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32, 33; Acts ix. 19 25.) It is not improbable
that Aretas obtained possession of Damascus in a
war with Herod at an earlier period than Josephus
has mentioned ; as it seems likely that Aretas
would have resented the affront soon after it was
given, instead of allowing so many years to inter-
vene, as the narrative of Josephus would imply.
The Aretas into whose dominions Aelius Gallus
came in the time of Augustus, is probably also the
same as the father-in-law of Herod. (Strab. xvi.
p. 781.)

The following is a coin of Aretas, king of
Damascus, but whether it belongs to No. 2 or No.
3 is doubtful. (Eckhel, iii. p. 330.) Perhaps it is
a coin of No. 2, and may have been struck when
he took possession of Syria at the invitation of the
inhabitants of Damascus : in that case there
would have been good reason for the inscription
<MAEAAHNO2 upon it.


ARE'TE CApifnj), the wife of Alcinous, king
of the Phaeacians. In the Odyssey she appears as
a noble and active superintendent of the household
of her husband, and when Odysseus arrived in the
island, he first applied to queen Arete to obtain
hospitable reception and protection. (Horn. Od. vi.
310, vii. 65, &c., 142.) Respecting her connexion
with the story of Jason and Medeia, see ALCI-
NOUS. [L. S.]

A'RETE ('Ape-nf), daughter of the elder Dio-
nysius and Aristomache. She was first married to
Thearides, and upon his death to her uncle Dion, the
brother of her mother Aristomache. After Dion had
fled from Syracuse during the reign of the younger
Dionysius, Arete was compelled by her brother to


marry Timocrates, one of his friends ; but she was
again received by Dion as his wife, when he had
obtained possession of Syracuse and expelled the
younger Dionysius. After Dion's assassination,
B. c. 353, Arete was imprisoned together with her
mother, and brought forth a son while in confine-
ment. Arete and Aristomache were subsequently
liberated and kindly received by Hicetas, one of
Dion's friends, but he was afterwards persuaded by
the enemies of Dion to drown them. (Plut. Dion,
6, 21, 51, 57, 58; Aelian, V. H. xii. 47, who
erroneously makes Arete the mother, and Aristo-
mache the wife of Dion.)

ARE'TE ('APTJTT?), daughter of Aristippus, the
founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. She
was instructed by him in the principles of his sys-
tem, which she transmitted to her son, Aristippus
UTirpoSiSaKTos, to whom Ritter (Gesch. der Phil.
vii. 1 . 3) ascribes the formal completion of the ear-
lier Cyrenaic doctrine. We are told by Diogenes
Laertius (ii. 72), that her father taught her con-
tentment and moderation, both by precept and
practice, and the same duties are insisted on in an
epistle now extant, said to be addressed to her by
him. This letter is certainly spurious [ARISTIP-
PUS], although Laertius mentions among the writ-
ings of Aristippus an eTno-ToTu) Trpos 'Ap/rrji/ r~i]v
SvyaTepa. Whether the letter to which he refers
was the same as that which we possess, is uncer-
tain ; but the fact that it was extant in his time
would not prove its authenticity. Aelian (H. A.
iii. 40) calls Arete the sister of Aristippus, but this
assertion is opposed to the statement of all other
writers ; and, besides, the passage which contains
it is corrupt. (Diog. Laert. ii. 72, 86 ; Brucker,
Hist. Crit. Phil. ii. 2, 3.) [G. E. L. C.]

ARETES of Dyrrachium, an ancient chrono-
grapher, some of whose calculations Censorinus (de
Die Nat. 18, 21) mentions.

A'RETHAS ('Ape'0<w). 1. Archbishop of Cae-
sareia in Cappadocia at an uncertain time (A. D.
540, according to Coccius and Cave), appears to
have succeeded ANDREAS. He wrote a commen-
tary on the Apocalypse (<rv\\oyrj zfyyricrfatv e/c
SicKpopcw dyiav ai/Spwi' els TT\V 'ludvvov rov dya-
TT'fyue'fou Kal evayyeXiarov ' 'ATro/caA.t^ti'), which,
as its title implies, was compiled from many pre-
previous works, and especially from that of An-
dreas. It is usually printed with the works of

2. Presbyter of Caesareia in Cappadocia, wrote a
work " on the translation of St. Euthymius, patri-
arch of Constantinople," who died A. D. 911. The
date of Arethas is therefore fixed at 920. (Oudinus,
Comment, de Script. Eccles. ii. p. 426, who, without
sufficient reason, identifies the former Arethas with
this writer.)

