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still call Tarza. Hamilton {Researches, vol. ii. p.
106) identifies it witli tlie Kara Su or Kaj-a JJere
Su, which flows into Luke Ma7iiyas. [L. S.]

TARSU'RAS (Tapaovpas, Arrian, Per. P. Lux.
p. 10), a river of Colchis falling into the sea be-
tween theSingames and the Hippus. (Cf. Plin. vi.
4. s. 4.) It is probably the same river called Tas-
siaros in the Tab. Pent. [T. 11. I).]

TARSUS {Tapads : Eth. Tu.pcrrii'6s or Tapaivi).
sometimes also called Tarsi {Tapiroi), Tersns Tfp-
(r6s), Tharsus (Qapa6i), or Tapahs nphs tw KiSvcp,
to distinguish it from other places of tlic same iianie

4 B



was the chief city of Cilicia, and one of the most
important places in all Asia Minor. It was situated
in a most fertile and productive plain, on both sides
of the river Cydnus, which, at a distance of 70 stadia
from the city, flowed into a lagoon called Rliegma or
Eliegmi. This lagoon formed the port of Tarsus,
and was connected with the sea. The situation of
the city was most favourable, for the river was
navigable up to Tarsus, and several of the most
important roads of Cihcia met there. Its foundation
is ascribed to Sardanapalus, the Assyrian king, and
the very name of the city seems to indicate its
Semitic origin. But the Greeks claimed the honour
of having colonised the place at a very early period ;
and, among the many stories related by them about
the colonisation of Tarsus, the one adopted by Strabo
(xiv. p. 673; conip. Steph. B. s. v.) ascribes the
foundation to Argives who with Triptolemus arrived
there in search of lo. The first really historical
mention of Tarsus occurs in the Anabasis of Xe-
nophon, who describes it as a great and wealthy
city, situated in an extensive and fertile plain at
the foot of the passes of Mount Taurus leading into
Cappadocia and Lycaonia. (^Anab. i. 2. § 2.3, &c.)
The city then contained the palace of Syennesis,
king of Cilicia, but virtually a satrap of Persia, and
an equivocal ally of Cyrus when he marched against
his brother Artaxerxes. When Cyrus arrived at
Tarsus, the city vs-as for a time given up to plunder,
the troops of Cyrus being exasperated at the loss
sustained by a detachment of Cilicians in crossing
the mountains. Cyrus then concluded a treaty with
Syennesis, and remained at Tarsus for 20 days. In
the time of Alexander we no longer hear of kings ;
but a Persian satrap resided at Tarsus, who fled
before the young conqueror and left the city, which
surrendered to the Macedonians without resistance.
Alexander himself was detained there in consequence
of a dangerous fever brought on by bathing in the
Cydnus. (Arrian, Anab. ii. 4; Curt. iii. 5.) After
the time of Alexander, Tarsus with the rest of Cilicia
belonged to the empire of the Seleucidae, except
during the short period when it was connected with
Egypt under the second and third Ptolemy. Pompey
delivered Tarsus and Cilicia from the dominion of
the eastern despots, by making the country a Roman
province. Notwithstanding this, Tarsus in the war
between Caesar and Pompey sided with the former,
who on this account honoured it with a per-
sonal visit, in consequence of which the Tarsians
changed the name of their city into Juliopolis. (Caes.
B. Alex. 66; Dion Cass, xlvii. 24; Flor. iv. 2.)
Cassius afterwards punished the city for this attach-
ment to Caesar by ordering it to be plundered, but
M. Antony rewarded it with municipal freedom and
exemption from taxes. It is well known how Antony
received Cleopatra at Tarsus when that queen sailed
up the Cydnus in a magnificent vessel in the disguise
of Aphrodite. Augustus subsequently increased the
favours previously bestowed upon Tarsus, which on
coins is called a " libera civitas." During the first
centuries of the empire Tarsus was a place of great
importance to the Romans in their campaigns against
the Parthians and Perbians. The emperor Tacitus,
his brother Florian, and Maximinus and Julian died
at Tarsus, and Julian was buried in one of its sub-
urbs. It continued to be an opulent town until it
fell into the hands of the Saracens. It was, how-
ever, taken from them in the second half of the 10th
century by the emperor Nicephorus, but was soon
after again restored to them, and has remained in


their hands ever since. The town still exists under J
the name of Tersoos, and though greatly reduced, I
it is still the chief town of that part of Karmnania.
Few important remains of antiquity are now to be
seen there, but the country around it is as delightful
and as productive as ever. I

