William Smith.

A smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... online

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by force, and by whom he had a son Carpus.

Zephynu. (Prom the Temple of the Wiuds
at Atheus.)

ZfiTRNTHUS (-i), a town of Thrace, in
the territory of Aenos, with a temple of
Apollo, and a cave of Hecate, who are hence
called Zerynthiiu and Zerynthia respectivelv.

ZETES (-ae) and CALAIS (-is), sons of
Boreas and Orithyia, frequently called the
Bo&EADAE, are mentioned among the Argo.
nauts, and are described as winged beings.
Their sister, Cleopatra, who was married to
Phineus, Idng of Salmydessus, had been
thrown with her sons into prison by Phineus,
at the instigation of his second wife. Here
she was found by Zetes and Calais, when
they arrived at Salmydessus, in the Argo-
nautic expedition. They liberated their
sister and her children, gave the kingdom to
the latter, and sent the second wife of Phi-
neus to her own country, Scythia. Others
relate that the Boreadae delivered Phineus
from the Harpies ; for it had been foretold
that the Harpies might be killed by the sons
of Boreas, but that the sons of Boreas must
die, if they should not be able to overtake the
Harpies. Others again state that the Bo-
readae perished in their pursuit of the

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Ilarpics, or that Herculea killed them with
hia arrows near the island of Tenos.

ZETHUS (-i), brother of Amphion. [Am-


of Tunis) f the N. district of Africa Propria.

ZEUGMA (atis: prob. Humkaleh), a city of
Syria, on the borders of Commagene and
Cyrrhestice, built by Seleucus Nicator, on the
W. bank of the Euphrates, at a point where
the river was crossed by a bridge of boats,
which had been constructed by Alexander
the Great,

ZEUS (Dios), caUed JCPITER by the Ro-
man?, the greatest of the Olympian gods,
was a son of Cronus (Satumus) and Rhea, a

Headof Olympian Zeus (Jupiter). (Visconti, Mus.
Fio Clem., toL 6. tav. 1.)

brother of Poseidon (Neptunus), Hades
(Pluto), Ilestia (Vesta), Demeter (Ceres),
Hera (Juno), and was also married to his
sipter, Hera. When Zeus and his brothers
distributed among themselves the govern-
ment of the world by lot, Poseidon obtained
the sea, Hades ttie lower world, and Zeus the
heavens and the upper regions, but the earth
became common to all. According to the
Homeric account Zeus dwelt on Mt. Olympus,
in Thessaly, which was believed to penetrate
with its lofty summit into heaven itself. He
is called the father of gods and men, the
most high and powerful among the immor-
tals, whom all others obey. He is the su-
preme ruler, who with his counsel manages
everything ; the founder of kingly power,
and of law and order, whence Dice, The-
mis, and Nemesis, are his assistants. Every
thing good, as well as bad, comes from Zeus ;

according to his own choice he assigns good
or evil to mortals ; and fate itself was sub-
ordinate to him. He is armed with thunder
and lightning, and the shaking of his aegis
produces storm and tempest : a number of
epithets of Zeus, in the Homeric poems, de-
scribe him as the thunderer, the gatherer of
clouds, and the like. By Hera he had two
sons, Ares (Mars) and Hephaestus (Vulca.
nus), and one daughter, Hebe. Hera some-
times acts as an independent divinity ; she
is ambitious, and rebels against her lord, but
she is nevertheless inferior to him, and is
punisned for -her opposition; his amours
with other goddesses or mortal women are
not concealed from her, though they gene-
rally rouse her jealousy and revenge. Zeus,

Zeui (Jupiter) (A Medal of M. Aareliaa, m
Britiah Museum.)

no doubt, was originally a god of a portion
of nature. Hence the oak, with its eatable
fruit and the prolific doves, were sacred to him
at Dodona and in Arcadia. Hence, also, rain,
storms, and the seasons, were regarded as his
work. Hesiod also calls Zeus the son of
Cronus and Rhea, and the brother of Hestia,
Demeter, Hera, liades, and Poseidon. Cronus
swallowed his children immediately after
their birth ; but when Rhea was pregnant
with Zeus, she applied to Uranus and Ge to
save the life of the child. Uranus and Ge
therefore sent Rhea to Lyctos, in Crete,
requesting her to bring up her child there.
Rhea accordingly concealed Zeus in a cave of
Mt. Aegaeon, and gave to Cronos a stone
wrapped up in cloth, which he swallowed in
the belief that it was his son. Other tra-
ditions state that Zeus was bom and brought
up 6n Mt. Dicte or Ida (also the Trojan Ida),
Ithome in Measenia, Thebes in Boeotia,

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Aegion in Achaia, or Olenos in Aetolia.
According to the common account, however,
Zeus grew up in Crete. In the meantime
Cronus, by a cunning device of Ge or Metis,
was made to bring up the children he had
swallowed, and first of all the stone, which
was afterwards set up by Zeus at Delphi. The
young god now delivered the Cyclopes from
the bonds with which they had been fettered
by Cronus, and they, in their gratitude, pro-
vided him with thunder and lightning. On
the advice of Ge, Zens also liberated the
hundred-armed Gigantes, Briareos, Cottus,
and Gyes. that they might assist him in his
fight against the Titans. The Titans were
conquered and shut up in Tartarus, where

they were henceforth gruarded by the Heca.
toncheires. Thereupon Tartarus and Ge
begot Typhoeus, who began a fearful struggle
with Zeus, but was conquered. Zeus now ob-
tained the dominion of the world, and chose
Metis for his wife. When she was pregnant
with Athena (Minerva), he took the child out
of her body and concealed it in his head, on
the advice of Uranus and Ge, who told him
that thereby he would retain the supremacy
of the world. For if Metis had given birth
to a son, this son (so fate had ordained it)
would have acquired the sovereignty. After
this Zeus became the father of the Horae
and Moerae, by his second wife Themis ; of
the Charites or Graces, by Eurynome; of

Zeus (Jupiter) and the Giants. (Neapolitan Gem.)