3. The author of an epigram " On his own
Sister" (eirt rfj iSia dSeAcpT?), which is found in
the Vatican MS. under the title of 'Apeda TOV
SiaKovov. (Jacobs, Paralip. ex Cod. Vatic. No.
211, in Anthol. Grace, xiii. p. 744.) If the
words added in the margin, yeyov6ros Se Kal
dpxeTLo-Korrov Kaiffaoeias KaTTTraSo/ci'as, may be
taken as an authority, he was the same person as
the Archbishop of Caesareia. [P. S.]

ARETHU'SA ('Ape'0owa), one of the Nereids
(Hygin. Praef. p. 9, ed. Staveren ; Virg. Geory. iv.
344), and the nymph of the famous well Arethusa
in the island of Ortygia near Syracuse. [ ALPHEIUS.]
Virgil (Edog. iv. 1, x. 1) reckons her among the


Sicilian nymphs, and as the divinity who inspired
pastoral poetry. The Syracusans represented on
many of their coins the head of Arethusa sur-
rounded by dolphins. (Rasche, Lex. Numism. i. 1,
p. 107.) One of the Hesperides likewise bore the
name of Arethusa. (Apollod. ii. 5. 11.) [L. S.]

M. ARETHU'SIUS ('Apefloycnos), the author
of a confession of faith, promulgated in the third
council of Sirmium, A. D. 359, and was subse-
quently a martyr under Julian. (Socrat. H. E. ii.
30, with Valesius' note ; Nazian. Orat. 48 ; Tille-
mont, vii. p. 726.)

ARETUS ("ApTjros). Two mythical personages
of this name are mentioned in Homer. (II. xvii.
494, 517, and Od. iii. 413.) [L. S.]

A'REUS I. ('Apeus), succeeded his grandfather,
Cleomenes II., as king of Sparta, of the Eurys-
thenid family, B. c. 309, his father, ACROTATUS,
having died before him. He reigned 44 years.
(Diod. xx. 29.)

In the year 280 B. c., a league of the Greek
states was formed, at the instigation of Sparta,
acting under the influence of its ally, Ptolemy
Ceraunus, to free themselves from the dominion
of Antigonus Gonatas. The first blow was
struck by Areus, who, having obtained a decree
of the Amphyctions against the Aetolians, be-
cause they had cultivated the sacred land of
Cirrha, attacked Cirrha unexpectedly, and plun-
dered and burnt the town. His proceedings were
viewed by the Aetolian shepherds on the mountains,
who formed themselves into a body of about 500
men, and attacked the scattered troops of Areus.
These, ignorant of the number of their enemies,
were struck with a panic and fled, leaving 9000 of
their number dead. Thus the expedition turned
out fruitless, and the attempts of Sparta to renew
the war met with no encouragement from the other
states, which suspected that the real design of
Sparta was not to liberate Greece, but to obtain
the supremacy for herself. (Justin, xxiv. 1 : it is
scarcely credible that the numbers can be right.)

When Sparta was attacked by Pyrrhus, in B. c.
272 [ACROTATUS], Areus was absent on an ex-
pedition in Crete. He returned straight to Sparta,
and formed an alliance with the Argives, the effect
of which was, that Pyrrhus drew off his forces
from Sparta to attack Argos. (Paus. iii. 6. 2 ;
Plut. Pyrrh. 2629.) In the year 267, Arens
united with Ptolemy Philadelphus in an unsuc-
cessful attempt to save Athens from Antigonus
Gonatas. (Paus. iii. 6. 3 ; Justin, xxvi. 2.) He
fell in a battle against the Macedonians at Corinth,
in the next year but one, 265 B. c., and was suc-
ceeded by his son Acrotatus. (Plut. A (/is, 3 ;
Justin, xxvi., Prol.) He was the king of Sparta
to whom the Jews sent the embassy mentioned in
1 Mace. xii. 20.

