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FROM THE CONGO

TO THE

NIGER AND THE NILE



MECKLENBURG



FROM THE CONGO
TO THE NIGER AND THE NILE



All rights reserved



L FROM THE CONGO

TO

THE NIGER AND THE NILE

AN ACCOUNT OF THE

GERMAN CENTRAL AFRICAN EXPEDITION
OF 1910-1911 BY

ADOLF FRIEDRIGH

/

DUKE OF MECKLENBURG



WITH 514 ILLUSTRATIONS

FROM PHOTOGRAPHS AND DRAWINGS

AND A MAP



VOLUME TWO




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY
TURNBULL AND SPEARS, EDINBURGH



CONTENTS

CHAPTERS XIV TO XVIII

FROM FORT ARCHAMBAULT TO THE NILE
BY DR H. SCHUBOTZ

CRAP, PAOX

XIV. ON THE SHARI AND UBANGI RIVERS . , 3

XV. ON THE ROAD TO ANGU . . . .13

XVI. THE HOME OF THE OKAPI . . . .24

XVII. THE MANGBETTU COUNTRY . . . .39

XVIII. TOWARDS THE NILE ..... 59

CHAPTERS XIX TO XXIV

GERMAN CONGO AND SOUTH CAMEROONS
BY DR ARNOLD SCHULTZE

XIX. FROM STANLEYPOOL TO MOLUNDU . . .75

XX. RESEARCH WORK IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF

MOLUNDU . . . . .99

XXI. ON THE ROAD TO YUKADUMA . . .118

XXII. YUKADUMA TO ASSOBAM . . . .138

XXIII. ASSOBAM TO EBOLOWA .... 165

XXIV. MARCHING FROM EBOLOWA TO THE COAST . .194

CHAPTERS XXV AND XXVI
FERNANDO PO AND ANNOBON

BY DR J. MILDBRAED

XXV. FERNANDO Po . . . . .227

XXVI. ANNOBON . . . . . .263

INDEX ...... 279



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PACE

Akom Rock, on the watershed between the Congo
and Nyong .... Frontispiece
Water-colour by E. M. Heims.

1. The son of Ngurru, Sultan of the Asandes . . 8

2. Victims of sleeping-sickness in Yakoma . . 8

3. Huts of the Asande-Avunguras ... 9

4. Painted hut of the Asande-Abandjas ... 9

5. Squirrel with flying-membranes . . .14

6. Hunter with the prepared skin of the Okapi . . 14

7. Ocapia Johnstoni . . . . .15
Okapi from the virgin forest near Angu . . 16

Water-colour by E. M. Heims.

8. The okapi exhibited in the Senckenberg Museum at

Frankfurt ...... 22

9- Tame elephants bathing . . . .23

10. Elephants ploughing . , . . .23

11. At the station of Bambili on the Uelle . . 30

12. Matalani ...... 31

13. Ababua man ...... 36

14. Abarambo woman . . 36

15. Mangbettu village with oil palms . . .37

16. Mangbettu with plaited beard . . . .37

1 7. Mangbettu in bark aprons . . . .40

18. Mangbettu woman and child, with cords about the

forehead and upper part of skull . . .40

19 and 20. Coiffure of the Mangbettu women . ."41

21. Mangbettu children : the girl with a deformed skull . 42

22. Mangbettu maiden at her toilet . . .42

23. Wives of the Mangbettu ruler, Okondo . . 43

24. Nenzima, Munza's sister. 25. Nenzima's house . 46
26. In Okondo's palace . . . . .47

Mangbettu woman by the fire . . . .50

Water-colour by E. M. Heimt.

vii



viii FROM THE CONGO TO THE NIGER

PACING PACE

27. Mangbettu warriors . . . . .56

28. Sultan Okondo with his four chief wives in gala

costume ...... 56

29-71. Examples of Mangbettu handicraft . . 57

29-83. Sickles. 34-40. Bottles. 41, 42. Pottery. 43-46. Carved
wood stools. 47-49. Wooden dishes. 50-57. Women's Aprons.
58-68. Men's straw hats. 69. Kettle-drum. 70. Axe. 71. Ivory
trumpet

72. Mangbettu lances. 73. Mangbettu arrow-heads . 57

74. Plaiting ...... 60

75. Okondo and his wives dancing . . .60

76. Okondo's banqueting-hall . . . .61

77. Side wall and roof of the hall . . . .61

78. Okondo's pas seal in the circle of his wives . . 62

79. Mangbettu kettle-drum of wood . . .63

80. Wooded plain between Dangu and Farad je . . 63
Family of elephants in a bamboo thicket near Lado . 64

Water-colour by E. M. Heimt.

