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.. HYSIC4L EOUCATION





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REPORTor PROGRESS

DDLUIH PUBLIC SCHOOLS i j



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Southern Branch
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LIBRARY,

LOS ANGF! PK (:Ai :r



MUSIC

PHYSICAL
EDUCATION



1919



Report of Progress

DULUTH PUBLIC SCHOOLS

323S9



ERRATA

Will teachers please make the following corrections:

P. 19. Books in the hands of the teacher only:
Congdon Primer No, 1
Congdon Primer No. 2
Modern Primer
Progressive Book No. 1

P. 20. Insist upon soft, flute-like singing.

P. 21. Books in hand of teacher only:
Congdon Primer No. 1
Congdon Primer No. 2
Modern Primer
Progressive Book No. 1

Use ruler to draw bars.

They should possess a technical knowledge of*
all phases encountered thus far.

Point correctly two notes to a beat.

To find and hum the tones of the scale.



P.


24.


p.


25.


p.


27.


p.


32.



CONTENTS.
MUSIC.

AIMS 1

BRIEF SURVEY 3

APPRECIATION OF MUSIC 4

GENERAL DIRECTIONS 8D

Suggestions for all Grades 8

Defective or Unfound Voices 9

Suggestions for Treatment of Such Voices 9

Use of the Pitch Pipe and Piano 10

Rote Song 10

Tone Work 11

Seating 11

Position for Singing 11

Part Work 11

Voice Testing Suggestions 12

Care of Victrola or other Machine 13

Instrumental Work 14

After School Classes 15

KINDERGARTEN 16

GRADE I 18

GRADE II 20

GRADE III 22

GRADE IV 26

GRADE V 30

GRADE VI 33

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 37

Grade VII 41

Grade VIII 43

Grade IX 45

GENERAL SONG SINGING 46

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 48

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 51

Rote Books 52

Rote Songs for Kindergarten 52

Rote Songs for Primary Grades 54

Rote Songs for Intermediate Grades 60

Rote Songs for Grammar Grades 66



PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

AIMS 6£

BRIEF OUTLINE OF SUBJECT MATTER 6^

GENERAL DIRECTIONS AND DISCUSSION OF

PRINCIPLES 7C

Arrangement and Distribution of Material 7C

Instruction for Class Room Work 7C

Some Essentials for Successful Teaching 71

Types of Formation for Circle Work 7]

Rhythms for Grades IV, V and VI 72

GRADE I 7£

GRADE II 8C

GRADE III 8^

GRADE IV 91

GRADE V 105

GRADE VI 1 lis

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS

Exercises for Boys 121

Exercises for Girls 12S

BIBLIOGRAPHY 125



PREFACE.

This pamphlet on Music and Physical Education is one of
a series of five which constitutes the Course of Study so far
available in printed form for use in the Public Schools of the
City of Duluth. The other pamphlets are as follows : One on
Arithmetic ; one on Nature Study, Geography, and History ;
one on Drawing and Industrial Art ; one on English including
Reading, Phonics, Spelling, Penmanship, Language, Composi-
tion, Grammar, and Literature.

This Course of Study was constructed during the school
term of 1918-19 and during the summer of 1919, It was intro-
duced in September, 1919. It is the product of the combined
effort of the teachers, principals, and supervisors in the Public
Schools and the State Normal School of Duluth.

The general supervision of the entire course was under an
executive committee consisting of a principal, a supervisor,
and a superintendent of the training department of a normal
school. Each subject was in charge of a special committee
consisting of teachers, principals and supervisors with the
teachers largely predominating. While the number of teach-
ers on these committees was made as large as possible in order
to secure the benefit of class room experience, not all were
able to participate in the work on account of the lack of time
and facilities for reaching them. Much credit is due all who
have so willingly and efficiently assisted in bringing this
course of study to its present standard. The fact that it is
an outgrowth of the best class-room practice in the city is due
largely, however, to the teachers who helped in its construction.

The general plan for each subject in the Course, the prin-
ciples for the selection of subject matter, and the organization
of subject matter were agreed upon by the executive commit-
tee and the chairman of each special committee after much
study and careful deliberation. Each special committee ob-



11.

served these principles of selection and plan of organization in
preparing the subject assigned. Suggestions on the Course in
English were received from a group of business men in ordi.^r
to secure the point of view of those outside the schools. Similar
help was received from a group of musicians on the Course in
Music.

