THE COLLECTED WORKS
DUGALD STEWART, ESQ., F.R.SS.
HONORARY MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AT ST. PETERSBURG J
MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMIES OF BERLIN AND OF NAPLES ; OF THE
AMERICAN SOCIETIES OF PHILADELPHIA AND OF BOSTON;
HONORARY MEMBER OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF
CAMBRIDGE ; PROFESSOR OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH.
SIR WILLIAM HAMILTON, BART.,
ADVOCATE; A.M. (OXON.) ; BTC. ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE ;
HONORARY MEMBER OP THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES; OF THE
LATIN SOCIETY OF JENA ; ETC. ; PROFESSOR OP LOGIC AND METAPHYSICS
IN THK UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH.
EDINBURGH: THOMAS CONSTABLE AND CO.
HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO., LONDON.
EPINBURGn : T. CONSTABLE, PRINTER TO HER MAJESTT.
PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN MIND,
TO WHICH 18 I'KEFIXEI),
INTRODUCTION AND PART FIRST
WITH MANY NEW ANT) IMPORTANT ADDITIONS.
DUGALD STEWART, ESQ.
SIR WILLIAM HAMILTON, BART.
EDINBURGH: THOMAS CONSTABLE AND CO.
HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO., LONDON.
ADVERTISEMENT BY THE EDITOR.
THE second, third, and fourth volumes of Stewart's Collected
Works comprise the three volumes of his Elements of the
Philosophy of the Human Mind, to which, as a summary, is
prefixed the " Introduction" and " Part First, (Of the Intel-
lectual Powers,)" from his Outlines of Moral Philosophy.
These are the only writings in which the Author has systema-
tically considered, (though, like his predecessors, not perhaps
under the most appropriate titles,) the cognitive faculties of
mind; faculties which stand distinctively apart, and pro-
minently foremost. For, if we take the Mental to the exclusion
of Material phenomena, that is, the phenomena manifested
through the medium of Self-consciousness or Reflection, they
naturally divide themselves into three categories or primary
genera; the phenomena of Knowledge or Cognition, the
phenomena of Feeling or of Pleasure and Pain, and the
phsenomena of Conation or of Will and Desire. Now, of these
classes, the two treatises which constitute the present section
of the Works, are conversant exclusively with the first, the
phenomena of Cognition ; the other classes, the Feelings and
the Conations, are treated, as we shall see, in subsequent hooks.
But to speak particularly of the treatises, one of which is
here partially combined with the other.
Vlll ADVERTISEMENT BY THE EDITOR.
The Outlines of Moral Philosophy were first published in
1793. A second edition, "enlarged," followed in 1801; and
a third, "corrected," in 1808. One other edition, in 1818,
appeared during the lifetime of the author, but without
alteration ; and since bis death the work has been frequently
reprinted. Of the first three editions, there are copies extant
with the author's manuscript annotations ; which, with a few
unimportant exceptions, are all incorporated in the present
collection ; and distinguished as found in the^rs^, in the second,
or in the third edition.
As to the Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind,
the Three Volumes, of which the complete work consists,
appeared at considerable intervals ; and of each, the original
edition was in quarto, the others being in octavo. The First
Volume (the earliest of Mr. Stewart's writings) was published
so long ago as 1792 ; a few trifling additions were made in the
second edition, 1802 ; but though often subsequently reprinted,
no alteration or amplification, none certainly of any conse-
quence, has been hitherto incorporated. In the third volume,
1827, a considerable number of intended additions were indeed
supplied ; but these have only now been entered in their proper
places. The Second Volume was first published in 1814, and
three subsequent editions (in 1816, 1821, and 1822) appeared
during the lifetime of the author, but without change. The
Tliird Volume dates from 1827 ; and of this there has been
no second edition.
It may be noticed, that the Outlines of Moral Philosophy
were, in 1846, translated into French, and published in Paris
by the celebrated M. Jouffroi ; whilst, in 1 808, a not less illus-
trious philosopher, a personal friend too of Mr. Stewart, M. Pre-
vost of Geneva, had done the same by the first volume of the
Elements. Of the Elements, also, the first volume alone, or in
ADVERTISEMENT BY THE EDITOU. IX
connexion \vith the second, has been frequently reprinted in
the United States. The Boston edition of both volumes, which
appeared in 1821, translates the quotations not in English.
Mr. Stewart, however, seems not to have been satisfied with
the version, for he has left, I am informed, eight quarto pages
of corrections in his copy of the book. I do not know whether
these translations are the same with those given in Wright's
London edition of the two volumes, in 1843.