81. The Loka Mountain in storm . ... 68

82. Rejaf on the White Nile . . . .68

83. A splendid prize . . . . .69

84. Among the baobab trees of Kinshassa . . 76

85. Our camp near Kimuentsa . . . .76

86. Abandoned mission station near Kimuentsa . . 76

87. Hymenocardia steppe near Kimuentsa . . 77

88. Steppe near Kimuentsa with Amary Hides after the

first showers . . . . .77

89. Landscape in the Sanga delta . . . .82

90. Steamer " Commandant Lamy " before Wesso . 82

91. Flooded village on the Djah . . . .82

92. Village of Wesso on the Sanga . . .83

93. Confluence of the Sanga and Djah . . .83

94. Station of Molundu at low water . . .83

95. Basanga women in canoe . . . .88

96. Basanga women with leg-rings . . .88

97. Flooded forest near Wesso . . . 89

98. Papilio aniimachus drinking. One-half natural size . 92

99. Papilio antimachus drinking. One-half natural size . 93

100. Pygmy settlement on the Djah . . .96

101. Gathering tornado . . . . .97

102. Interior of a Mi-Ssanga house . . . .100



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix

FACING PACK

103. Village street of Molunda with fowl-house . .100

104. Mi-Ssanga women cooking . . . .101

105. Mi-Ssanga women at their toilet . . .101

106. Mi-Ssanga dancer, after sketches by Dr Schultze . 106

107. Mi-Ssanga maidens . . . . .107

108. Mi-Ssanga dancer . . . . .107

109. Pygmy settlement near Molundu . . .114

110. Pygmy playing on the Xylophone . . .114

111. Pygmies from the neighbourhood of Molundu . 115

112. Pygmy women . . . . .115

113. Pygmy ....... 120

114. Elk-horn fern (Platycerium) on a tree-stem . . 121

115. Bangandu and two Pygmies . . . .121

116. Drooping net fungus (Dictyopkora) . . . 124

117. Women's house in a Bangandu village . .124

118. Raphia frond, over 22 yards long, near N'ginda . 124

119. Charaxes on leopard's dung . , . .125

120. Swallowtails . . . . . .125

121. Char axes castor . . . . . .125

122. Papilio nircus, and Zalmoxis, drinking . . .125

1 23. GoKathus giganteus on Vernonia . . .125

124. Bangandu village . . . . .130

125. Plantation N'gusi in the primaeval forest . .130

126. Bangandu bending his crossbow . . 131

127. Bangandu crossbowman . . . .131

128. Bangandu at the loom . . . . .131

129. Bangandu in bast aprons . . . .132

130. Mausoleum in the village of Yukaduma . .133

131. Burial place of a Bangandu chief near Kumilla . 133

132. Entrance to the place of assembly of the newly

circumcised near a Bangandu village . .134

133. In the Bangi forest . . . . .134

134. Pygmy hut with doorway only half a yard high . 135

135. Pose of children for play . . . .135

136. The corpse of the chief Djaolo in Bigondji lying in

state ...... 135

137. Bokari woman with balloon cap and cock's tail . 135

138. Stem of Triplochiton in the Bangi forest . .140

139. Kunabembe village in recently cleared forest . .140

140. Kunabembe women with dossers near Yukaduma . 141



x FROM THE CONGO TO THE NIGER

FACING PAGE

141. Meadowland near Yendi . . . .144

142. Plantation near Yukaduma . . . .144

143. Aged Bokari . . . . . .145

144. Bokari village, near the northern boundary of the

forest . . . . . .145

145. Painted Yanghere house . . . .148

146. Round hut on the forest boundary . . .148

147. Bokari woman with cock's tail . . . .149

148. Yanghere village . . . . .149

149. Kaka men weaving mats . . . .154

150. Kaka man mending a bed . . . .154

151. Kaka woman making basket . . .155