The general plan adopted for each Course is as follows :

I. Table of Contents.

11. Aims and purposes for all grades.

A statement of the purposes of the subject as a
whole.

III. Outline of subject matter.

Brief survey of subject matter throughout the Ele-
mentary and Junior High Schools.

IV. General Directions.

V. Detailed outline of subject matter.
VI. General Bibliography.

As a basis for the selection of subject matter for this
Course of Study the following social values were used:

I. That subject matter was selected which is most fre-
quently used by the greatest number of people in life situa-
tions. The term "use" is not restricted to the mere economic
sense but includes all those matters which society has learned
to value and desires to pass on to the next generation.

II. That subject matter was selected which is not only
most frequently used but is most significant when used, e. g.
we teach how to save life from drowning not because of the
number of times it would be used but because of its great
significance when used. These methods of choosing subject
matter while they have been a guiding principle have been
necessarily limited by such considerations as, expense of teach-
ing, time of pupils, ability of teachers and pupils and organiza-
tion and availability of material.

In the organization of subject matter an attempt has be^n
made to arrange it around projects suited to the abilities and



III.

interests of the pupils for whom it is intended and adapted to
the successful use of well-recognized methods of teaching and
to the needs of the state and community. These projects, ac-
cording to the nature of the subject matter, lend themselves to
one of the following t j^pes :

Type 1.-

"In which the purpose is to embody some idea or plan in
external form, as building a' boat, writing a letter, presenting
a play :

Type 2.

"In which the purposes is to enjoy some aesthetic experi-
ence, as listening to a story, hearing a symphony, appreciat-
ing a picture:

Type 3.

"In which the purpose is to straighten out some intellectual
difficulty, to solve some problem, as to find out whether or not
dew fails, to ascertain how New York outgrew Philadelphia.

Type 4.

"In which the purpose is to obtain some item, or degree of
skill or knowledge, as learning to write grade 14 on the Thorn-
dike Scale, learning the irregular verbs in French. Some
teachers indeed may not closely discriminate between drill as
a set task, although the results will be markedly different."

"It is at once evident that these groupings more or less
oveiiap and that one type may be used as means to another
as end. It may be of interest to note that with these defini-
tions the project method logically includes the nrobiem method
as a special case. The value of such a classification as that
here given seems to me to lie in tne lighc it snouiil throw on
the kind of projects teachers may expect and on the procedure
that norm.ally prevails in the several types."

Kilpatrick. Teachers College Record, September 1918.

This Course of Study is in no sense a finished product. It
is a record of past achievement and a standard of present at-
tainment. It is intended also to be a guide post for further
progress. As the quality of the classroom instruction im-
proves by means of this course, the course should likewise be
improved in the nature of the subject matter and in the ef-
fectiveness of the teaching method. For this purpose the sug-
gestions and criticisms of teachers, principals, and supervisors
will be requested from time to time.



MUSIC.

AIMS.

The aim of all education, as modern writers define it, is
"To train a child to become a useful member of society." In
the plans for such training, the public schools have given music
an important pace. Music, the "universal language" appeals
and contributes to the physical, moral and spiritual nature.
Dr. A. E. Winship says, "Music is as vital to education for
domestic and social life as curved lines are in art." Dr. Elliot
of Harvard University declares, "Music rightly taught is the
best mind trainer on the list."

As a part of the school curriculum we find that music
calls for :

The most direct exercise of mental and phyical power.

Individual effort of judgment, skill and expression.

Discrimination throughout the child's entire school
career.

A concentrated attention, developed by speedy, ac-
curate, rhythmic thinking which gives a stimulus to an
expression of feeling.

Correlation with both the arts and the common
branches.

The socializing and enjoyment through music of the
stories and histories of nations.

A school spirit which will elevate the musical tastes
and standards of the community.

A greater enjoyment of the uplifting elements of life.

Among the results most worthy of attainment is musical
appreciation, i. e. :

The desire to hear good music.

The development of desire for ability to appreciate
and reproduce it.

By the training required in musical appreciation, the in-
dividual is equipped with :

A repertoire of good songs which create a desire for
the better and higher phases of music, and result in a
mental and moral uplift to the individual.