2. Areus II., a posthumous son of Acrotatus,
was born as king probably in 264 A. D., and died
at the age of eight years. He was succeeded by
his great uncle, Leonidas II. (Plut. Agis, 3 ; Paus.
iii. 6. 3.) [P. S.]

AREUS ('Apeus), a Spartan exile, who was re-
stored to his country with Alcibiades, another
exile [see p. 100, a.], about B. c. 184, by the
Achaeans, but afterwards went as ambassador to
Rome to accuse the Achaeans. (Polyb. xxiii. 11,
12, xxiv. 4 ; Liv. xxxix. 35 ; Paus. vii. 9. 2.)

ARGAEUS ('Ap7cuos), king of Macedonia
was the son and successor of Pcrdiccas I., who



according to Herodotus and Thucydides, was the
founder of the dynasty. Thirty-four years are
given as the length of his reign by Dexippus (ap.
Syncell. p. 494, Dind.), but apparently without any
authority. (Herod, viii. 139; Justin, vii. 2.)

There was a pretender to the Macedonian crown
of this name, who, with the assistance of the Illy-
rians, expelled Amyntas 1 1. from his dominions (B.C.
393), and kept possession of the throne for two
years. Amyntas then, with the aid of the Thessa-
lians, succeeded in expelling Argaeus and recover-
ing at least a part of his dominions. It is probably
the same Argaeus who in B. c. 359 again appears
as a pretender to the throne. He had induced the
Athenians to support his pretensions, but Philip,
who had just succeeded to the regency of the king-
dom, by his intrigues and promises induced them
to remain inactive. Argaeus upon this collected a
body of mercenaries, and being accompanied by
some Macedonian exiles and some Athenian troops,
who were permitted by their general, Manilas, to
join him, he made an attempt upon Aegae, but
was repulsed. On his retreat to Methone, he was
intercepted by Philip, and defeated. What be-
came of him we are not informed. (Diod. xiv. 92,
xvi. 2, 3; Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 660 ; Thirlwall,
vol. v. pp. 161, 173.) [C. P. M.]

A'RGALUS ("ApyoAos), the eldest son of
Amyclas, and his successor in the throne of Sparta.
(Paus. iii. 1. 3.)

ARGANTHO'NE ( ApyavQuvn], a fair maiden
in Mysia, who used to hunt alone in the forests.
Rhesus, attracted by the fame of her beauty, came
to her during the chase ; he succeeded in winning
her love, and married her. After he was slain at
Troy by Diomedes, she died of grief. (Parthen.
Erot. 36 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'ApyavQuvis.) [L. S.]

ARGANTHO'NIUS ( 'ApyavQwios ), king of
Tartessus in Spain, in the sixth century B. c.,
received in the most friendly manner the Pho-
caeans who sailed to his city, and gave them money
in order that they might fortify their city. He is
said to have reigned 80 years, and to have lived
120. (Herod, i. 163 ; Strab. iii. p. 151 ; Lucian,
Macrob. 10 ; Cic. de Senect. 19 ; Plin. //. N. vii.
48 ; Val. Max. viii. 13, ext. 4.)

ARGAS ('Ap7as), who is described as VO/ULUV
-rrovT]pa3V Kal dpya\fuv TroirjTtjs. (Plut. Dem. 4 ;
Athen. xiv. p. 638, c. d., comp. iv. p. 131, b.)

ARGEIA ('Apyfta). 1. A surname of Hera
derived from Argos, the principal seat of her wor-
ship. (Paus. iii. 13. 6.)

2. Argeia also occurs as the name of several
mythical personages, as a. The wife of Inachus
and mother of I o. (Hygin. Fab. 145; comp. Apol-
lod. ii. 1. 3.) b. The wife of Polybus and mo-
ther of Argus, the builder of the ship Argo. (Hy-
gin. Fab. 14.) c. A daughter of Adrastus and
Amphithea, and wife of Polyneices. (Apollod. i. 9.
13, iii. 6. 1 ; Hygin. Fab. 72.) d. A daughter
of Autesion and wife of Aristodemus, the Heraclid,
by whom she became the mother of Eurysthenes
and Procles. (Herod, vi. 52; Paus. iv. 3. 3;
Apollod. ii. 7. 2.) [L.S.]

ARGEIPHONTES ('ApyeupovTiis), a surname
of Hermes, by which he is designated as the mur-
derer of Argus Panoptes. (Horn. //. ii. 103, and
numerous other passages in the Greek and Latin
poets.) [L. S.]