152. Kaka women remaking hair-pad . . .158

153. Strangling fig in the forest . . . .158

154. Old Tchego. (Chimpanzee.) . . . .159

155. Phoenix palms . . . . . . 160

156. Meadow land . . . . . . 160

157. Station in the forest . . . . l6l

158. Raffia thicket ...... l6l

159. Crossing the Bumba . . . . .166

160. Giant creeper in the forest . . . .167

161. Forest track on the road from Djah to Bogen . .174
162 and 163. Maka cannibals . . . .175

164. Tree ferns on the edge of a swampy water-course in

the forest . . . . . .180

165. N'yem village . . . . . .181

166. Stilt roots . . . . . .181

167. Coiffure of a Bule woman . . . .182

168. N'yem man ...... 182

169. Coiffure of a N'yem woman .... 182

170. N'yem girls on the Djah . . . .183
On the Djah, west of Kungulu . . 1 84

Water-colour by E. M. Ueims.

171. Bule village . . . . . .186

1 72. Sso boys in front of their hut . . . 1 86

173. Girl with double ebui . . . . .187

174. Bule maidens . . . . . .187

175. The Masesse rock . . . . .187

176. Bule woman Menge from Bitje . . .190

177. Bule woman Menje from Bitje . . .191



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xi

FACING PAGE

178. Coiffure of a Bule woman . . . .196

179. Tattooing of a Bule man . . . .197
Pangwe woman with helmet coiffure and nose straps . 198

After crayon-drawing by Dr Schultze.
Ram coiffure of a Bule woman . . . .198

After crayon-drawings by Dr Schultze.
Pangwe woman with helmet coiffure . . .198

After crayon-drawing ly Dr SchulUe.

180. Station of Ebolova from Biilow Hill . . .200

181. Bule woman with Ram coiffure and ebui . .201

182. Pangwe oilpress ..... 201

183. Pangwe dancer . . . . .201

1 84. Rattan thicket ...... 204

185. Rock mass with globular cactus-like efflorescence . 204

The Boys Musa and Elumo.

186. Pangwe women with helmet coiffure . . . 205

187. Pangwe woman with helmet coiffure . . . 205

188. Pangwe woman with helmet coiffure and nose straps . 205

1 89. Pangwe woman with helmet coiffure . . . 208

190. Pangwe woman at the hairdresser's . . . 208

191. Mountain landscape near Endendem . . . 209

192. Undergrowth with dwarf palms. (Podococcus Bartcrt) 209

My boy Elume.

193. Gigantic root scaffold of a strangling fig in the forest . 214

194. Gorilla lair. In the background Stepke and Undene 214

195. Cola chlamydantha . . . . .215

196. On the N'tem (Kampo) near Ovoung . . .218

197. Kom falls . . . . . .219

Lobe Waterfall, on the Batanga coast . . . 220

Water-colour by E. M. Heims.

198. View of the harbour of Santa Isabel at Punta Fernanda 230

199. Tree overgrown with parasites in the mountain forest

above Basil e . . . . . .231

200. Portion of a branch with parasites . . .231

Detail of the above illustration.

201. Mountain forest with tree ferns, above the shelter-hut

on the peak of Santa Isabel .... 236

202. Ravine in the mountain forest on the peak of Santa

Isabel ...... 237

203. Pasture region of the peak with a secondary crater to

the north of the main summit 240



xii FROM THE CONGO TO THE NIGER

PACING PAGE

204. View of the " Cordillera " from the north across the

Bay of San Carlos . . . . .240

205. In the grass-land of Moka . . . .241

206. Ravine in the grass-land of Moka, with tree ferns and

Mimulopsis . . . . . .241

The summit of the Peak of Fernando Po, seen from

the prairie ...... 246

Water-colour by E. M. Heimt.
Mimulopsis violacea, a characteristic plant of the upper