The ability to know and apply the principles of voice
training, sight reading and technique.

The opportunity of taking music outside of the school
into the community, and co-operation in all things musical.

A lasting love for the best in music, when given as a
relaxation or diversion, and an intelligent application of
it, which shall give interpretative power — a delight ob-
tained by long study and effort.

Music as a school subject should take into consideration
the following phases :



Voice work, teaching of singing by groups or indi-
viduals.

Instrumental work; playing in orchestras, bands or
other small groups.

Teaching of instruments.

Theory; the practical application of the technical.
History of music with its accompanying correlation.
Musical appreciation, listening lessons.
Crediting outside music instruction.
Public appearance of classes or groups.
Community work; co-operative work with clubs.
Enabling gifted children to enlarge their talents.
Enabling all children to find their talents.
Furthering all work in music in and out of school.

• The development of school music follows logically, the
three elements, which developed the art of music through the
many thousands of years up to the present time. These three
elements are Rhythm, Melody and Harmony.

Rhythm. This element is inherent and was used to give
expression by the most primitive people. They were not satis-
fied merely to listen and watch th music of nature; they
wanted to imitate it by clapping hands, stam.ping feet, or mak-
ing a noise by pounding something which would resound ryth-
mically. This feeling for rhythm which is a primitive instinct
is the first to make a direct appeal and should be emphasized
in every grade from Kindergarten on through High School.
Rhythmic work should be used only for the development of
the feeling for music and the ability to express it.

Melody. The next element developed is gained through
the ear, so hearing must be aroused, stirred and thrilled. No
other sense has equal possibilities of training, no other is so
neglected ; therefore, aim to train the ear as well as the eye all
through the grades. Sight singing or eye training is used only
as a means to an end, that of being able to sing and to enjoy
sing'ng and goes hand in hand with ear training. This ear and
eye work prepares for the later development of Harmony which
is gained through part singing and orchestra work.

Harmony. A later development comes through part sing-
ing, analysis of the songs, and with orchestra playing in the
upper grades and in Junior and Senior High Schools. With
this gees appreciation work which cultivates a taste for the
b'fest in music by listening and attending to the analysis of
what is heard in vocal, p'ano, orchestra, band, or victrola music.



— 3—



BRIEF SURVEY.

Kindergarten Appreciation



Rhythmic
Development
Song Singing
Ear Training
Appreciation



I— B



I— A



II— B



II— A



III— B



III— A



Rythmic
Development
Song Singing
Ear Training
Appreciation



Rythmic
Development
Song Singing
Ear Training
Appreciation



Rythmic
Development
Song Singing
Ear Training
Appreciation

Rhythmic
Development
Song Singing

Ear Training

Eye Training
(new point)
Appreciation
Rhythm

Song Singing

Ear Training

Eye Training

Appreciation

Rhythm

Song Singing

Ear Training

and
Eye Training



Listening to songs, piano, victrola, to
awaken interest and to discover the fami-
liar elements in music.

Action plays and games given.
Short, simple songs.
Matching tones, phrases, intervals.
Musical growth begun — the unfamiliar
elements discussed.

This work continued with games and
songs.

At least 25, possibly 50 rote songs learned.
Recognition of songs heard.
Musical experience broadened through art
songs. Descriptive pieces played — to in-
crease interest.

Feeling for rhythm expressed by count-
ing, clapping, etc.
At least 25 new rote songs learned.
Recognition of songs and phrases.
Concentration and discrimination further
developed by use of i-ecords of songs
and instruments.

Imitation of the rhythm found in rote
songs, records, etc.

Rote songs sung by class and individual.
Recognition of songs, phrases, intervals.
Cultivating a taste for good music by
songs and records carefully selected.

Counting and pointing to notation.
Singing of home, general and season
songs suitable to grade.
Recognition of all tonal relations of
known songs.

First eye training in book work. Intro-
duction of primers last two weeks.
Study of different voices and instruments.
Observation of points rhythmically simi
lar.

Broadening of musical experience by
singing songs with every lesson.
Recognition and reproduction of tonal
relation SEEN and HEARD.
Work in books as outlined. (Purely imi-
tation at first.) Specific individual ear
and eye work.

Desire to sing and play encouraged by
songs and records of different types of
music. (Correlation with Nature Study.)
An understanding of note values and the
unit of measurement developed by point-
ing.