ARGEIUS ('Ap7e?os), was one of the Elean
deputies sent to Persia to co-operate with Pelopidas



(B. c. 367) in counteracting Spartan negotiation
and attaching Artaxerxes to the Theban cause.
(Xen. Hell. vii. 1. 33.) He is again mentioned
by Xenophon (Hell. vii. 4. 15), in his account of
the war between the Arcadians and Eleans (B. c.
3G5), as one of the leaders of the democratic party
at Elis. (Comp. Diod. xv. 77.) [E. E.] '

ARGE'LIUS, wrote a work on the Ionic temple
of Aesculapius, of which he was said to have been
the architect. He alse wrote on the proportions of
the Corinthian order (de Symmetriis Corinthiis). His
time is unknown. (Vitruv. vii. praef. 12.) [P.S.]

ARGENNIS ('Ap-yewis), a surname of Aphro-
dite, which she derived from Argennus, a favourite
of Agamemnon, after whose death, in the river
Cephissus, Agamemnon built a sanctuary of Aph-
rodite Argennis. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Apyevvis ;
Athen. xiii. p. 608.) [L. S.]

:\I. ARGENTA'RIUS, the author of about
thirty epigrams in the Greek Anthology, most of
which are erotic, and some are plays on words.
We may infer from his style that he did not live
before the time of the Roman empire, but nothing
more is known of his age. (Jacobs, Anthol. Grace.
xiii. pp. 860, 861.) [P. S.]


ARGILEONIS ('A/ryiAeww's), mother of Bra-
When the ambassadors from Amphipolis


brought the news of his death, she asked if he had
behaved bravely ; and on their speaking of him in
reply as the best of the Spartans, answered, that
the strangers were in error ; Brasidas was a brave
man, but there were many better in Sparta. The
answer became famous, and Argileonis is said to
have been rewarded for it by the ephors. (Plut.
Lye. 25, Apophih. Lac.} [A. H. C.]

'ARGl'OPE ('Apyio'mj), a nymph by whom
Philaramon begot the celebrated bard, Thamyris.
She lived at first on mount Parnassus, but when
Philaramon refused to take her into his house as
his wife, she left Parnassus and went to the coun-
try of the Odrysians in Thrace. (Apollod. i. 3. 3;
Paus. iv. 33. 4.) Two other mythical personages
of this name occur in Diod. iv. 33, and Hvgin.
Fab. 178. [L. S.]

ARGIUS, a sculptor, was the disciple of Poly-
clotus, and therefore flourished about 388 B. c.
(Plin. xxxiv. 19.) Thiersch (EpocJwn, p. 275)
supposes that Pliny, in the words "Argius, Asopo
dorus,' 1 '' mis-translated his Greek authority, which
had 'Apyetos 'A<ra>7roSa>pos-, "Asopodorus the Ar-
give." But Argius is found as a Greek proper name
in both the forms, "Apyios and 'Apyetos. (Apollod.
ii. 1. $ 5 ; Aristoph. Eceles. 201.) [P. S.]


ARGONAUTAE ('Apyovavrai\ the heroes and
demigods who, according to the traditions of the
Greeks, undertook the first bold maritime expedi-
tion to Colchis, a far distant country on the coast
of the Euxine, for the purpose of fetching the
golden fleece. They derived their name from the
ship Argo, in which the voyage was made, and
which was constructed by Argus at the command
of Jason, the leader of the Argonauts. The time
which the Greek traditions assign to this enter-
prise is about one generation before the Trojan
war. The story of the expedition seems to have
been known to the author of the Odyssey (xii. 69,
&c.), who states, that the ship Argo was the only
one that ever passed between the whirling rocks
at TrAcryKTcu). Jason is mentioned several


