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grammetre of work performed by a man, an increase of 3 '16 8 c.c. in the
oxygen absorbed, and 4"221 c.c. in the carbon dioxide discharged.

In experiments upon horses, Zuntz and Lehmann^ obtained the
following; results : — -



During Hunger.


Moderate Diet


2-3


1-6


2-1


1-8



Litres per Minute.


C0„

o..


1
Ail- PvnirPf] Carbon Dioxide
An expiied. discharged.


Oxygen absorbed.


Rest 44
Walk 177
Trot 333


1-478
4-342
7-516


1-601

4-766
8-093


•92
■90
■93



It is impossible here to discuss fully the quantitative relationship
between metabolism and work, but the conclusions reached by Katzen-
stein ^ are as follows : — The work performed by the arms in turning a
wheel produces, per unit of work done, a greater increase in the respiratory
exchange than walking or climbing ; the absorption of oxygen is per unit
of work performed somewhat greater for light, than for heavy work ;
the absorption of oxygen and the discharge of carbon dioxide increase

1 FMl. Trcms., Lon<lon, 1859, vol. cxlix. pt. ■>, p. 681.

" Ztschr. f. Biol., Mtinchen, 1866, Bd. ii. S. 459. See also this article, p. 718, and
article by Voit in Hermann's "Handhuch," Bd. vi. Th. 1, S. 201.

'^DeutschesArch.f. Jdin. Med., Leipzicr, 1889, Bd. xlv. S. 461.

■* Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1887, tome civ. p. 1865 ; tome cv. p. 76.

■^ Landw. Jalirh., 1889, Bd. xviii. S. 1 ; Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1890,
vol. xi. p. 396.

^ Arch.f. d. (jes. Physiol., Bonn, 1891, Bd. xlix. S. 380.



INFLUENCE OF FOOD.



717



equally under ordinary conditions, so that the respiratory quotient
remains practically unaltered. It is only immediately after work that
the respiratory quotient increases, and becomes sometimes greater than
unity. The absorption of oxygen needed for the work of walking on
level ground is, per kilo, body weight and minute, 0-1682 c.c.
maximum, and 0-0858 c.c. minimum; for each kilogrammetre of work
performed in climbing, 1-5036 c.c. maximum, and 1-1871 minimum; and
similarly, for turning the wheel, 1"957 c.c.

Lowy ^ shows that there is no deiinite value which can be assigned to
the increase of the respiratory exchange for the performance of a given
quantity of work under all circumstances, for the metabolism dejjends
upon the activity of the muscle, which varies under different conditions.
Active muscle working under favourable conditions performs its work
economically ; fatigued muscle working under unfavourajjle conditions
is the seat of an extravagant metabolism.^

The decrease observed in the respiratory exchange of animals under
the influence of chloroform, ether, chloral, and curari, is to be attributed
chiefly to the great decrease in the activity of the muscles.^

The influence of food upon the respiratory exchange. — The effect
of a meal upon the respiratory exchange is to cause a marked increase
in the intake of oxygen and the output of carbon dioxide ; this is due



Number of
Experiments.


Mean Output of Carbon Dioxide
per Kilo, and Hour.


Condition of Animal.


7

52

4

4


Grms.
1-423
0-902
0-998
0-732


C.c.
723

458
507
372


Pregnant ; very liberal diet of meat.
The same animal ; hunger for 18 dys.
15 ,,
„ ,, 18 „
shortly before death.


6

2
23

12


0-847

1-364

0-888

0-679


430

693
451

345


Male, kept at constant weight with

diet of meat.
Male, maximal diet of meat.
Male, normal diet of meat, but

without water.
Male, inanition, but with water

supplied.


7
6


1-702
1-500


865
763


Female, not full grown ; diet of

meat.
Female, diet of fat.



'^ Arch. f. d. cjes. Physiol., Bonn, 1891, Bd. xlix. S. 405. See also, Gruber, Ztschr. f.
Biol., Miinchen, 1891, Bd. xxviii. S. 466.

