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Doun self(b)Xo the personal pronouns, my, thy, your, him, and it in
the singular number, and the plural selves to our, your, and therm
in the plural number.

884. FIRST PERSON.

Singular. Plural.

JVom. Myself, Ourselves,



Poss.

Obj. myself, ourselves.

fECOXD PERSON.

^om. Thyself, or yourself. Yourselves

Poss.

Obj. Thyself, or yourself, yourselves

THIRD PERSON.

Mas. Fern. JVeuter.

JVom. Himself, herself, itself. Themselves.

Poss.

Obj. Himself, herself, itself, themselves.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

385. A relative pronoun is a pronoun that relates to a
preceding word, sentence, or part of a sentence, called
its antecedent ; as, " The man, who is virtuous, deserves
our esteem."

386. Relative pronouns also connect their own mem-
bers of a sentence with that containmg the antecedent
word or phrase, which they are used to explain.

387. Nouns are most generally the antecedents of rel-
atives ; sometimes personal and interrogative pronouns ;
as, *'He who is devoid of sympathy, is wanting in refine-
ment." " Who that has a just sense of moral obliga-
tion, will rashly forfeit the confidence reposed in him V*

388. The relative pronouns are whoy whose, whonty
which, that, and sometimes as.

389. " Who and whom relate to persons."

390. Which relates to things, or to animals that are

> Se{f and fnul are derived from the Latin word solus, (alone.) Srff is used
»^<iisjderably in compound words and frequently as a nonn*-^Rees' Cyclopedia,



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ETYMOLOGY. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Ill

not persons. Which formerly related to persons, as well
as things ; as, ^' There was a man which had a withered
hand."— JIfarA: 3, 1.

391. That, whose, and as relate either to persons or
things.

3^ That is a relative pronoun when it can be
changed into who, whom, or which ; and it never follows
the word which governs it in the objective case.

303. That is elegantly used in preference to who, whom,
or which in the following instances ; —

1. After an adjective in the Muperlative degree; as, << Cati-
line's followers were the most profligate that could be found in
any city.**

2. After the adjective same ; as, ** He is the same gentleman
that passed yesterday.**

3. After the interrogative who and which to prevent tautology ;
as, " Who that has any sense of religion, would have argued
thus ?*' " Which of two bodies, that move with the same velocity,
will exercise the greatest power?**

4. When the relative has more than one antecedent connected
by and, and one is a person and the other or others are not ; as,
*< The woman and the estate, that became his portion, were too
much for his moderation.**

5. When the antecedent is a child, or when euphony requires
it ; as, " This is the child that has been sick,** — " a noun is the
name of any thing that exists.**

6. When the antecedent is a collective noun, and does not di-
rectly refer to persons ; as, * The crowds that have usually assem-
bled, do not now assemble.*

394. As is a relative pronoun fc Rafter the adjective such,
sometimes after same, and in some other instances ; as,
** Send him such books ew will please him." — Dr, Web^
ster.

395. As, when a relative pronoun, can be changed in-
to who, whom, which, or that, omitting 5ucA, same,OT other
words used to demonstrate its antecedent, and substituting
for them the demonstrative particles, the, that, or those,

396. As, when in the objective case, always comes be-
fore the word which governs it, and frequently relates to
a whole sentence for its antecedent ; as, *' I am a linen
draper bold, as all the world doth know." — Cowper,
*' Participles have the same government as the verbs have
from which they are derived." — Murray.

397. Whose, (d) the possessive of who, is also by repu-

e " See instances in Acts iv. 6, 34,-1 Tim. vi. 6, —J no. i. 19. *»
A Whose is resolvable into of whom ^ or oftolUch,



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IW ENCLrsH «;rAmmaIi.

table usage, the adopted possesnive of which^ and relates
either to persons or things.

Authorities for the use of whose.
Nor crush a worm, whose useful light
Might serve, however small,
To show a stumbling stone by night.
And save him from a fall. — Cowper,
The leaves greet thee. Spring ! the joyous leaves.
Whose tremblings gladden many a copse and glade.-^r«.i9fmafi#.
Some felled the pine ; the oak while others hewed.
Whose leaves a thousand changing springs renewed ;
Whose stately bulk a thousand winters stood. — Hoole*8 Ttuso.
Be thine the tree whose dauntless boughs
Brave summer's drought and winter's gloom. — Sir W, Scott,

That day the golden trump.

Whose voice, from centre to circumference
Of all created things is heard distinct. — Mohert Pollok.
The great standard of purity is use, whose essential properties
have been considered and explained. — Campbell* s Rhet,

Time is a species of quantity, whose measure can be expressed,
in hours, minutes, and seconds. — Day's Algebra.