A permanent repertoire established by
giving rote songs regularly.

Book work leading into real independent
and individual sight work.



IV— B


Appreciation


and




IV— A






Rhythm




Song Singing




Sight Reading-


V and VI


Appreciation




Song Singing




Sight Reading


VII, VIII


Appreciation


and IX






Songs



A desire for the best music developed fur-
ther. Association begun. Recognition of
familiar tunes and identification of same
with proper countries, etc.
Time drills begun. Problems dealt with.
Rote and book songs sung daily. Rounds
as an introduction to part singing.
From books, as outlined, calling for drill
on tone, time and theory.
All music given with its accompanying
correlation of art, literature and geo-
graphy.

Emphasis of rhythm and melody in songs
sung.

Combined with tone, time and theory
drills. Two or three part songs sung for
study of harmony.

Intensified; all composers, authors, con-
tent of songs studied.
For all occasions studied and used. In-
terpretation and analysis of all phases
encountered in previous lessons encour-
aged. Drill on tone, time and theory
given when necessary.

APPRECIATION OF MUSIC.
AIMS.

To awaken greater interest.

To create more correct musical taste.

To create intelligent and appreciative listeners.

To appreciate requires no ability to create music, any
more than enjoyment of a good story depends upon the read-
er's ability to write one.

Introduction.

"The habit of respectful attention to good music, is of
greater importance in life and if established in school, it may
be retained in after years."

An appreciation lesson may be gained, through text book
material, programs or artist's concerts, through listening to
victrola or other machines, to a piano player, or artist per-
former, singer, or player.

Use the records suggested on the list of circulating re-
cords, over and over, hear them again and again. Allow the
children to express freely their impressions of the music.
This work of listening lessons, with careful guidance may be
made very interesting, instructive, bringing results, not only
in appreciation later on, but in direct improvements in song,
rhythm and ear training.



— 5—

BRIEF SURVEY OF OUTLINE.

Primary Grades : Kindergarten, First, Second and Third
Use records to get and give Concentration and Dis-
crimination.
Intermediate Grades: Fourth, Fifth and Sixth

Use records for Concentration, Discrimination, Asso-
ciation and Correlation.
Correlation: Records to intensify geography study in
their grade, history and literature, with their reading.
Grammar Grades, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth, Senior
High. Emphasize all of the above points. After previous
training these classes should be ready to analyze and to
intensify their concentration, discrimination and associa-
tion for harmony, history and all theory work.
Note : Records are often used over and over again in the
various grades.

First time hearing in primary grades, to stimulate
feeling for rhythm.

Second time hearing, in intermediate grades, to bring
out melody or difference between voices.

Third time hearing, in grammar grades, to study in-
struments, and the tone quality of the voice.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS.

Listening lessons should be given at least once a month,
and should take the place of a regular class lesson.

Lessons should absorb alike, the attention and concentra-
tion of pupils and teacher.

Use the blackboard and paper in upper grades to write out
words, names of artists, composers.

Make lesson full of interest; stimulate imagination by
telling facts about the record used.

Care of the school machine and records. See General
Directions.

The circulating records should be kept in a box provided
for them, separate and apart from the regular school records.

A box will contain records of various types ; an inventory
of records will accompany the box.

SUGGESTIONS FOR A TYPE LESSON.
Reference: Hay ward: Appreciation.
The Approach.

Stimulate interest ; arouse curiosity ; direct the ;n-
terest. Build up a mood by talk or story, explanation The
anticipation, expectation and inspiration should be part
of the preparation. First impression must be good ; no
distraction from without or within should be allowed.



— 6—
Attention.

Listen thoughtfully.

Upon the first hearing direct attention to chriracter-
istics. Talk it over; ask what the pupils woii^a name it;
explain everything necessary. Name the author or com-
poser; or both, in grades necessary.

Thinking Process.

Discuss it ; give further explanation or expression.
Give second hearing, perhaps. Association, comparison,
formulating and generalizing points.

Applicaticn.

Applying things suggested by music to the pupils'
experience. This gives an opportunity for correlation and
extra study of language, spelling, history.

Analysis.

Continue further discussion by analyzing form, con-
tent, and getting advanced understanding.
A primary grade lesson will include first point ONLY and

possibly part of second.