^ For further experiments upon the influence of work upon the respiratory exchange of
[a] man, see Hanriot and Richet, Aim. d. chim. ct phi/s., Paris, 1891, Ser. 6, tome
xxii. p. 495 ; and T^-av. du lab. de Ch. Richet, 1894, tome 1 ; (J) animals, Grandis, Arch,
ital. de biol., Turin, 1889, tome xii. p. 237 ; Smith, Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and
London, 1890, vol. xi. p. 65. Criticism of the same byZuntz and Lehmann, ibid., p. 396 ;
Gr^hant, ConijJt. rend. Soc. debioL, Paris, 1891, p. 14.

2 Zuntz, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1876, Bd. xii. S. 522 ; Pfliiger, ibid., 1878,
Bd. xviii. S. 247; Rumpf, ibid., 1884, Bd. xxxiii. S. 538 ; Saint Martin, Com2}t. reiul.
Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1887, tome cv. p. 1126 ; Richet, ibid., 1889, tome cix. p. 190 ; Arch,
de 2}hysiol. norm, etpath., Paris, 1890, tome ii. p. 221 ; Pembrey, " Proc. Physiol. Soc,"
Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1894-95, vol. xvii.



7i8



CHEMISTRY OI' RESPIRATION.



not only to the chemical changes which take place in the food during
digestion and absorption, but also to the increased glandular and
muscular activity of the alimentary canal.^

Although Lavoisier ^ knew that food greatly increased the respiratory
exchange, the first experiments of importance in this connection are those
of Bidder and Schmidt,^ who made numerous observations upon cats ;
the results of some of their experiments are given in the preceding table.

In the case of man and other animals, the influence of food of
various kinds, and of fasting, has been studied by Pettenkofer and
Voit,^ Senator,^ Henneberg,^ Leyden and Frankel,'^ Fredericq,^ and
others ; ^ the general result is that a meal causes an increase in the
intake of oxygen and the output of carbon dioxide, whereas a day of
fasting causes a decrease. The average results obtained upon man by
Pettenkofer and Yoit ^^ are as follows : —





Oaebon Dioxide.


Oxygen. 11


Day.


Night.


Day.


Night.


1. Fasting — Eest


Grms.

403


Grms.
314


Grms.
435


Grms.
326


,, Woi'k for nine
hours out of twelve


930


257


922


150


2. Moderate Diet — Rest


533


395


443


449


, , , , Work for
nine hours out of twelve


856


353


795


211



Upon the fasting-man Cetti, determinations of the respiratory
exchange were made by Zuntz and Lehmann,^^ and they found that the
absorption of oxygen and the discharge of carbon dioxide per kilo,
of the man's weight quickly reached its minimum, and did not fall
below this point during the progress of the fast ; in fact there was a
slight increase. Thus the absorption of oxygen per kilo, and minute
was 4*65 c.c. on the third to sixth day, and 4-73 c.c. on the ninth to
eleventh day of the fast. Before the first meal at the end of the

i See p. 719.

- "OEuvres," tome ii. pp. 695-696.

2 " Die Verdauungssafte und der Stoffwechsel, " Leipzig, 1852, S. 321-362.

^ Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm., 1862-63, Supp. Bd. ii. S. 52-361.

^ Arch. f. Anat., Physiol., u. wissensch. Med., 1872, S. 1.

*" Landwirthsch. Versuchsstat., 1869, S. 306, 409.

■^ Virchows Arcliiv, 1879, Bd. Ixxvi. S. 136.

^ Arch, de bioL, Gand, 1882, tome iii. p. 733.

** E. Smith, Phil. Trans., London, 1859, vol. cxlix. p. 715; Hanriot and Richet,
Comx)t. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1888, tome cvi. p. 419 ; Zuntz, Fortschr. d. Med., Berlin,
1887, Bd. V. S. 1; Meissel, Strohmer, and Lorenz, Ztschr. f. Biol., Mlinchen, 1886, Bd.
xxii. S. 63 ; Bcx-ck and Bauer, ibid., 1874, Bd. x. S. 336 ; Geppert, Arch. f. exper. Paih.
11. Plmrmakol., Leipzig, 1887, Bd. xxii. S. 366; Hanriot and Richet, Ann. de chim. et
j)hys., Paris, 1891, S(5r. 6, tome xxii. p. 495 ; Marcet, Proc. Pay. Soc. London, 1892,
vol. 1. p. 58 ; 1893, vol. Iii. p. 213 ; Rubner, Peitr. z. Physiol. Carl Ludivig z. s. 70
Geburtst., Leipzig, 1887, S. 259 ; Johansson, Landergren, Sondeu, and Tigerstedt, Skandin,
Arch. f. Physiol., Leipzig, 1896, Bd. vii. S. 29.
10 Ztschr. f. Biol., Munchen, 1866, Bd. ii. S. 459.
" For criticism of the determination of oxygen, see p. 696.
12 Berl. klin. Wchnschr., 1887, S. 428.