forest in Equatorial Africa .... 254

207. Grass-land of Moka with crater . . . 258

208. Mimulopsis violacea in the grass-land of Moka, tree

ferns in the background .... 259

209. Tree ferns and parasites in the grass-land of Moka . 259
210 and 211. Bubis of San Carlos . . . .260

212. Annobon from the north .... 26l

213. Village of Pale with Mission . . . .261

214. Village of Pale . . . . . .261

215. House of the Government officials in Pale . . 266

216. Mission: Pico do Fogo in background . . . 266

217. Crater lake with Pico do Fogo . . . .267

218. Crater lake with the high southern edge of the crater 270

219. Pico do Fogo on the Crater lake . . . 270

220. Tree with parasites on the summit of Quioveo . 271

221 . Island of Tortuga, stratified and strongly eroded crater-

edge ....... 271

222. Summit of Santa Mina ..... 272

223. Lava cliffs . . . . . .272

224. Beach of San Pedro . . . . .273

225. Lava cliffs in the north-west .... 274

226. Surf geyser ...... 275

227. Cliffs with calcareous algae .... 276

228. Calcareous algae and sea-urchins in a flat basin . 276

229. Steep coast to the east with cavern . . . 277

230. West coast with Bird Island, slope of Quioveo . 277



CHAPTERS XIV TO XVIII

FROM FORT ARGHAMBAULT
TO THE NILE

BY

DR H. SCHUBOTZ



CHAPTER XIV

ON THE SHARI AND UBANGI RIVERS

NEVER shall I forget the day on which my carefully
thought-out plan for reaching the Nile through the
Belgian Uelle district received the sanction of our
leader.

It was the evening of the 2nd of February 1911,
in the neighbourhood of the Bahr Sara. Fort Archam-
bault was at that time my headquarters ; I was
on my way back from an expedition to the Niellim
Mountains, sixty miles to the north, and I was feel-
ing somewhat discouraged at the meagre results of my
zoological investigations. I had just completed a
long, tedious march across a waterless, sun-scorched
plain, and the constant troubles with the bearers
together with the physical discomforts of the journey
had depressed my spirits to their lowest ebb. My
kind host in Fort Archambault, Captain Cross, not
realising the state of affairs in the Sara district, had
allowed me to set off without a military escort. The
result was that I had the greatest difficulty in per-
suading the chiefs to supply me with bearers. They
never accompanied me further than the next village,
and I had no means of detaining them by force. To-
day, for the first time in all my African travels, I had
been obliged to submit to being carried in a litter.
A gastric complaint, induced by drinking water to
which an excessive quantity of alum had been added



4 FROM THE CONGO TO THE NIGER

as a purifying agent, made riding or walking im-
possible. Weakened by illness, exhausted by the
sweltering heat, and racked with pain, I presently
collapsed altogether, much to the alarm of my " boys,"
who had hitherto regarded me as a most vigorous
individual. They deposited me in the shade of a
mimosa tree, and when I regained consciousness I
saw them standing whispering together with anxious
faces.

They were in a great panic, probably not so much
from any special affection for me, but rather because
they feared that without me they would never reach
their distant homes in Togo and the Cameroons. A
litter was brought, and at a funeral pace we followed
the bearers to camp, which was fortunately not far
off, in a tiny Sara hamlet composed of only seven
huts. The chief was a gigantic man with a good-
humoured face, and he seemed disposed to be friendly.
He brought me some fresh milk and a couple of eggs,
and by the evening I felt well enough to sit in a deck-
chair in front of my tent.

My bearers had once more taken French leave, and
the chief declared that he could supply only seven
men, whereas I required at least twenty-five. I was
exceedingly angry. Not with the natives for refusing
to act as carriers ; one could hardly blame them,
seeing that the money they earn is of very little use
to them ; neither did I resent Captain Cross' action
in sending me without a military escort, for he did
not realise the conditions prevailing here, and could
have no idea of the difficulties I was to encounter.
But I felt embittered against the " red tapists " who
sit in their comfortable offices and preach humanity ;
I wished they could spend a few days travelling in