Persephone (Proserpine) by Demeter ; of the
Muses, by Mnemosyne; of Apollo and Ar-
temis (Diana) by Leto ; and of Hebe, Ares,
and Ilithyia by Hera. Athena was born
out of the head of Zeus ; while Hera, on
the other hand, gave birth to Hephaestus
without the co-operation of Zeus. The family
of the Cronidae accordingly embraces the 12
great gods of Olympus, Zeus (the head of
them all), Poseidon, Apollo, Ares, Hermes
(Mercury), Hephaestus, Hestia, Demeter,
Hera, Athena, Aphrodite (Venus), and Ar-
temis. These 12 Olympian gods, who in
some places were worshipped as a body, were
recognised not only by the Greeks, but were
adopted also by the Romans, who, in par-
ticular, identified their Jupiter with the
Greek Zeus. The Greek and Latin poets
give to Zeus or Jupiter an immense number
of epithets and surnames, which are derived
partly from the places where Ije was wor-

shipped, and partly from his powers and
functions. The eagle, the oak, and the
summits of mountains were sacred to him,
and his sacrifices generally consisted of goats,
bulls and cows. His usual attributes are,
the sceptre, eagle, thunderbolt, and a figure
of Victory in his hand, and sometimes also a
cpmucopia. The Olympian Zeus sometimes
wears a wreath of olive, and the Dodonaean
Zeus a wreath of oak leaves. In works of
art Zeus is generally represented as the om-
nipotent father and king of gods and men,
according to the idea which had been em-
bodied in the statue of the Olympian Zeus
by Phidias, iiespecting the Roman god see


ZEUXIS (-Tdis),the celebrated Greek painter,
was a native of Heraclea, and flourished b.c.
424 — 400. He came to Athens soon after the
beginning of the Peloponncsian War, when
he had already achieved a great reputation.

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although a yonng jnan. He lived some
years in Macedonia, at the court of ArchelaOs,
and must have spent some time in Magna
Graecia, as we learn from the story respect-
ing the picture of Helen, his masterpiece,
which he painted for the city of Croton.
Zeuxis acquired a great fortune by his art.
The time of his death is unknown. The
accurate imitation of inanimate objects was
a department of the art which Zeuxis and his
younger rival Parrhasius appear to have car-
ried almost to perfection.

ZOlLUS (-i), a grammarian, was, a native
of Amphipolis, and flourished in the time of
Philip of Macedon. He was celebrated for
Che asperity with which he assailed Homer,
and his name became proverbial for a cap-
tious dnd malignant critic.

ZOPtRUS (-i). (1) A distinguished Per-
sian, son of Megabyzus. After Darius Hys-
taspis had besieged Babylon for 20 months
in vain, Zopyrus resolved to gain the place
for his master by the most extraordinary
self-sacrifice. Accordingly, one day he ap-
peared before Darius, with his body muti-
lated in the most horrible manner ; both his
ears and nose were cut off, and his person
otherwise disfigured. After explaining to
Darius his intentions, he fled to Babylon as
a victim of the cruelty of the Persian king.
The Babylonians gave him their confidence,
and placed him at the head of their troops.
He soon found means to betray the city to

Darius, who severely punished the inhabitants
for their revolt. Darius appointed Zopyrus
satrap of Babylon for life, with the enjoy,
ment of its entire revenues. — (2) The Phy-
siognomist, who attributed many vices to
Socrates, which the latter admitted were hi*
natural propensities, but said that they had
been 'overcome by philosophy. — (3) A sur-
geon at Alexandria, the tutor of Apollonius
Citiensis and Posidonius, about the beginning
of the 1st century, b.c.

the Zabathitstiu. of the Zendavesta, and the
ZBRDrsHT of the Persians, was the founder of
the Magian religion. The most opposite
opinions have been held by both ancient and
modem writers respecting the time in which
he lived ; but it is quite impossible to come to
any conclusion on the subject. As the founder
of the Magian religion he must be plaeed in
remote antiquity, and it may even be ques-
tioned whether such a person ever existed.

ZOSIMUS (-i), a Greek historian who lived
in the time of the younger Theodosius. He
wrote a history of the Roman empire in 6
books, which is still extant. Zosimus was a
pagan, and comments severely upon the faults
and crimes of the Christian emperors. Hence
his credibility has been assailed by several
Christian writers.

ZOSTER (-#ris : C. of Vari)^ a promontory
on the W. of Attica, between Phalerum and




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Online LibraryWilliam SmithA smaller classical dictionary of biography, mythology, and geography ... → online text (page 90 of 90)