Tarsus was not only a great commercial city, but I
at the same time a gre.at seat of learning and
philosophy, and Strabo (xiv. p. 673, &c.) gives a
long list of eminent men in philosophy and litera- ■
ture who added to its lustre ; but none of them is I
more illustrious than the Apostle Paul, who belonged I
to one of the many Jewish families settled at Tarsus.
(^Acts, s. 30, xi. 30, xv. 22, 41, xxi. 39; comp.
Ptol. V. 8. § 7; Diod. xiv. 20; Hierocl. p. 704;
Stadiasm. Mar. BI. § 156; Leake, Asia Minor, p.
214; Russegger, Reisen in Asien, i. 1. p. 395, foil., 2.
p. 639, foil.)

Another town of the name of Tarsus is said to
have existed in Bithynia (Steph. B. s. v.), but
nothing is known about it. [L. S.]


TA'RTARUS (JTartnrv), a river of Venetia, near
the borders of Gallia Transpadana. It is inter-
mediate between the Athesis (^Adige) and the Padus
(Po); and its waters are now led aside by artificial
canals partly into the one river and partly into the
other, so that it may be called inditFerently a tri-
butary of either. In ancient times it seems to have
had a recognised mouth of its own, though this was
even then wholly artificial, so that Pliny calls it the
" fossiones Philistinae, quod alii Tartarum vocant."
(Plin. iii. 16. s. 20.) In the upper part of its
course it formed, as it still does, extensive marshes,
of which Caecina, the general of Vitellius, skilfully
availed himself to cover his position near Hostilia.
(Tac. Hist. iii. 9.) The river is here still called
the Tartaro : lower down it assumes the name of
Canal Bianco, and after passing the town of Adria,
and sending off part of its wp.ters right and left
into the Po and Adige, discharges the rest by the
channel now known as the Po di Levante. The
river Atrianus (^hrptavhs noTa/xus), mentioned by
Ptolemy (iii. 16. § 20), could be no other than the
mouth of the Tartarus, so called from its flowing by
the city of Adria ; but the channels of these waters
have in all ages been changing. [E. H. B.]

TARTESSUS (TapT-ncrads, Herod, i. 163; Tap-
r7]cTff6s and TapTeads, Diodor. Siculus, Frag. lib.
XXV.), a district in the south of Spain, lying to the ]
west of the Columns of Hercules. It is now the '
prevailing opinion among biblical critics that the
Tarshish of Scripture indicates certain localities
in the south of Spain, and that its name is equi-
valent to the Tartessus of the Greek and Roman
writers. The connection in which the name of Tar-
shish occurs in the Old Testament with those of
other places, points to the most western limits of
the world, as known to the Hebrews (Genes, x. 4;
1 Chron. i. 7; Psalms, Isxii. 10; Isaiah, Ixyi. 19);