ON THE SHARI AND UBANGI RIVERS 5

this country, left to their own devices and obliged
to procure bearers as well as food for themselves and
their men. They would very soon discard all their
politeness and humanitarian ideas, which the very
natives despise. " Might is right " must be the
motto of every intending colonist ; a hundred times
have I learned this by bitter experience, for friendly
persuasion will never induce a Sara native to carry
a tin box for you. He will do so only if he knows
that his refusal will result in his hut being burned
down by soldiers. Unfortunately there were not
enough available soldiers ; the Fort Archambault
company was scattered in all directions, and there
was no other nearer than Ndele, whose garrison was
at the moment fighting Sultan Senussi. The country
was by no means properly subdued, and the French
were too much taken up with the rebellion in Wadai
to be able to do more than protect the Ubangi-
Gribingi-Shari main road.

My mind was occupied with these and similar
thoughts as I sat before my tent near the Bahr Sara
on the evening of the 2nd of February, helpless and
destitute of bearers. Suddenly a native brought word
that a caravan was approaching, and it turned out
to be a party of twenty -five Niellim men sent me by
Captain Cross under escort of two Senegalese soldiers,
in answer to a letter that I had despatched to him a
few days before. My immediate difficulties were thus
at an end. Still more welcome was a letter from the
Duke, with whom I had had no communication since
leaving him on the 5th of October 1910. Our letters
had either been lost en route, or else did not reach
their destination for many months. His most im-
portant news, as far as I was concerned, was that



6 FROM THE CONGO TO THE NIGER

the expedition had to be again divided owing to
political unrest in the North, and that consequently
von Wiese and I were to be the only members of the
party returning home by way of the Nile. The Duke
agreed to my proposal that the Uelle district should
be allotted to me,

The main zoological problem for the 1910-1911
expedition was the investigation of the fauna in the
northern part of the great Equatorial primeval forest,
and of the animal world inhabiting the adjoining
plains of the Soudan.

The collection made by the English explorer,
Alexander Gosling, in the primeval forest of the Uelle
district shows a great wealth of species of special
scientific interest. At the head of the list stands the
okapi, which is to be found chiefly in the neighbour-
hood of Angu. It was my ambition to secure for
the museums at home one or more specimens of this
big, shy, forest antelope. Apart from the above-
mentioned scientific reasons, I had important political
grounds for adopting this route, in that it would be
comparatively easy to traverse the Uelle district,
even with a large caravan. All the Belgian officers
and officials that I had met who were experienced
travellers in this part of the country, painted it in
the most glowing colours, and assured me that it was
densely populated with sturdy well-disciplined negroes,
admirably adapted for the work of carrying ; that
the necessaries of life were easily obtained, bananas,
maize, goats, and even cattle being plentiful ; and
that good roads culminated in the well-kept main road
connecting the Congo and the Nile.

All this was the best possible news for a traveller
coming from the Ubangi and Shari basins, where it



was one man's work to overcome the trivial difficulties
in obtaining bearers and provisions, leaving scant
time for scientific research. My spirits rose, and I
hoped that under such favourable auspices I should
be able to enrich my zoological collection and give
it a value proportionate to the heavy costs of our
equipment.

Following the instructions of His Highness the
Duke, I rapidly brought my work in the Middle Shari
district to a conclusion, and proceeded by forced
marches back to the Ubangi via Fort Crampel. I
was in hopes of meeting von Wiese either in Fort
Possel or in Mobaye, as I had inadvertently passed
him on my way to Archambault. On the 1st of April
I arrived at Possel, but my hopes were not fulfilled.
For six months I had been travelling alone, and since
parting with the Duke I had met no member of our
expedition, so that I was anxious to come across von
Wiese, and travel in his company at any rate for a
short distance. This hope was not, however, destined
to be fulfilled until the llth of October 1911, when
we met at last in Khartoum.

The extraordinary difficulties which I encountered
on the Ubangi were the cause of my delayed arrival
in Mobaye and Yakoma. During the rainy season,
from June to November, the steamers accomplish the
two hundred miles in four days, but in November the
steamer service ceases owing to the shallow water,
and is replaced by steel boats holding one or two tons,
or else by canoes which take fourteen instead of four
days to reach Mobaye. At the height of the dry
season in January and February, this voyage is said
to be very pleasant, the current being then com-
paratively weak, and the wealth of bird life varying



8 FROM THE CONGO TO THE NIGER

the monotony. But it is very different in April ; at
this time of the year the first thunderstorms, which
are characterised by unusual violence, rapidly raise
the level of the river until it becomes a raging
torrent.