CO,






v^ ^2


:=


0-73


■ 02






3J


>>


068


))


5>


0-65


))


)3


0-66-0-68
0-73-0-81



A CTIVITY OF THE ALIMENTAR Y CANAL. 7 1 9

fast the absorption of oxygen and the discharge of carbon dioxide were
4"67 c.c. and 3'16 c.c. per kilo, and minute ; after this meal the
figures were respectively 5'05 c.c. and 3-46 c.c. The effects of the fast
and of food upon the respiratory quotient were as follows : —

On last day of food, mixed diet

On second day of fasting .
On third day of fasting .
During the remainder of the fast
When food, mixed diet, was again taken

Eegarding the influence of diet upon the respiratory quotient, it is
only necessary here to state that an animal fed on a vegetable diet has a
quotient closely approaching unity, for its chief food, the carbohydrates,
contains enough oxygen to combine with the hydrogen to form water ;
that a carnivorous animal has a quotient about 074, and an omnivorous
animal, such as man, a somewhat higher quotient ^ ; and finally, that
even a herbivorous animal has a low quotient during starvation, for it
then lives upon its own tissues.

The influence of activity of the alimentary canal upon the
respiratory exchange. — It has already been shown that a meal
increases the respiratory exchange, and this effect was originally attri-
buted solely to the oxidation of the food material taken up by the
blood. Speck,^ however, in 1874, pointed out that this increase in
metabolism followed the taking of food so rapidly that it appeared to be
due, in the first place, to the augmented activity of the alimentary canal.
The first experiments to support this view were those made by Mering
and Zuntz,^ who showed that food placed in the stomach increased the
absorption of oxygen and the discharge of carbon dioxide, whereas sub-
stances such as lactic acid, butyric acid, glycerin, sugar, egg albumin, and
peptone, injected into the blood, increased the output of carbon dioxide, but
had no marked effect upon the intake of oxygen. Eubner * and Fredericq^
also found increased metabolism after food, due apparently, in the first
place, to the activity of the glands of the alimentary canal ; ^ and the
observations made by Lehmann and Zuntz^ upon the fasting-man
Cetti showed that during the fast the respiratory exchange was
constant, except on two days when Cetti suffered from colic ; there
was then an increase in the intake of oxygen and the output of carbon
dioxide. These pieces of evidence have been followed up by Lowy,^
who determined the respiratory exchange of fasting men before and
after the activity of the alimentary canal had been increased by a dose
of sodium sulphate, or a draught of cold water. Experiments made
upon six men showed that the increased activity of the alimentary canal
brought about in this way increased the intake of oxygen and the
output of carbon dioxide by about 10 per cent. ; the greatest increase

^ See tables on pp. 706-708.

2 Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharm., Leipzig, 1874, Bd. ii.

3 Arch./, d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1877, Bd. xv. S. 634 ; 1883, Bd. xxxii. S. 173.
■» Ztschr.f. Biol., Muncheu, 1883, Bd. xix. S. 830.

5 Arch. cU hiol., Gand, 1882, tome iv. p. 433.

6 See also Slosse, Arch. f. Physiol, Leipzig, 1890, Suppl. Bd. S. 164 ; Tangl, ibid.,
1894, S. 283.

"^ Berl. klin. Wchnschr., 1887, S. 428.

^ Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1888, Bd, xliii. S. 515.



720 CHEMISTRY OF RESPIRATION.

was about 24 per cent, in the carbon dioxide, and 17 per cent, in the
oxygen. Sodium chloride and sodium bicarljonate had no effect on the
intestines or upon the respiratory exchange. Lowy suggests that the
therapeutic vahie of the waters at Carlsbad and Marienbad, in cases of
disordered metabolism, may be partly due to this stimulating effect of
sodium sulphate.