and in like manner the word Tartessus, and its deriva-
tive adjectives, are employed by Latin writers as sy-
nonymous with the West (Ovid, Met. xiv. 416; Sil.
Ital. iii. 399 ; Claud. Epist. iii. v. 14). Tarshish
appears in Scripture as a celebrated emporium, rich
in iron, tin, lead, silver, and other commodities; and
the Phoenicians are represented as sailing thither in
large ships (Ezek.xs.vn. 12, xxviii 13; Jerem.'s..
9). Isaiah speaks of it as one of the finest colonies
of Tyre, and describes the Tyrians as bringing its
products to their market (sxiii. 1, 6, 10). Among
profane writers the antiquity of Tartessus is indicated
by the myths connected with it (Strab. iii. p. 149;
Justin, xliv. 4). But the name is used by them
in a very loose and indefinite way. Sometimes it
stands for the whole of Spain, and the Tagus is re-
presented as belonging to it (Rutilius, Ithi. i. 356;
Claud, in Rvfin.i. 101; Sil. Ital. xiii. 674, &c.).
But in general it appears, either as the name of the
river Baetis, or of a town situated near its mouth, or
thirdly of the country south of the middle and lower
course of the Baetis, which, in the time of Strabo,
was inhabited by the Turduli. The Baetis is called
Tartessus by Stesichorus, quoted by Strabo (iii. p.
148) and by Avienus (^Ora Marit. i. 224), as well
;(■> the town situated between two of its mouths ; and
Miot (ad Herod, iv. 152) is of opinion that the mo-
rn town of S. Lncar de Barameda stands on its
ill'. The countiy near the lower course of the
liaetis was called Tartessis or Tartesia, either from
the river or from the town; and this district, as
well as others in Spain, was occupied by Phoenician
settlements, which in Strabo's time, and even later,
preserved their national customs. (Strab iii. p. 149,
xvii. p. 832; Arr. Exp. Alex. ii. 16; App. Hisp.
2; Const. Porphyrog. de Them. i. p. 107, ed. Bonn.)
There was a temple of Hercules, the Phoenician
Melcarth, at Tartessus, wliose worship was also
spread amongst the neighbouring Iberians. (Arr. I.e.')
About the middle of the seventh century b. c. some
Samiot sailors were driven thither by stress of
weather ; and this is the first account we have of
the intercourse of the Greeks with this distant
Phoenician colony (Herod, iv. 152). About a cen-
tury later, some Greeks from Phocaea likewise
visited it, and formed an alliance with Arganthonius,
king of the Tartessians, renowned in antiquity for
the great age which he attained. (Herod, i. 163;
Strab. iii. p. 151.) These connections and the vast
commerce of Tartessus, raised it to a great pitch of
prosperity. It traded not only with the mother
country, but also with Africa and the distant Cas-
siterides, and bartered the manufactures of Phoenicia
for the productions of these countries (Strab. i. p. 33;
Herod, iv. 196; cf. Heeren, Ideen, i. 2. §§ 2, 3).
Its riches and prosperity had become proverbial, and
we find them alluded to in the verses of Anacreon
(ap. Strab. iii. p. 151). The neighbouring sea
(Fretum Tartessium, Avien. Or. Mar. 64) yielded
the lamprey, one of tlie delicacies of the Roman
table (Geli. vii. 16): and on a coin of Tartessus are
represented a fish and an ear of grain (Mionnet, Med.
Ant. i. p. 26). We are unacquainted with the cir-
cumstances which led to the fall of Tartessus ; but
it may probably have been by the hand of Hamilcar,
tlie Carthaginian general. It must at all events have
disappeared at an early period, since Strabo (iii. pp.
148, 151), PHny (iii. 1, iv. 22, vii. 48), Mela (ii. 6),
Sallust (Hist. Fr. ii.), and others, confounded it with
more recent Phoenician colonies, or took its name to
be an ancient appellation of them, [T. II. D.]



TARUALTAE (TapovaKrai, Ptol. iv. 6. § 19),
a people of Libya Interior. [T. U. D.j '

TARVEDUM. [Orca.s.]

Ptol. ii. 9. § 8), a town in North Gallia, and
according to Ptolemy an inland town of the Jlorini.
[JVIORiNi.] It is written Teruanna in the Table,
where it is marked a capital town, and the modem
name is Terouenne. It is mentioned in several
Roman routes. The distance between Gesoriacum
(Boulogne') in the Antonine Itin. and Taruenna does
not agree with the true distance ; nor does the dis-
tance in the same Itin. between Taruenna and Cas-
tellum (Cassel) agree with the actual measurement.
In both instances we must assume that there is an
error in the numerals of the Itin. D'Anville says
that the Roman road appears to exist between
Terouenne and the conmiencement of the Boulenois,
or district of Boulogne, near Devre, where it passes
by a place called La Chaussee. There are also said
to be traces of a Roman road from Itius Portus
( Wissant) to Terouenne. [G. L.]

TARVESEDE (It. Ant. p. 279) or TARVES-
SEDO, according to the Peuting. Table, was a place
in Rhaetia on the road from Mediolanum leading by
Comum to Augusta Vindelicorum. Its exact site is
now unknown, though it seems to have been situated
near Torre di Vercella. [L. S.]

TARVrSIUM (Tap§itened with the saline particles, so as to become
incapable of rising into the air, and to be easily
caught. (Strab. xii. p. 568; Plin. xxxi. 41,45; Dios-
corid. V. 126.) Stephanus Byz. (s. v. ho-riuov') speaks
of a salt lake in Phrygia, which he calls Attaea
("Arraia), near which there was a town called
Botieum. and which is probably the same as Lake
Tatta. The Turks now call the lake Tiizla, and it
still provides all the surrounding country with salt.
(Leake, Asia Minor, p. 70.) [L. S.]

TAUA. [Taum.]

