joined the Sanmites against tho
Romans, and became subject to the latter on
the conquest of the Sanmites.

AQUAE (-anmi), the name given by the
Romans to many medicinal springs and bath-
ing places : — (1) CxrriLiAB, mineral springs in
Samnium near the ancient town of Cutilia,
which perished in early times, andE. of Reate.
There was a celebrated lake in its neighbour,
hood with a floating island, which was re-
garded as the umbilicus or centre of Italy.
Vespasian died at this place. — (2) Patavinar.
[Aponi Fons.] — (8) Sextiak {Aiz), a Roman

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colony in Gallia Narbonensis, fonnded by
Sextius Calvinus, B.C. 122 ; its mineral waters
were long celebrated. Near this place Marius
defeated the Teutoni, b.c. 102. — (4) Stati-
RiXAE, a town of the Statielli in Liguria,
celebrated fo^ its warm baths.

AQUIiARIA (-ae), a town on the coast of
Zeugitana in Africa, on the W. side of Her-
maeum Pr. {O. Bon). It was a good landing,
place in summer.

AQUILEIA (-ae), a town in Gallia Trans,
padana at the very top of the Adriatic, about 60
stadia firom the sea. It was founded by the
Romans in b.c. 182, as a bulwark against the .
northern barbarians, and was one of the I
strongest fortresses of the Romans. It was
also a flourishing place of commerce. It was !
taken and completely destroyed by Attila in \
A.D. 452 : its inhabitants escaped to the I
Lagoons, where Venice was afterwards built.

IqUILLIA via (.ae), began at Capua, and I
ran S. through the rery heart of Lucania and |
Bruttii to Rhegium.

AQUILLIU8 or iQUILfUS (-i). (1) |
Consul, B.C. 1 29, finished the war against Aris-
tonicus, son of Eumenes of Pergamus. — (2)
Consul, B.C. 101, finished the Servile war
in Sicily. In 88 he was defeated by Mith.
ridates, who put him to death by pouring
molten gold down his throat.

AQUILONIA (-ae), a town of Samnium,
E. of BoTianum, destro^red by the Romans in
the Samnite wars.

AQUINUM (-i), a town of the Volscians
in Latium ; a Roman municlpinm and after-
wards a colony ; the birth-place of Juvenal ;
celebrated for its purple dye.

AQUITANLA. (-ae). (1) The country of
the Aquitani, extended from the Ganmma
{Garonne) to the Pyrenees. It was first con-
quered by Caesar's legates. — (2) The Roman
province of Aquitania, formed in the reign of
Augustus, extended from the Ligeris {Loire) y
to the Pyrenees, and was bounded on the £.
by the Mons Cevenna, which separated it
from Gallia Narbonensis. The Aquitani were
of Iberian or Spanish origin.

ARA UBIORUM, a place in the neighbour-
hood of Bonn in Germany, perhaps Oodesberg,

ARABIA (-ae), a country at the S.W. extre-
mity of Asia, forming a large peninsula, of a
tort of hatchet shape, bounded on the W. by the
Arabicus Sixtts {Red Sea)y on the S. and S.E.
by the EaYTHRAKtnn Mark {Oitif of Bab~el-
MandA and Indian Ocean) ^ and on the N.£.
by the Persicus Sinus {Persian Oitlf), On
the N. or land side its boundaries were some-
what indefinite, but it seems to have included
the whole of the desert country between
Egypt and Syria, on the one side, and the

Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 9 of 90)