Nor is any language complete, wJwse verbs have not tenses. —
Harris's Hermes.

Adverbs or Modifiers are usually placed near the words, t0&««e
signification they are intended to affect. — Dr. Webster,

S98. Relative pronouns are so called, because they
are dependent for their person, number, and gender, on
a preceding word called their antecedent.
999. Declension of the Relative Pronouns. See 209.
The relative whom is erroneously used afler than, in-
stead of who. If either is used, who is to be preferred.
But reputable usage, as well as analogy, decides in favor
of using a personal pronoun in the nominative case ; as,
Washington, than whom, (who) (is,) no man is more de-
serving. No man is more deserving than he is.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

400. An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun thai is
used in asking questions,— one that relates to a following
word, sentence, or part of a sentence, called its suhse"
quent ; as. Whom did you see ? I saw Henr\j,

401. The subsequent, or that which an interrogative
pronoun represents, is the word or phrase which will sup-
ply its place in the answer to the question.

402. The subsequent is always in the same case that
the word is, which asks the question ; as, " Who wrote



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fiTYMOLOOY. COMPOUND PRONOUNS. 113

the letter ? Deborah wrote it." Who and Deborah are
m the same case.

403. The interrogative pronouns are whaty who, whose,
tohom, and which.

404. What is used only in the nominative and objec-
tive cases ; the other interrogative pronouns are declined
like the relative pronouns.

405. Widchy when used interrogatively, refers to one
of two or more persons or things. Whether was former-
ly used in asking questions with a dual limitation, where
tohich is now used ; as, '' Whether is greater, the gift, or
the altar that sanctifieth the gihV'—Matt. 23, 19.



LESSON L.
COMPOUND PRONOUNS.

406. " What is often used instead of that which, or the
thing which, and sometimes instead of those which ; and
is therefore a compound pronoun, including both the ante-
cedent and the relative ;" as, " What is commanded, must
be obeyed." The antecedent part is a demonstrative
pronoun, representing the noun thing understood.

407. " Whatever has the meaning of any thing which
or every thing which,** and the antecedent part is gener-
ally an indefinite pronoun ; as " Whatever we do, should
be well done."

408. Whatsoever has a meaning similar to that of what'
ever ; as, " Whatsoever he doeth, shall prosper." — Bible,

409. ** Whoever is frequently a contpm/n^ pronoun, used
instead of any person, or every person who ; as, " Whoever
disregards the rights of his fellow beings, deserves the de-
testation of mankind."

410. Whoso and whosoever are similar to whoever both
in meaning and use ; as, " Whoso keepeth his mouth and
his tongue, keepeth his soul from trouble." — Prov.~
"Whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup
of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and
blood of the Lord."— 1 Cor. li, 27.

411. The compound pronouns are what, whatever, what"
soever, whoever, whoso, and whosoever. Whatsoever, who*
so, and whosoever, are confined to the solemn style«

10*



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114 ENcn.lSH <;flAMMAR.



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.



412. " WhOf whoever^ whoso, lohosoever, which, which'
ever, whichsoever, what, whatever, and whatsoever, are iw-
definite pronouns, when not relative, interrogative, or
compound."

413. What stands for an indefinite idea ; as, ** He
cares not what he says or does." — Dr, Webster,

414. Whoever represents whatever person; as, "He
has done unjustly, whoever (a) he is." — Walker's Trans.
Lat. Read.

Not thod, whoever thou art, with vaunting breath,
Shalt long enjoy the triumph of my death. — HooWt Tasso.
And deem the bard, whoever he be,
Unworthy. — Cowper.

415. Who, when an indefinite pronoun, involves the
meaning of what person; as, "I know not who he is."
" Tell me whom you saw." " I do not care who knows
iV*—Steele.

How loved, how valued once, avails thee not.
To whom related, or by whom begot. — Cowper.
Is it not lawful for us, not to know wJuf thou art ? — Trantt
Walker's Lat. R.

416. Whatever is a substitute for whatevet* thing or
things, and is either an indefinite pronoun or an adjec-
tive belonging to thing or things understood ; as, " WAcrf-
ever we do, we should do all for the glory of God."
" Whatever Gravity (may) be, it is plain, that it acts ev-
ery moment of time." — Ostrander*s Ast.

417. The personal pronouns, he, she, and they, and their varia-
tions, are used indefinitely, when followed by relative pronouns ;
as, *«^«, (that man,) who is pious, enjoys happiness.** "She,
(that woman,) who is virtuous, deserves esteem.'* " They, (those
persons,) who labor, will receive the rewards of industry.** He,
the, and they do not represent any particular persons, but desig-
nate such as fall within the sphere of description.