In the present collection, the fragment of the Outlines was
printed from the seventh edition, collated with the fourth, and
with the first three editions in which the author's annotations
are found. The First Volume of the Elements was printed
from its fourth edition, (1811,) collated with the sixth, (1818 ;)
and the insertions from the Addenda in the third volume are
distinguished by square brackets. The Second Volume was
printed from the third edition, (1821,) collated with the second,
(1816,) and also with the first, in which last Mr. Stewart's
annotations were written. The Third Volume was, of course,
printed from the one edition ; and to this part of the Elements
nothing has been added by the author.
In regard to what I have myself contributed to this collec-
tion, I may repeat, that I have limited my interference strictly
to the province of an editor ; and it was manifestly no part
of my official duty to meddle with the author's reasonings.
Accordingly, there has been nothing added by me, in the view
of vindicating, of supplementing or confirming, of qualifying
or criticising, Mr. Stewart's doctrines. I have proposed, exclu-
sively, to render this edition the one in which these might
be most conveniently studied. To this end, however, it was
necessary that the authorities and their citations should be
occasionally rectified and filled up ; and it was necessary that
the reader, let him open the book where he might, should be
X ADVERTISEMENT BY THE EDITOR.
made at once aware of the special matter under discussion.
But this last could only be accomplished by a total change of
the plan previously adopted, in what is called the heading of
the pages ; the running titles now first indicating as minutely as
possible the local argument.* This pervading improvement
has not, however, been overtly distinguished. It should also
be noted, that in the Table of Contents and in the relative
places of the text, the Editor's supplement of titles has only
been ambiguously marked, as new, by the brackets. All formal
distinction of insertion by the Editor, has likewise been omitted
in the case of references appended to quotations, and, in general,
to all short and merely explicative interpolations. It should
perhaps be observed, that Notes referred to from the text,
and not by numerals, are all the Editor's ; but indeed, any
brief insertion, whether in text or note, is usually by him.
As the work proceeded, it was found expedient to pay greater
attention to punctuality of reference ; and this may account
for, if not excuse, any earlier omission.
* The First Volume is occupied with latter, the numbers, II. 1. In the
Part First ; the Second, with Part Third Volume, the omission has been
Second, First Subdivision. But what supplied. On the right hand heading,
has been overlooked, to the left hand also, of this volume, the sections (),
heading of i\\& former should be added especially in the Outlines, have not
the number, I. ; and to that of the always been marked.
I.-OUTLINES OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY,
INTRODUCTION AND PART FIRST.
PREFACE, ......... 3
INTRODUCTION. [Op PHILOSOPHY IN GENERAL,] .... 5
SECT. 1. Of the Object of Philosophy, and the Method of prosecuting
Philosophical Inquiries, ..... 5
SECT. 2. Application of the foregoing Principles to the Philosophy of the
Human Mind, ...... 8
SECT. 3. Causes of the slow Progress of Human Knowledge ; more par-
ticularly of the Philosophy of the Human Mind, and of fJie
Sciences immediately connected with it, . . . 9
SUBJECT AND ARRANGEMENT OF THIS TREATISE.
PART I. OF THE INTELLECTUAL POWERS OF MAN, ... 12
SECT. 1. Of Consciousness, . . . . . .13
SECT. 2. Of tlie Powers of External Perception, . . . 14
ART. 1. Of the Laws of Perception in the case of our
different Senses, . . . . 14
2. Of Perception in general, . . . 17
SECT. 3. Of Attention, ...... 21
SECT. 4. Of Conception, .... 21
SECT. 5. Of Abstraction, . 22
SECT. 6. Of the Association nf Ideas, . . 23
SECT. 7. Of Memory, . . . . . . .25
SECT. 8. Of Imagination, . . . . . . 2(1
SECT. 9. Of Judgment and Reasoning, .... 27
1. Of Intuitive Evidence, .... 28
2. Of Deductive Evidence, .... 29
SECT. 10. Of Intellectual Powers or Capacities, formed by particular
Habits of Study, or of Business, . . . 31
SECT. 11. Of certain auxiliary Faculties and Principles essentud to our
Intellectual Improvement, or intimately connected with it, 33
1. Of Language, ..... 33
2. Of the Principle of [Sympathetic] Imitation, . 35
SECT. 12. Of the Intellectual Facid'ies of Man, as contrasted with the
Instincts of tlie Brutes, ..... 30
II -ELEMENTS OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN MIND.