TAUA (TaOa, Steph. B. s.v.; Taova, Ptol. iv. 5.
§ 50 ; Taba, Itin. Ant. p. 153), a town in Lower
Aegypt, situated on the left bank of the Canopic
arm of the Nile, S. of tlie city of Naucratis. It was
the capital of the small Phthemphuthic Nome (Plin.
V. 9. s. 9), and is supposed to be represented by
the present Thaouah. (D'Anville, Memoire sur
VEipipte. vol. i. p. 82.) [W. B. D.]

TAUCHI'RA or TEUCHl'RA (Tauxc'pa, Herod,
iv. 171, et alii; Teuxf'/"") Hierocl. p. 732; Plin. v.
5. s. 5, &c.), a town on the coast of Cyrenaica,
founded by Cyrene. It lay 200 stadia W. of Pto-
lemais. Under the Ptolemies it obtained the name


of Arsinoe. (Strab. xvii. p. 836; Mela, i. 8; Plin.
I. c.) At a later period it became a Roman colony
(Tab. Peut.), and was fortified by Justinian. (Pro-
cop, de Aed. vi. 3.) Tauchira was particularly noted
for the worship of Cybele, in honour of whom an
annual festival was celebrated. (Synes. Ep. 3.) It
is the same town erroneously written Tdpixa by
Diodorus (xviii. 20). It is still called Tochira. (Cf.
Delia Cella, Viagg. p. 198; Pacho, Voyage, p.
184.) [T. H. D.]

TA'VIUJI {Taoviov, Tamov) or TAVIA, a town
in the central part of eastern Galatia, at some dis-
tance from the eastern bank of the river Halys, was
the chief town of the Galatian tribe of the Trocmi,
and a place of considerable commercial importance,
being the point at which five or six of the great roads
met.' (Plin. v. 42; Strab. xii. p. 567; Ptol. v. 4.
§ 9; Steph. B. s. v. "AyKvpa; Hierocl. p. 696; It.
Ant. pp. 201, 203.) It contained a temple with a
colossal bronze statue of Zeus. Leake (^Asia Minor,
p. 311) is strongly inclined to believe that Tshorum
occupies the site of ancient Tavium; but Hamilton
(^Researches, i. p. 379, &c.) and most other geo-
graphers, with much more probability, regard the
ruins of Boghaz Kieui, 6 leagues to the north-west
of Jazgat or Juzghat, as the remains of Tavium.
They are situated on the slope of lofty and steep
rocks of limestone, some of which are adorned with
sculptures in relief. There are also the foundations
of an immense building, which are believed to be
remains of the temple of Zeus. (Comp. Hamilton
in the Journal of the Roy. Geogr. Soc. vol. \ni. p.
74, foil.; Cv&mer, Asia Minor, ii. p. 98.) [L. S].

TAULA'NTII (TavXdvrioi, Ptoh iii. 13. §3), a
people of Roman Illyria, in the neighbourhood of
Epidamnus and Dyrrachium. In ancient times they
were a powerful tribe, possessing several cities, and
governed by their own kings, but subsequently they
were reduced to subjection by the kings of Illyria,
and at the time when the Romans waged war with
Teuta they had sunk into insignificance. (Cf.
Thucyd. i. 24 ; Arrian, Anab. i. 5 ; Mela, ii. 3 ;
Liv. xlv. 26 ; Plin. iii. 22. s. 26.) Aristotle relates
that they had a method of preparing mead from
honey. (Mir. Ausc. t. ii. p. 716.) [T. H. D.]

TAUM, TAUS, or TAVA (Taoia eifcrxufny, Ptol.
ii. 3. § 5), a bay on the E. coast of Britannia Barbara.
(Tac. Agr. 22.) Now Frith of Tag. [T. H. D.]

TAUM (AD), a place in the SE. of Britiinnia
Romana, in the territory of the Iceni (Tab. Peut.).
Probably Yarmouth. [T. H. D.J

TAUNUS MONS, a range of hills in western
Germany, beginning near the river Nicer (Neckar),
and running northward till they reach the point
where the Moenus (Main) joins the Rhenus.
(Pomp. Mela, iii. 3; Tac. Ann. i. 56, xii. 28.)
This range of hills still bears its ancient name,
though it is sometimes simply called the Hohe, that
is, the Height, Taunus being probably the Celtic
word Dun or Daun, which signifies a height. In
various places along this range of hills Roman
inscriptions have been found, in which Gives Tau-
nenses are mentioned, from which it may be inferred
that there once existed a town of the name of
Taunus. (Orelli, Tnscript. nos. 181, 4981, 4982;
Wilhelm, Germanien, p. 44.) [L. S.]