418. You is used indefinitely by wHters, indicating any per-
sons whom they may imagine to be addressed.

419. One is frequently an indefinite prbnoun representing the
noun person without identifying who the person is ; it forms its
plural regularly, and sometimes has the article the or adjectives
belonging to it ; as, any one, every one, the one, the great one^.
It also has a possessive case ; as one's self— as one's duty.

Examples. — " Every one (person) knows how the loss of a tooth,
or a contusion on the lip, affects the formation of oral sounds.** —
Porter's Analysis.

« Inique fecit, quisquiaWXe est.



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ETYMOLOGY. DSMON8TRATITB PRONOUNS. 115

Eneh one shall turn to his own people. — I$a. 13. L9Wth*§
Trans,
Let every one that hath ears to hear, attend to it. — Doddridge.
I have commanded my sanctified one$, — I have also called my
mighty ones. — Isa. 13, 3.

420. One sometimes represents an antecedent noun in the same
definite manner that personal pronouns do, where a repetition of
the uoun would he unpleasant to the ear, and where a personal
pronoun could not properly be used ; as, ** Imperfect articulation
comes not so much from bad organs as from the abuse of good
ones,**— Port er^s Analysis,

DF.MONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
42t. " This and that, these and those, are occasionally pro-
nouns, pointing out the nouns to which they relate, as more nearer
more distant ; and they are therefore called demonstrative pro-
nouns. This relates to the latter of two nouns; and that to the
former;*' as,

Self (a) ^^^^ *n<J reason to one end aspire.
Pain their aversion, pleasure their desire ;
But greedy that (self love,) its object would devour;
Utis (reason,) taste the honey and not wound the flower. — Pope,

422. Former and latter are eom^\Xmes demonstrative pronouns;
as, ^'Sublimity and vehemence are often confounded, the latter
(vehemence ) being considered a species of the former , (sublim-
ity,) Camp, Rhet,

VARIOUS KINDS.

423. This and that frequently represent sentences or parts of
sentences ; as, <« And this by dear experience gain.

That pleasure's ever bought with pain,** — Merrick,

424. Such, that, both, and wlUch, are sometimes pronouns,
used in the same manner that one is in 420.

Such.

" Call man what thou fanciest such,** (man.)

«* Will was originally a principal verb, and is still used as such
in our language." — Dr, Webster.

"Many words commonly belonging to other parts of speech, are
occasionally used as nouns, and must be parsed as such.** —
Goold Brown* s Grammar.

That,

The most acceptable offering is that (the offering) of a broken
and contrite spirit.

His death was that (the death j of a true Christian. — Brown*§
JEne.

The powers of the mind, like those (the powers) of the body,
must be strengthened by experience. — Hedge,
Both.

There arrived, both (Ad;im and Eve ) stood,

Both turned. — Milton,

Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them to Abitneleeh,

a When nouns are used t* adjectives, it is better to omit the hyphen fre-
qqenHy used to Join them to the fonowing noun.



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116 ISNOLISH GRAMMAR.

and both of them (Abraham and Abimelech,) made a coTenant
Gen. 21, 27.

Which,
A good temper is the next qualification ; the value oitohieh, in
a friend, you will want no arguments to prove. — Mrs, Chapone,

COMPOUND WORDS.
42d W1iat,(a) whatever, and whatsoever y are some-
times compound words in meaning, being used instead of
an adjective or article and a relative pronoun.

426. What, whatever, and whatsoever, when compound
words, generally precede the nouns to which they belong
as adjectives or articles, and which they represent as pro-
nouns ; and in analyzing, the noun comes between the
adjective or article and the pronoun.

Illustrations,
And show what fears (those fears which,) his trembling bosom
move. Hoole*8 Tosmo.

What book (any book whichj he wished he read ;
What sage (any sage-ti>AomJ to hear, be heard. Pollok.

What blessings (those blessings which,) thy free bounty gives.
Let me not cast away. — Pope.

Nature endows, with richer treasures, whatever happy man
(every happy man who,) will deign to use them.— ^Ar^fmrfe.

In what manner (the manner in which,) be succeeded, is un«
known to me.—Smith*8 Pro. Gram,

This he said, signifying t&^a^ death ^fAe death which) he should
die.— /no. 12, 33.

We will certainly do whatsoever thing (every thing which,)
goeth forth out of our mouth. — Jer. 44, 17.

What time (at the time when or at which,) the sun withdrew

his cheerful light.
And sought the sable caverns of the night. — Hoole*8 Ta^so.