times in the Iliad (vii. 467, &c., xxi. 40, xxiii.
743, &c.), but not as the leader of the Argonauts.
[JASON.] Hesiod (Theog. 992, &c.) relates the
story of Jason saying that he fetched Medeia at
the command of his uncle Pelias, and that she bore
him a son, Medeius, who was educated by Cheiron.
The first trace of the common tradition that Jason
was sent to fetch the golden fleece from Aea, the
city of Aeetes, in the eastern boundaries of the
earth, occurs in Mimnermus (ap. Stnib. i. p. 46,
&c.), a contemporary of Solon ; but the most an-
cient detailed account of the expedition of the
Argonauts which is extant, is that of Pindar.
(Pyth. iv.) Pelias, who had usurped the throne of
lolcus, and expelled Aeson, the father of Jason,
had received an oracle that he was to be on his
guard against the man who should come to him
with only one sandal. When Jason had grown
up, he came to lolcus to demand the succession to
the throne of his father. On his way thither, he
had lost one of his sandals in crossing the river
Anaurus. Pelias recognised the man indicated by
the oracle, but concealed his fear, hoping to destroy
him in some way ; and when Jason claimed the
throne of his ancestors, Pelias declared himself
ready to yield; but as Jason was blooming in
youthful vigour, Pelias entreated him to propitiate
the manes of Phrixus by going to Colchis and
fetching the golden fleece. [PHRIXUS ; HELLE.]
Jason accepted the proposal, and heralds were sent
to all parts of Greece to invite the heroes to join him
in the expedition. When all were assembled at lol-
cus, they set out on thtir voyage, and a south wind
carried them to the mouth of the Axeinus Pontus
(subsequently Euxinus Pontus), where they built
a temple to Poseidon, and implored his protection
against the danger of the whirling rocks. The
ship then sailed to the eastern coast of the Euxine
and ran up the river Phasis, in the country of
Aeetes, and the Argonauts had to fight against the
dark-eyed Colchians. Aphrodite inspired Medeia,
the daughter of Aeetes, with love for Jason, and
made her forget the esteem and affection she owed
to her parent. She was in possession of magic
powers, and taught Jason how to avert the dan-
gers which her father might prepare for him, and
gave him remedies with which he was to heal his
wounds. Aeetes promised to give up the fleece to
Jason on condition of his ploughing a piece of land
with his adamantine plough drawn by fire-breath-
ing oxen. Jason undertook the task, and, follow-
ing the advice of Medeia, he remained unhurt by
the fire of the oxen, and accomplished what had
been demanded of him. The golden fleece, which
Jason himself had to fetch, was hung up in a
thicket, and guarded by a fearful dragon, thicker
and longer than the ship of the Argonauts. Jason
succeeded by a stratagem in slaying the dragon,
and on his return he secretly carried away Medeia
with him. They sailed home by the Erythraean
sea, and arrived in Lemnos. In this account of
Pindar, all the Argonauts are thrown into the
background, and Jason alone appears as the acting
hero. The brief description of their return through
the Erythraean sea is difficult to understand. Pin-
dar, as the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (iv.
259) remarks, like some other poets, makes the
Argonauts return through the eastern current of
Oceanus, which it must be supposed that they en-
tered through the river Phasis ; so that they sailed
from the Euxine through the river Phasis into the


eastern ocean, and then round Asia to the southern
coast of Libya, Here the Argonauts landed, and
carried their ship through Libya on their shoulders
until they came to the lake of Triton, through
which they sailed northward into the Mediterra-
nean, and steered towards Lemnos and lolcus.
The Erythraean sea in this account is the eastern
ocean. There is scarcely any other adventure in j
the ancient stories of Greece the detail of which j
has been so differently related by poets of all kinds.
The most striking differences are those relative to
the countries or seas through which the Argonauts
returned home. As it was in most cases the object
of the poets to make them return through some un-
known country, it was necessary, in later times, to
shift their road, accordingly as geographical know-
ledge became more and more extended. While
thus Pindar makes them return through the eastern
ocean, others, such as Apollonius Rhodius and
Apollodorus, make them sail from the Euxine into
the rivers Ister and Eridanus into the western
ocean, or the Adriatic ; and others, again, such as
the Pseudo-Orpheus, Timaeus, and Scymnus of
Chios, represent them as sailing through the river
Tanais into the northern ocean, and round the
northern countries of Europe. A fourth set of
traditions, which was adopted by Herodotus, Cal-
limachus, and Diodorus Siculus, made them return
by the same way as they had sailed to Colchis.