All grades will, of course, give attention, concentration

and all necessary requirements for a listening lesson. ^

KINDERGARTEN AND

Grades I, 11 and IL

ALMS.

To awaken interest.

To create a musical taste.

To develop ability to listen.

Concentration.

For development: Use record to stimulate.

Simple songs, known or unknown which may be sung.

Songs of seasons, lullabies.

Mother Goose melodies, etc.

Descriptive pieces to gain interest.

Use records such as

The Clock Shop

The Toy Shop

Songs of Birds. Correlate with Nature Study.
Use pictures from Audubon Society, N. Y.
or from A. M. Mumford, Chicago.

Discrimination.

Pieces for marked rhythm. The rhythmic sense should



— 7—

of various types ; clap, snap, play horse, and use various
arm movements to express this feeling.

Use records of different voices and instruments ; man
or lady singer ; bells, horn, violin, etc.

Use tunes of various kinds of recognition.
GRADES IV, V, AND VI.

AIMS. 1

To give discipline in listening.

To get inspiration. '

To get feeling for rhythm.

To awaken greater interest.

To create more musical taste.

Concentration and Discrimination, the two attributes de-
manded in the previous grades, are intensified in these grades.
In addition, a listening lesson calls for Association by using
familiar tunes ; by identifying with peoples in geography their
patriotic and national songs ; for Correlation, by correlating the
names of tunes, composers, authors of words with the study ot
English and language; by using these as subjects of written
language lessons or as a spelling lesson ; by using them in a
penmanship drill and by giving musical interpretation of poems
or stories in connection with King Arthur; e. g. Prelude to

Lohengrin. ^

Grade IV.

Concentration.

Songs, familiar tunes, new folk songs.

Note: As children imitate what they hear, allow
them to hear only the best in song and also only what is
safe for them to imitate.

Avoid records -of males voices unless it is a record ot
a soft, sweet tenor. A male quartet is dangerous to use
here, also a mixed chorus, for a class might imitate low
voices. Duets of song and instrument are good for them.

Let them hear minor songs.

Dances of the various peoples as physical training
department suggests for rhythm ; Scotch, Welsh, English.

Discrimination of different rhythms and moods.
March of various moods :
Soldier's march



Funeral march

Wedding march

Processional march

Lullabies of various kinds, especially 6-8 measure, cradle
songs and barcarolles.

Descriptive music and story telling:

cuckoo clock

songs of birds,

imitation of birds,

four leaf clover,
with a story of what they heard of description of the
music.

Association and Correlation.

Airs of all nations
Southern tunes
Old Tunes
America

Band accompaniment to familiar songs with which they
may sing. Artistic compositions which call for study of
various mentioned phases, as to whether descriptive, il-
lustrating rhythm or some other, such as:

Melody in F,

Spring Song,

The Brook.

Any mention of a duplicated records calls for more inten-
sive study each time it is heard.

First hearing calls for listening.

Second time, understanding,

Third time, analysis.

Fourth time, more comprehensive understanding.

"Music is more intangible than other school studies. It
perishes in the moment of creation and therefore must be
judged and appreciated instantaneously or else in retrospect."

Grade V.

Review work of the Fourth Grade and study with in-
creased concentration, intensified discrimination, to enlarge
knowledge of all phases of work.

Use additional records to

Illustrate Songs — Irish: Minstrel Boy and Low
Backed Car.



— 8A—

Scotch : Comin' Thru the Rye, and
medleys.

Italian : Santa Lucia.
Negro-Spirituals.
Old Songs.
Hawaiian Records.

Descriptive and Program — story illustrations and

poetic thought. Narcis-
sus: Butterfly,
To a Wild Rose.
Bugle Calls.
Peer Gynt suite.

Grade VI.

This grade will be ready for advance work in discrimina-
tion of form, correlation with history and geography by analy-
sis and tabulation of folk songs and dances, in connection with
study of those subjects.

Folk Songs and Dances:

Irish : Believe Me if all those endearing young charms^

English: Drink to me Only.

Scotch: Flow Gently sweet Afton.

Spanish : La Paloma.

Italian : Neapolitan Folk Song, etc.

Welsh, and Old English.

To illustrate marches, and rhythms of other forms.

Marches of different countries — March Slav

Rakoczy March, etc.

For illustration of form. America


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