427. The preceding quotations exemplify the philo-
sophical meaning of what^ whatever, and whatsoever,
when compound pronouns f as, "What improves, edifies
us." What is elliptically what thing or that thing which

SUBSTITUTES.

428. Specifying adjectives and all other adjectives el-
liptically used to represent nouns understood, may be pars-
ed as substitutes and in the same person, number, gender,
and case as the nouns to which they elliptically belong.

429. Those who prefer to do it, can parse all substi-
tutes as adjectives belonging to their nouns understood ;
as, " Each (person) will support what all (persons) ap-
prove."

• Amhorities for using eowipound toordt, — Dr. 1¥$btter and Ooold Brown.



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£T¥llOLOOT. fiVBSTITCTES. 117

Obs.—Eaeh may be parsed as a subititute for each p€r$on,€i
the third person, singular number, or as an adjective belonginr to
person understood. ^11 may be parsed in the same manner, whea
in the plural number.
430. All, another, any, each, either, few, first, last, little, much,
(a) many, neither, none, one, oton, other, same, several, sofne,
such, this, and ^^(^andali adjectives and participles preceded by
the article the,ikre frequently used as substitutes.
Illustrations.

No man can do aihother*s (another man's) duty. Ask not an^
other (man) to do thine.

If a soul sin through ignorance against any (commandment) of
the commandments of the Lord. — Lev. 4, 2,

Either (road) of the roads, is goo<l.

The last shall he first, and theirs* last.^Matt. 20, 16.

Many (persons) are biased by prejudice.

JVeither (office) of the offices will suit the candidate.

481. JVone (b) (no one) is a substitute for the negative adjec-
tive no, and a noun understood, and is used by good authorities in
both numbers ; as, " ^one (no person) is so deaf as he that will
n<rt hear." " JVbnc (no productions) of their productions are ex-
tant.*' — Blair.

432. One is often a substitute for the same noun in the singu-
lar number that follows it in the plural and is separated from it by
the preposition of; as, " One (book) of the books was lost.**

433. Other is a substitute for nouns in the possessive singular
and in all the cases in the plural number ; as, ** The other's (oth-
er boy's) lesson was easy."

Some (persons) talk of subjects that they do not understand ;
others (other persons) praise virtue who do not practise it. — Dr.
Johnson.

He came unto his own (possessions,) and his own (people) re*
ceived him not. — Jno. 1, 11.

Charity is the same (thing) with benevolence or love. — Blair.

Jabal was the father of such (persons) as dwell in tents, and
such as have cattle. — Gen. 4,20.

This (book) is my book ; that (book) is yours. All (men) are
in pursuit of happiness. Blessed are the meek (persons.) The
young (persons) may die ; the aged (persons) must die. The
f>a9t (time) should be a memento for the /t*<Mre, (time.) The ma-
ny (persons) form their opinions from the/eto.

434. An adjective with the article ffte before it, is equivalent in
meaning to an adjective and its noun expressed ; as. The past and
the future are equivalent to j^os^ time and/t*ft«re time. The ar-
ticle the before adjectives in such cases denotes the absence of
some noun.

ONE AirOTHER AND EACH OTHER.

485. One and another are used together to distribute a plural
number collectively expressed by an antecedent noun or pronouB
among the several individuals, comprising that number. Each oth-

a Much is derived from a Saxon word meaning heap.— Fotole.
b JVViM, pro. nftn, bears the same relation to no, that my does to



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118 ENGUSH GRABfMAB.

er is used In a similar manner, but is properly restricted to a dual
limitation. Correct writers, however, apply it, like each, to more
than two individuals.

436. One another is used, when we speak of several persons or
things; as, "Four men were talking to one another," — Usher^e
Gram, •

437. Each other ought to be used, when we speak of only two
persons or things ; as, <* Harriet and Eliza are attached to each
other.*'^Id,

LESSON LI.
VERB.

438. A verb is a word which signifies to he, to ctct^ to
impart actioUy or to receive it ; as, I am, I act, I govern, 1
am governed ; I believe, thou believest, he believes,

GENERAL DIVISIONS.

439. Verbs are divided into three classes, — active, pas-
sive, and neuter,

440. An cu:tive verb expresses an action which ends
on some object, or one which passes from an agent to an
object, and governs an objective case either expressed or
understood; as, " Ezra respects his teacher."

441. A passive verb denotes action received by iia
nominative case, or the noun or pronoun to which the
verb refers ; as, " Ezra is respected by his teacher."

442. A neuter verb expresses existence or the state of
existence, or it expresses an action that is wholly limited
to its nominative case ; as, " Thou art, he is, they sit,
we walk."