DEDICATION, . . . . . . . .41
ADVERTISEMENT, ........ 43
INTRODUCTION. PART I.
OF THE NATURE AND OBJECT OP THE PHILOSOPHY or THE HUMAN MIND, 45
SECT. 1. OF THE UTILITY OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN MIND, . 57
SECT. 2. CONTINUATION OF THE SAME SUIUECT, .... 76
CHAPTER I. OF THE POWERS OF EXTERNAL PERCEPTION.
SECT. 1. Of the Theories which have been formed by Philosophers, to
explain the Manner in which the Mind perceives External
Objects, ....... 91
SECT. 2 . Of certain Natural Prejudices, which seem to have given rue to
the Common Theories of Perception, . . . 96
SECT. ?,. Of Dr. Reid's Speculations on the, Subject of Perception, . 108
SECT. 4. Of the Origin of our Knoivledge, . . . .113
OF ATTENTION, . . . . . . . .120
OF CONCEPTION, . . . . . . . 144
CHAFFER IV. OF ABSTRACTION.
SECT. 1. General Observations on this Faculty of the Mind, . . 159
SECT. 2. Of the Objects of our Thoughts, when we employ General Terms, 165
SECT. 3. Remarks on the Opinions of some Modern Philosophers on the
Subject of the foregoing Section, .... 182
SECT. 4. Continuation of the same Subject. Inferences with respect to the
Use of Language as an Instrument of Thought, and the Errors
in Reasoning to which it occasionally gives rise, . . 193
SECT. 5. Of the Purposes to which the Powers of Abstraction and Gener-
alization are subservient, . . . . .198
SECT. 6. Of the Errors to which we are liable in Speculation, and in the
Conduct of Affairs, in consequence of a rash Application of
general Principles, ...... 206
SECT. 7. Continuation of the same Subject. Differences in the Intellectual
Characters of Individuals, arising from their different Habits
of Abstraction and Generalization, . . . .212
SECT. 8. Continuation of the same Subject. Use and abuse of general
Principles in Politics, . . . . .219
CHAPTER V. OF THE ASSOCIATION OF IDKAS.
PART I. OF THE INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATION IN REGULATING THE
SUCCESSION OF OUR THOUGHTS.
SECT. 1. General Observations on this Part of our Constitution, and on the
Language of Philosophers with respect to it, . . 252
SECT. 2. Oftlie Principles of Association among our Ideas, . . 261
SECT. ?. Of the Power which the Mind has over t7te Train of its Thoughts, 266
SECT. 4. Illustrations of tJte Doctrine stated in the preceding Section, . 270
1. OfWit, ... 270
2. OfRhyme, ...... 274
3. Of Poetical Fancy, . . . .278
4. Of Invention in the Arts and Sciences, . . 282
SECT. 5. Application of the Principles stated in the foregoing Sections of
this Chapter, to explain the Phenomena of Dreaming, . 289
PART II. OF THE INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATION ON THE INTELLECTUAL
AND ON THE ACTIVE POWERS.
SECT. 1. Of the Influence of casual Associations on our Speculative Con-
clusions, ....... 305
SECT. 2. Of the Influence of the Association of Ideas on our Judgments in
Matters of Taste, . . . . . .321
SECT. 3. Of the Influence of Association on our active Principles and on
our moral Judgments, ..... 334
SECT. 4. General Remarks on the Subjects treated in the foregoing Sections
of this Chapter, ...... 342
CHAPTER VI. OF MEMORY.
SECT. 1. General Observations on Memory, .... 348
SECT. 2. Of the Varieties of Memory in different Individuals, . . 362
[SECT. 3. Continuation of the same Subject. Miscellaneous Facts and
Observations,] ...... 375
SECT. 4. Of the Improvement of Memory. Analysis of the Principles on
which the Culture of Memory depends, . . . 391
SECT. 5. Continuation of tJie same Subject. Of the Aid which the Memory
derives from Philosophical Arrangement, . . . 396
SECT. 6. Continuation of the same Subject. Effects produced on the Me-
mory by committing to Writing our acquired Knowledge, . 404
SECT. 7. Continuation of the same Subject. Of Artificial Memory, . 411
SECT. 8. Continuation of the same Subject. Importance of making a proper
Selection among the Objects of our Knowledge, in order to
derive Advantage from the Acquisitions of Memory, . 415
SECT. 9. Of the Connexion between Memory and Philosophical Genius, . 423
CHAPTER VII. OF IMAGINATION.