All traditions, however, agree in stating, that
the object of the Argonauts was to fetch the golden
fleece which was kept in the country of Aeetes.
This fleece was regarded as golden as early as the
time of Hesiod and Pherecydes (Eratosth. Catast.
19), but in the extant works of Hesiod there is
no trace of this tradition, and Mimnermus only
calls it "a large fleece in the town of Aeetes,
where the rays of Helios rest in a golden chamber."
Simonides and Acusilaus described it as of purple
colour. (Schol. ad Eurip. Med. 5, ad ApoUon. Rhod.
iv. 1147.) If, therefore, the tradition in this form
had any historical foundation at all, it would seem
to suggest, that a trade in furs with the countries
north and east of the Euxine was carried on by
the IMinyans in and about lolcus at a very early
time, and that some bold mercantile enterprise to
those countries gave rise to the story about the
Argonauts. In later traditions, the fleece is uni-
versally called the golden fleece ; and the won-
drous ram who wore it is designated by the name
of Chrysomallus, and called a son of Poseidon and
Theophane, the daughter of Brisaltes in the island
of Crumissa. (Hygin. Fab. 188.) Strabo (xi.
p. 499 ; comp. Appian, de Bell. Mithrid, 103) en-
deavours to explain the story about the golden
fleece from the Colchians' collecting by means of
skins the gold sand which was carried down in
their rivers from the mountains.

The ship Argo is described as a pentecontoros,
that is, a ship with fifty oars, and is said to have
conveyed the same number of heroes. The Scho-
liast on Lycophron (175) is the only writer who
states the number of the heroes to have been one
hundred. But the names of the fifty heroes are not
the sarr.e in all the lists of the Argonauts, and it is
a useless task to attempt to reconcile them. (Apol-
lod. i. 9. 16 ; Hygin. Fab. 14, with the commen-
tators ; compare the catalogue of the Argonauts in
Biirruann's edition of Val. Flaccus.) An account
of the writers who had made the expedition of the
Argonauts the subject of poems or critical investi-



gations, and whose works were used by Apollo-
nius Rhodius, is given by the Scholiast on this
poet. Besides the Argonautics of the Pseudo-
Orpheus, we now possess only those of Apollonius
Rhodius, and his Roman imitator, Valerius Flaccus.
The account which is preserved in Apollodorus'
Bibliotheca (i. 9. 16 27) is derived from the
best sources that were extant in his time, and
chiefly from Pherecydes. We shall give his ac-
count here, partly because it is the plainest, and
partly because it may fill up those parts which
Pindar in his description has touched upon but

When Jason was commissioned by his uncle
Pelias of lolcus to fetch the golden fleece, which
was suspended on an oak-tree in the grove of Ares
in Colchis, and was guarded day and night by a
dragon, he commanded Argus, the son of Phrixus,
to build a ship with fifty oars, in the prow of
which Athena inserted a piece ^>f wood from the
speaking oaks in the grove at Dodona, and he in-
vited all the heroes of his time to take part in the
expedition. Their first landing-place after leaving
lolcus was the island of Lemnos, where all the
women had just before murdered their fathers and
husbands, in consequence of the anger of Aphro-
dite. Thoas alone had been saved by his daughters
and his wife Hypsipyle. The Argonauts united
themselves with the women of Lemnos, and Hyp-
sipyle bore to Jason two sons, Euneus and Nebro-
phonus. From Lemnos the Argonauts sailed to
the country of the Doliones, where king Cizycus
received them hospitably. They left the country
during the night, and being thrown back on the
coast by a contrary wind, they were taken for
Pelasgians, the enemies of the Doliones, and a
struggle ensued, in which Cizycus was slain ; but
being recognised by the Argonauts, they buried
him and mourned over his fate. They next landed
in Mysia, where they left behind Heracles and
Polyphemus, who had gone into the country in
search of Hylas, whom a nymph had carried off
while he was fetching water for his companions.
In the country of the Bebryces, king Amycus
challenged the Argonauts to fight with him ; and
when Polydeuces was killed by him, the Argo-
nauts in revenge slew many of the Bebryces, and
sailed to Salmydessus in Thrace, where the seer
Phineus was tormented by the Harpyes. When
the Argonauts consulted him about their voyage,
he promised his advice on condition of their deli-
vering him from the Harpyes. This was done by
Zetes and Calais, two sons of Boreas ; and Phineus
now advised them, before sailing through the Syni-
plegades, to mark the flight of a dove, and to judge

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