443. The more philosophical division of verhs into transitive,
passive, and intransitive, can he adopted, whenever preferred.

444. The nominative case to an active verb generally precedes
the verb, and the objective case follows it.

DEFINITE FORM OF THE VERB.

445. The subjoining of a participle ending with ing to the aux-
iliary verb to be, gives to the verbal (a) tense a precise and def'
inite meanijig. Verbs thus constructed, denote continued, pro-
gressive, and unfinished action or existence, are either active or
neuter, and are said to be in the Definite Form ; as. The
masters were studying, while the misses were reciting.

446. All verbs, whose tenses are not formed by subjoining a
participle in ing, are used indefinitely, apart from adverbs or
phrases which modify their meaning ; as, ** Brutus slew Caesar.*

447. Verbs in the definite form sometimes have a passive sig
nification ; that is, the action is received by the subject of the
verb ; as, The house is building.

• Fierbal tense, tense of the veriK



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ETYMOLOGY. VERB. 119

448. The component parts of the English verb, or name of ac-
tion, are few, simple, and natural ; they consist of three words ;
as, plough, ploughing, ploughed. These words and their inflec-
tions, can be employed either actively or passively. Actively,
" they plough the fields, they are ploughing the fields, they
ploughed the fields ;'* passively, *' the faelds plough well, the
fields are ploughing, the fields are ploughed" — /. Grant, p. 65.

449. English and American writers have of late introduced a
new kind of phraseology, which has become quite prevalent in the
periodical and popular publications of the day. Their intention,
doubtless, is to supersede the use of the verb in the definite form,
when it has a passive signification. They say, *< The ship is be'
ing built, — time is being wasted, — work is being advanced," in-
stead of " the ship is building, time is wasting, the work is ad*
vancing,** Such a phraseology is a solecism too palpable to re-
ceive any favor ; it is at war with the practice of the most distin-
guished writers in the English language, such as Dr. Johnson and
Addison. When an individual says, a house is being burned, he
declares that a house is existing, burned, which is impossible ; for
being means existing, and burned, consumed by fire. The house
ceases to exist as such, after it is consumed by fire. But when
he says a house is burning, we understand that it is consuming by
fire; instead of inaccurate precision, doubt, and ambiguity, we
have a form of expression perfectly intelligible, beautiful, definite,
and appropriate.

450. The definite form of the verb, is one of the most beautiful
and comprehensive idioms of the language. Verbs in the com-
mon form are used indefinitely,

451. When active verbs are changed into passive verbs, the ob-
ject of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb,
and the agent of the active verb is expressed in the objective case
with the preposition by, with, or in ; as, ** Alexander conquered
Persia." Persia was conquered by Alexander,

462. " The verb bear, to bring forth, when used in the passive
voice, and when not followed by the preposition by, has bom in-
stead Osborne. The \ethfreight,\Ti the passive, \iz.s freighted or
fraught."

453. " Neuter verbs expressing change of place or state, fre-
quently have a passive form ; as, "The sun is risen.'* "He is

gone."

454. This form of expression seems objectionable, notwithstan-
ding it is sanctioned by such authorities as Lowth and Priestley.
We prefer the use oi have io be, or am and its variations, with the
perfect participles of neuter verbs. — See examples in Murray^s
Octavo Gram. p. 186.

TERMINATIONS.

455. Verbs with respect to their terminations, are di-
vided into regular and irregular.

REGULAR VERBS.

456. A regular verb is a verb, whose imperfect tense
and perfect participle end with ed; as, Pres. save, Imp.
taved, Per. Part, saved.



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19



ENGLISH CIRAMMAR.



457. Regular verbs are of four kinds, — 1, tliose which add d
only wh£U the verb ends with e, — 2, those which add ed only,.—
3, those which, ending with y after a consonant, change y into t
aad add ed, — 4, monosyllables or words accented on the last sylla-
ble» ending with a single consonaiU aAer a single vowel, doubU
the last Letter before ed.

458. If is a consonant before a single vowel in the sam« sylla-
ble ; as in swim. Qu has the power of ku>, therefore, quit doub-
les Uie final consonant in forming the preterit.

jExamples of each kind.



Present,


Imperfect,


Per. Part.


1. Receive,


received.


received.


1. Love,


loved,


loved.


2. Journey,
2. Destroy,
2. Delay,
2. Learn,


journeyed, (a)
destroyed,
delayed,
learned,


journeyed,
destroyed,
delayed,
learned.


2. Woo,


wooed.


wooed.


3. Glorify,
8. RaUfy,


glorified,



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