The influence of the size of the animal upon the respiratory-
exchange.^ — The smaller an animal the greater is its surface in relation
to its mass, for the surface increases as the square, the mass as the cube.
Now, small mammals and birds have a temperature equal to or even
higher than that of large animals of the same classes ; and, on account of
the relatively greater surface which they expose for the loss of heat,
they must have a relatively far greater production of heat than the
large animals, for there is generally no marked difference in the pro-
tective coat of fur or feathers. Heat is produced by a process of
combustion in the tissues, and the respiratory exchange is a measure,
although it may not be an absolutely exact one, of this combustion.
Theoretically, therefore, a much more vigorous respiratory exchange
should exist in the smaller warm-blooded animals. The experiments of
many observers, especially of Letellier,^ Eegnault and Eeiset,^ Pott,* and
Eichet,^ have shown that such is the case, not only for animals of the
same species, living upon similar diet and having similar habits, but
also for animals of different species, with very different diets and
habits.^

Paul Bert '^ has shown that this difference in the rate of metabolism
in small and large animals has become habitual, for it persists even
when the animals are put under abnormal conditions of such a kind
that the loss of heat is relatively the same ; in such an experiment a
pigeon absorbed 234 c.c. of oxygen per 100 grms. of its body weight, and
a sparrow 467 c.c. of oxygen.

A series of experiments have been made by Kichet ^ upon thirty -eight
dogs of different sizes, their weights ranging from 2'2 to 28 kilos., and
the results show that the output of carbon dioxide bears a very constant
relation to the surface of the body, 0-0027 grms. per hour for each
square centimetre of surface. A similar relation holds good for the
intake of oxygen, the respiratory quotient being 0'748. This difference
in metabolism is controlled by the nervous system, for it was found,
in eighteen dogs of different sizes, anaesthetised with chloral, that the re-
spiratory exchange was proportional to the weight of the body, 0'640 to
0'694 grms. COo per kilo, and hour. A somewhat similar series of
observations, made upon birds ^ of different sizes and species, gave
similar results.

^ For a discussion of this subject, see paper by Hoessliu, Arcli. f. Physiol., Leipzig,
1888, S. 323, where numerous references are given ; Rubuer, Ztschr. f. Biol., Miinchen,
1883, Bd. xix. S. 535.

- Ann. de chim. etpJiys., Paris, 1845, Ser. 3, tome xiii. p. 478.

3 Ibid., Paris, 1849, Ser. 3, tome xxvi. p. 299.

^ Landwirthsch. Versuchsstat. , Bd. xviii. S. 81.

^ Arch, de physiol. norm, et path., Paris, 1890, tome xxii. pp. 17, 490 ; 1891, tome
xxiii. !>. 74.

« See tables, pp, 706-708.

'^ "Le9ons sur la physiol. eonip. de la respiration," Paris, 1870, p. 503.

^ Compt. raid. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1889, tome cix. p. 190 ; Arch, de physiol. norm, ct
path., Paris, 1890, tome xxii. p. 17.

^ Arch, de pihysiol. norm, etpath., Paris, 1890, tome xxii. p. 490.



INFL UENCE OF TIME OF DA Y.



721



The influence of time of day upon the respiratory exchange.^
During a series of experiments performed in the years 1813 and 1814,
Prout^ discovered that the amount of carbon dioxide discharged from
the kmgs appeared to be influenced by the time of day, for there was a
regular daily variation; the maximum was generally between 11 A.M.
and 1 P.M. ; then there was a fall to the minimum at 8 p.m. or 9 p.m. in
the evening, and at this low level the discharge of carbon dioxide
remained until 3 a.m. or 4 a.m., when there was a marked rise. A
similar variation was observed by Vierordt,- both in the discharge of
carbon dioxide and in the amount of air respired, and the cause of the
rise he attributed to food. The table on p. 722 gives his average results.