SECT. 1. Analysis of Imagination, ..... 431
SECT. 2. Of Imagination considered in its Relation to some of tlie Fine Arts, 437
SECT. 3. Continuation of the same Subject. Relation of Imagination and
of Taste to Genius, ...... 450
SECT. 4. Of the Influence of Imagination on Human Character and Hap-
piness, ....... 451
SECT. 5. Continuation of the same Subject. Inconveniences resulting from
an ill-regulated Imagination, ." 457
SECT. 6. Continuation of the same Subject. Important Uses to which the
Power of Imagination is subservient, . . . 467
NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS, . . . . . .473
ADDENDA, ......... 505
OUTLINES OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY.
Of these OUTLINES, (which are, in fact, synopses of two, or more properly of
three, courses of Lectures,) only the Introduction, treating of Philosophy in general,
and Part First, treating of tfte Intellectual Powers, are here given ; these heing
exclusively relative to Mr. Stewart's psychological work, " Elements of the Philo-
sophy of the Human Mind." The other two Parts, that regarding Ethical, and
that regarding Political Science, are prefixed to Vol. vi. and to Vol. vin., the
subjects of which they appropriately introduce, as summaries. These three frag-
ments, be it observed, exhaust the whole of the Outlines of Moral Philosophy as an
independent work ; and they are given in the present edition with considerable
MY principal object, in this Publication, is to exhibit such a
view of the arrangement of my Lectures, as may facilitate the
studies of those to whom they are addressed. In a course
which employs more than five months, and which necessarily
includes a great variety of disquisitions, it is difficult for a
hearer to retain a steady idea of the train of thought leading
from one subject to another ; and, of consequence, the Lectures,
by assuming the appearance of detached discourses, are in
danger of losing the advantages arising from connexion and
method. The following Outlines will, I hope, not only obviate
this inconvenience, but will allow me, in future, a greater lati-
tude of illustration and digression, than I could have indulged
myself in with propriety, so long as my students were left to
investigate the chain of my doctrines by their own reflections.
In the execution of this design, I have attempted, at the
same time, to state, under each head, a few fundamental prin-
ciples, which I was either anxious to impress on the memory of
my hearers ; or which I thought might be useful to them, by
relieving their attention during the discussion of a long or a
The branch of Moral Philosophy which relates to the Prin-
ciples of Politics being less abstract than the others, I have
contented myself with a simple enumeration of the most im-
portant articles treated of in the third part of my course. It is
scarcely necessary for me to mention, that, in this enumeration,
I have not aimed at anything approaching to systematical
arrangement ; and that, in illustrating the titles it contains, I
am obliged, by the term prescribed to my academical labours,
to confine myself to very general sketches. As soon as my
other engagements allow me sufficient leisure for such an un-
dertaking, I shall attempt a separate Course of Lectures on
this very extensive and difficult subject.
With respect to my general plan, those who are in the
smallest degree conversant with ethical writers, will perceive,
that, in its formation, I have been guided almost entirely by
the train of my own speculations. In following the order
which these prescribed, I was far from proceeding on the sup-
position that it was likely to possess, in the opinion of the
public, advantages over the arrangements already proposed :
but it appeared to me reasonable to think, that a plan resulting
from my own habits of thought would probably be better
executed in my hands, than any one, how perfect soever, sug-
gested by the views of another.
COLLEGE OF EDINBURGH, ")
Nov. 8, 1793.
P.S. Having, of late, carried into execution (at least in
part) the design announced in the foregoing Preface, by a
.separate Course of Lectures on Political Economy, I have
omitted in this edition of my Outlines, the articles which I
formerly enumerated under that general title ; substituting in
their stead a few others, calculated to illustrate the peculiar
and intimate connexion between this department of Politics
and the more appropriate objects of Ethics. The observations
which these articles are meant to introduce, may be useful, at
the same time, in preparing the minds of students for disquisi-
tions, the details of which can scarcely fail to appear uninviting
to those who are not aware of the important conclusions to
which they are subservient.
Xoi: 2, 1801.
SECTION I. OF THE OBJECT OF PHILOSOPHY, AND THE METHOD
OF PROSECUTING PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRIES.
1. ALL the different kinds of philosophical inquiry, and all
that practical knowledge which guides our conduct in life, pre-
suppose such an established order in the succession of events,
as enables us to form conjectures concerning the future, from
the observation of the past.