The great birds : marabouts, storks, pelicans, ibises,
herons, and various kinds of vultures that haunt the
sandbanks during the dry season in search of stranded
fish and other animal refuse, have all disappeared.
They have migrated to drier regions, and the only
birds that remain faithful to the densely wooded banks
of the river are a few geese and ducks, lapwings and
plovers, fishing birds, and the powerful lake eagles
(Gypohierax angolensis is more common than Haliaetus
vocifer on the Middle Ubangi), but they are distri-
buted over a wide area, and consequently provide
but little excitement for the traveller. He is sadly
in need of entertainment, for he has nothing to read
but newspapers two or three months old, which are
soon exhausted; and though here in darkest Africa
he eagerly devours even the advertisement sheet,
this is apt to pall in the long run.

I had constant trouble with the boatmen. From
Possel to Mobaye I employed Banziris who, though
competent rowers, are very lazy, and the most in-
veterate thieves that I have ever come across. They
stole everything they could lay their hands on, even
to the buckles of my gun-straps and saddlery, knives
and other indispensable articles. The mismanage-
ment of the French Government is to blame for the
conduct of the natives. Physical punishment is no
longer allowed, although all experienced French
officials admit that this is the only effective means
of educating the negroes. The sole incentive which




1. The son of Ngurru, Sultan of the Asanda.




2. Victims of sleeping-sickness in Yakoma.




3. Huts of the Asanda-Avungura.




4. Painted hut of the Asanda-Abandja.



ON THE SHARI AND UBANGI RIVERS 9

has any moral effect on them, that is to say, the fear
of punishment, has thus lost much of its power; for
imprisonment, even when accompanied by hard labour,
does not make nearly the same impression on their
minds as a sound thrashing.

There is hardly any institution so universal and
consequently so desirable among the negroes as
physical punishment, and far-seeing governments,
like the British, Belgian, and German, although they
have limited its application, have hesitated to do
away with it altogether. On one occasion when I
complained to a Banziri chief of the thieving pro-
pensities of one of his people, I observed with amuse-
ment that he personally administered to the culprit
the customary five and twenty strokes. I was
enjoying the hospitality of the Government, so that
I could not venture to order corporal punishment
myself ; I had to content myself with conveying the
culprit bound to Mobaye, where I could give him up
to justice.

The manner in which the natives bind prisoners
is very brutal ; they tie their wrists behind their backs
with tight cords that cut into the flesh, and then, to
prevent any possible evasion, they fasten the arms
again higher up at the elbow. This is very painful,
and limits the prisoner's movements to a most un-
comfortable extent. When I saw the thieves again
in the evening after they had lain for twelve hours
in the boat bound in this fashion, they were stiff and
lame, and moaned piteously. I had mercy on them,
and ordered the ropes to be cut, informing them that,
provided they made no attempt to escape, they might
travel in freedom the next day. Two of them re-
warded my clemency by remaining, but the third,



10 FROM THE CONGO TO THE NIGER

who was the chief offender, was far away by the follow-
ing morning.

In attempting to administer justice in this country,
the authorities are obliged to rely to a great extent
on the co-operation of the prisoner. Captain Cross
told me incidentally that he dared not annoy his
prisoners too much, otherwise they ran away ; he
had two patricides in his prison who were condemned
to two years' penal servitude, which does not seem
a very severe sentence. In six months one had de-
camped, whereupon the other, who was a carpenter,
received permission to remain at liberty during the
day, provided he spent the night in prison. Justice
was in this way satisfied, while Captain Cross retained
his carpenter.

More annoying for me even than the thefts of the
natives were the violent storms which on several occa-
sions overtook me on the Ubangi. Twice I was far from
a village, and at a point where the bank was too steep
to permit us to land. Sheets of water poured down
upon us, and in a moment had half filled the boat.


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