Speck ^ determined the daily variation, both in the intake of oxygen
and in the output of carbon dioxide, and showed the influence of food in
producing the maximum.

further experiments upon the daily variation in the respiratory
exchange have been made by Berg* and Fredericq.^ The following
curve represents the daily variation observed by Fredericq in the oxygen
absorbed by a man : —



A. M.



9 10 11 12



2345



I



\^.5










































i\
























\














** •








/




\












/* ^








/





\










/


\,








/






N.


c






•/


"^


\






/




a


\


«






/




\


"




/






a


•x^






/




\


^




/










- ^R




/




'


V.


• R














•>/








'


^














■>

























Fig. 67. — Fredericq's curve of daily variation in tlie absorption of oxygen,
R = time of a meal.

The causes of these variations in the daily respiratory exchange are
to be attributed mainly to food and muscular activity, for during sleep,
as E. Smith,^ Pettenkofer and Voit,''' and others ^ have shown, the meta-
bolism is greatly diminished, and also in a less degree during hunger.
In addition, however, there appears to be a certain periodicity stamped

1 Ann. Phil., London, 1813, vol. ii. p. 330 ; vol. iv. p. 331.

""Physiol, d. Athmens," Karlsruhe, 1845; "Wagner's " Handworterbuch, " Bd. ii.
S. 883.

^"Untersuch. ueber Sauerstoffserbrauch u. Kohlensaureausathmung des Menschen,"
Cassel, 1871, S. 31 ; Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol., Leipzig, 1874, Bd. ii. S. 405 ;
ibid., 1880, Bd. xii. S. 1.

■* "Einfluss der Athembewegungen auf die Ausscheidung der Kohlensiiure durch die
Lungen," Dorpat, 1869.

^ Arch, de MoL, Gand, 1882, tome iii. p. 729.

® Phil. Trans., London, 1859, voL cxlix. p. 681.

■^ Ztschr.f. Biol., Mtinchen, 1866, Bd. ii. S. 459.

* Saint-Martin, Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1887, tome cv. p. 1124 ; Rubner,
Bcitr. s. PMjsiol. Carl Ludimj z. s. 70 GeburtsL, Leipzig, 1887, S, 259.
VOL. I. — 46



722



CHEMISTR V OF RESPIRA TION.



1
1


Volume of an


Air expired in


CO 2 expired in




Hour of Daj-.


Respirations
per Minute.


Expiration.


One Minute.


One Minute.


Percentage of
CO, in the
Expired Air.




'^^






C.c


. (37" and 758 Mm.).




9 A.M. .


12-1


503


6090


264


4-32


10 „ .




11-9


529


6295


282


4-47


11 ,, .




11-4


534


6155


278


4-51


12 noon .




11-5


496


5578


243


4-36


Dinner.














1 P.M. .




12-4


513


6343


276


4-35


2 „






13-0


516


6799


291


4-27


3 ,,






12-3


516


6377


279


4-37


4 ,,






12-2


517


6179


265


4-21


5 ,,






11-7


521


6096


252


4-13


6 „






11-6


496


5789


238


4-12


7 „






11-1


489


5428


229


4-22



upon the organism by long-continued habit — a day of work, a night of
rest. This explains the persistence of the daily variation in metabolism,
temperature, pulse, and respiration observed in an animal kept at rest
and without food.

The effect of light in increasing the respiratory exchange is pro-
bably to be attributed chiefly to the increased muscular activity of most
animals in the light.^

The influence of age upon the respiratory exchange. — The
respiration of the fa;tus is relatively small, and this condition, within
certain limits, persists for a short time after l^irth. The estimation,
however, of the effect of age upon the respiratory exchange is not so
simple as it at first appears, for there are two factors which have to
be taken into account. In the first place, the young animal has a
relatively greater surface in proportion to its mass than the adult
animal, and this causes a more rapid respiratory exchange ; in the
second place, young animals of different species are born in different
degrees of development. A newly-born guinea-pig is covered with fur,
has its eyes open, and is able to run about and feed ; whereas a newly-
born rabbit, rat, or mouse is naked, blind, and helpless. A sunilar
contrast is observed in the condition of the newly-hatched chick and
pigeon. Elsewhere it has been shown that newly-born mammals and
birds can be arranged in two classes — those which can and those which
cannot maintain their temperature ; and there is a similar contrast in
the effect of changes of external temperature upon their respiratory
exchange. These factors must, therefore, be remembered in estimating
the effect of age upon the respiratory exchange.