2. In the phenomena of the material world, and in many of
the phenomena of mind, [more especially in those which depend
on the instincts of the brutes,] 2d edit., we expect, with the
most perfect confidence, that in the same combinations of cir-
cumstances the same results will take place ; [and it is owing
to this expectation (justified by the experience of all ages) that
the instincts of the brutes, as well as the laws of matter, become
a source of power to man. In both cases, the established order
of nature affords abundant evidence that it was chiefly with a
view to our accommodation and happiness that the arrange-
ments of this world were made.] 2d edit. The laws 1 which
regulate the course of human affairs, are investigated with
much greater difficulty : But, even in this class of events, such
a degree of order may frequently be traced, as furnishes general
rules of great practical utility ; and this order becomes the
1 [Concerning the use of the- wonl "/?*>," consult Taylor's Elements, p. 121.]
G OUTLINES OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY. INTRODUCTION.
more apparent, in proportion as we generalize our observa-
3. Our knowledge of the laws of nature is entirely the result
of observation and experiment ; for there is no instance in
which we perceive such a necessary connexion between two suc-
cessive events, as might enable us to infer the one from the
other by reasoning a priori. We find, from experience, that
certain events are invariably conjoined, so that when we see
the one, we expect the other ; but our knowledge in such cases
extends no farther than the fact.
4. To ascertain those established conjunctions of successive
events, which constitute the order of the universe ; to record
the phenomena which it exhibits to our observation, and to
refer them to their general laws, is the great business of philo-
sophy. Lord Bacon was the first person who was fully aware
of the importance of this fundamental truth. 1 The ancients
considered philosophy as the science of causes; and hence
were led to many speculations, to which the human faculties
are altogether incompetent. 2
5. The ultimate object of philosophical inquiry is the same
which every man of plain understanding proposes to himself,
when he remarks the events which fall under his observation,
with a view to the future regulation of his conduct. The more
knowledge of this kind we acquire, the better can we accommo-
date our plans to the established order of things, and avail our-
selves of natural Powers and Agents for accomplishing our
6. The knowledge of the Philosopher differs from that
[' Hactcnus Phenomena ccelorum et bilitas, et impetus corporum et leges
maris per vim gravitatis exposui sed motuum et gravitatis innotuerunt. Et
causam gravitatis nondum assignavi. satis cst quod gravitas revera existat, et
. . . Quicquid eniin ex phsenomenis agat secundum leges a nobis expositas,
non deducitur, Hypothesis vocanda est ; et ad corporum ccelestium et maris nos-
et Hypotheses, sen metaphysics sen tri motus omnes sufficiat." Newtoni
pliysicaj in Philosophia experimentali Princ.] 1st and 3d editt.
locum non habent. In hac Philosophia 8 [" Non sic causa intelligi debet, ut
propositions deducuntur ex phseno- quod citique anteccdat id ei causa sit,
mom's, et rcddimtur generates per in- scd quod ciiique efficienter antecedat."
dm lionem. Sic impenctrabilitas, mo- Cicero De Fato, c. 15.] 1st edit.
OF PHILOSOPHY IN GENERAL. J
sagacity which directs uneducated men in the business of life,
not in kind, but in degree, and in the manner in which it is
acquired. 1st, By artificial combinations of circumstances, or,
in other words, by experiments, he discovers many natural con-
junctions which would not have occurred spontaneously to his
observation. 2c%, By investigating the general Laws of
Nature, and by reasoning from them synthetically, he can often
trace an established order, where a mere observer of facts would
perceive nothing but irregularity. This last process of the
mind is more peculiarly dignified with the name of Philo-
sophy ; and the object of the rules of philosophizing is to
explain in what manner it ought to be conducted.
7. The knowledge which is acquired of the course of Nature
by mere observation, is extremely limited, and extends only to
cases in which the uniformity of the observed phenomena is
apparent to our senses. This happens, either when one single
law of nature operates separately, or when different laws are
always combined together in the same manner. In most
instances, however, when different laws are combined, the
result varies in every particular case, according to the different
circumstances of the combination ; and it is only by knowing
what the laws are which are concerned in any expected pheno-
menon, and by considering in what manner they modify each
other's effects, that the result can be predicted.
8. Hence it follows, that the first step in the study of Philo-
sophy is to ascertain the simple and general laws on which the
complicated phenomena of the universe depend. Having ob-
tained these laws, we may proceed safely to reason concerning
the effect resulting from any given combination of them. In
the former instance, we are said to carry on our inquiries in
the way of Analysis ; in the latter in that of Synthesis.
[Scala Ascensoria et Descensoria. Bacon.] 2d edit.
9. To this method of philosophizing, (which is commonly
distinguished by the title of the Method of Induction,) we are