TAURA'NIA, a town of Campania, mentioned
only by Pliny (iii. 5. s. 9) as having in his time en-
tirely disappeared, like Stabiae. He affords no clue
to its position. The name of Taurania (Tavpavla)
is found also in the older editions of Stephanus of


Byzantium ; but it appears that the trae readinfr is
Taura^ia. (Steph. B. s. v. ed. Slein.) [E. H. B.]

TAURANI'TIUM, a district of Armenia JIajor
lying N. of Ti£;ranocerta, in the direction of Ar-
taxata. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 24; Cf. Moses Chor. i. 5;
Eittcr, ErcUamde, x. p. 650, sq.) [T. H.D.]

TAURA'SIA {Taurasi), an ancient city of Sani-
nium, in the country of the Hirpini situated on the
right banic of tlie river Calor, about IG miles above
its junction with the Tamarus. The name of tlie
city is known only from the inscription on the tomb
of L. Scipio Barbatus, which records it among the
cities of Samnium taken by him during the Third
Samnite War. (Oreli. I7isa: 550.) It was probably
taken by assault, and suffered severely, for no sub-
sequent mention of the town occurs in history : but
its territory (" ager, qui Taurasinorum fuerat"),
which was doubtless confiscated at the same time, is
mentioned long afterwards, as a part of the " ager
publicus populi Romani," on which the Apuan Li-
gurians who had been removed from their own
abodes were established by order of the senate.
(Liv. xl. 38.) Tliese Ligin-ians appear to have
been settled in the plain in the banka of the Ta-
marus near its junction with the Calor ; but there
can be little doubt that the modern village of Tau-
rasi, though 16 miles further S., retains the name,
and marks (approximately at least) the site of the
ancient Taurasia.

Several modem writers identify these Taurasini
Campi with the Arusini Campi near Beneventum,
which were the scene of the defeat of Pyrrhus by JF.
Curius Dentatus (Flor. i. 18; Oros. iv. 2), and the
MiL'gestion is probable enough, though unsupported
|iv Miiv authority. [Beneventum.] [E. H. B.]
■ TAUKAUNITES. [Bagraudanene.]

TAURE'SIUM (Tavpi)(nov, Procop. de Aed. iv. 1.
p. 266), a place in Moesia Superior, near Scupi or
Justiniana Prima. It was situated in the Haemus,
not far from the borders, and was the birthplace of
the emperor Justinian. (Cf. Gibbon, vol. v. p. 79,
ed. Smith.) [T. H. D.]

TAUKl (Jadpoi, Strab. vii. p. 308), the inhabitants
of the Chersonesus Taurica, or modern Crimea.
'I'hoy were probably the remains of the Cimmerians,
Mho were driven out of the Chersonese by the Scy-
thians. (Herod, iv. 11, 12; Heeren, /c/eew, i. 2.
p. 271 ; JIannert, iv. p. 278.) They seem to have
l"cn divided into several tribes : but the two main
i]i'.i~ions of them were the nomad Tauri and the
:i;Tricuitural. (Strab. vii. p. 31 1.) The former pos-
M'>sed the northern part of the country, and lived
oil meat, mare's milk, and cheese prepared from it.
rill- agricultural Tauri were somewliat more civil-
isi d ; yet altogether they were a rude and savage
]"■ iple, delighling in war and plunder, and parti-
' iiliulj addicted to piracy, (lleiod. iv. 103 ; Strab.
Nii. p. 308 ; Mela, ii. 1 ; Tac. Ann. xii. 17.) Never-
tiiele.ss, in early times at least, they appear to have
lifi'n united under a monarchical government
(Herod, iv. 119). Their religion was particularly

•i'luy and horrible, consisting of human sacrifices
T virgin godde.ss, who, according to Ammianus
I incllinus (xxii. 8. s. 34), was named Oi'eiloche,
ili'iiigli the Greeks regarded her as identical with
tlicir Artemis, and called her Tauropolos. (Soph.
.[/'. 172; Eur. /;;/(. Tcmr. 1457; Diod. iv. 44;
Ach. Tat. viii. 2 ; Strab. xiii. 535 ; Bijckh. Inscr.

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