In the case of man, experiments have been made by Andral and
GaA^arret,^ but it is difficult to estimate the influence of the ratio
between mass and surface of the body, for the weights of the suljjects
are not given. In the following table are some of Scharling's ^ results,
which show that, weight for weight of body, the child discharges more
carbon dioxide than the adult : —



^ NumeroiTS references to the controversy on this point will be found in a paper by
Fubini and Benedicenti, Arch. ital. dc Mol., Turin, 1891, vol. xvi. p. SO.

^ •■■'Recherelies sur la quantite d'acide carbonirpie exliale par le poumon dans I'espece
humaine," Paris, 1843. Extract in Ann. cle chim. etphys., Paris, 1843, Ser. 3, tome viii.

" Ana. d Ckem. u. Fharm., 1843, Bd. xlv. S. 214.



RESPIRATION BY THE SKIN.



in



Sex.


Age.


Weight.


Output of
Oai'bon Dioxide in
Twenty-four Hours.


Output of

Carbon Dioxide

per Kilo, and Hour.


Male


35 yeavs


Kilo.
65-5


Grms.
804-72


Grms.
0-512


,,


28 ,,


82


878-95


0-497


))


16 ,,


57-75


822-69


0-594


Female .


19 „


55-75


608-22


0-455


Male


n „


22


488-14


0-925


Female .


10 ,,


23


459-87


0-833



A series of experiments by Pembrey ^ has shown that the_ effect of
age upon the respiratory exchange must be considered in relation to the
temperature of the external air and the stage of development in which
the animal is at birth. Animals born in a condition of advanced
development, like that of guinea-pigs and chickens, have a respiratory
exchange which is relatively two or three times greater than that of
the adult. Animals born in a helpless state, like that of mice and
pigeons, have at the ordinary temperature of the air a metabolism
relatively smaller than that of the adult ; but with a rise in the
external temperature towards the temperature of the body the re-
spiratory exchange increases towards the value in the adult. These
differences, which are intimately connected with the temperature of
the animal, are discussed more fully in other parts ^ of this work.



Eespiration by the Skin and Alimentaey Canal.

Cutaneous respiration of amphibia. — In many of the lower animals
the exchange of gases between the skin and the surrounding air or water is
considerable, and in some of the amphibia is equal to, or even greater than, that
effected by the lungs. As early as the end of the last century, Spallanzani ^
showed that many amphibia could readily take up oxygen and discharge
carbon dioxide after their lungs had been removed, and that in this condition
they lived longer than animals of the same species whose skin had been
covered with varnish. These observations were extended by Edwards/
who found that frogs deprived of their lungs would live a long time, provided
that the external temperature was low. This cutaneous respiration took place
as readily in flowing water as in air, for normal frogs could be kept alive
although never allowed to come to the surface, provided that the temperature
of the water did not exceed 12°; the cutaneous respiration was sufficient for
the small amount of metabolism which occurred at low temperatures. Eegnault
and Keiset ^ found, by direct experiment, that frogs absorbed as much oxygen
and discharged as much carbon dioxide after, as before, removal of their
lungs. The following figures give their results : —



1 Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1895, vol. xviii. p. 363.

- See " Animal Heat," this Text-book, vol. i.

^ "Memoires sur la respiration," trad, par Senebier, Geneve, 1803, pp. 72, 114.

■* "De I'influence des agens physiques sur la vie," Paris, 1824, pp. 12, 41-62.

^ Ann. decliim. etphijs., Paris, 1849, Ser. 3, tome xxvi. p. 506.



724



CHEMISTR Y OF RESPIRATION.



Condition of Frog.


Oxygen per
Kilo, and Hour.


Carbon Dioxide
per Kilo,
and Hour.


COo
O2


Temperature. Remarks.


Normal

After removal of
lungs


Grms.
rMin. 0-063

I^Max. 0-105

j' 0-047

i 0-066


Grms.
0-045

0-081

0-049

0-071


-69
•78
•76
-79


15°-9°

17°
21°


\ Result of
> fiveexperi-
) ments.



Berg/ on the other hand, found the discharge of carbon dioxide considerably
diminished, but this has not been confirmed by Fubini,^ who observed, in
comparative experiments, only a slight decrease in the output of carbon



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