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of the body, and although the circulation of the blood tends to bring
about a mean temperature of the internal parts, local differences are
present. It is important, therefore, that the determinations should be
made in those parts which have a temperature representing the internal
temperature ; and in order that the results may be comparable, the
observations should as far as possible be made in similar anatomical
positions.

The most suitable place for the application of the thermometer
varies under different conditions, and methods have to be considered,
not only in as far as they are scientifically sound, but also in respect to
their ease in practice.

The rectum naturally offers the readiest access to the internal parts, and
thermometers with or without a metal guard may be safely introduced 5 or
6 cms. This method is the most suitable in the case of animals, and may be
advantageously employed in infants. The vagina, uterus, and Madder of
women and female animals of suitable size have a similar value to that of the
rectum.

In order to obtain the internal temperature of the body, the bulb of the
thermometer, previously warmed in the mouth, may be inserted in the stream
of urine as it leaves the urethra.^ Apart, however, from the limited applica-
bility of this method, there is a danger of a loss of heat by evaporation and
radiation, but with care excellent results may be obtained.

The axilla is a convenient place for thermometric determinations in man,
for it is not liable to great variations in temperature. It is necessary, how-
ever, that the axilla be closed well and long enough for it to attain the
temperature of a closed cavity ; in very thin or Avasted subjects it is difficult
to effect this, and the temperature should therefore be taken elsewhere in such
cases.

The groin has also been selected by some physicians for the observation of
temperature, but in man it is not so easy to retain the thermometer in the
fold of the groin as in the closed axilla. The method is useful in the case of
infants.

The mouth, on account of convenience, has been widely selected for the
clinical observation of temperature, but the readings of a thermometer, even
when the bulb is placed imder the tongue and the mouth is firmly closed, are
liable to be low, owing to the danger of cooling of the tissues of the mouth,
externally by cold air, internally by the inspired air. The mouth is also liable
to considerable local variation of temperature.

In order to obtain accurate results, the thermometer should be retained for
eight minutes in the mouth, ten minutes in the well-closed and dry axilla, and

^ For an account of the introduction of the thermometer into clinical use, see Wunder-
lich, "Medical Thermometry," iVciw Sycl. Soc. Translation, 1871, p. 19; Lorain, "De la
temperature du corps humain," Paris, 1877, tome i. p. 39 et scq.

^ Stephen Hales, "Statical Essays," London, 1731, 2nd edition, vol. i. p. 59 ; Martine,
"Essays, Medical and Pliilosophical," 1740, p. 335; Blagden, Phil. Trans., London, 1775,
vol. Ixv. pt. 1, p. 114; Davy, ibid., 1844, j)t. 1, p. 63: Mantegazza, Presse med. beige,
Bruxelles, 1863, tome xv. p. Ill ; Oertmann, Arch. f. d. gcs. Physiol., Bonn, 1878, Bd.
xvi. S. 101.



WARM-BLOODED AND COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS. 787

for three or four minutes in the rectum or vagina ;i it should be kept in
position for a minute or two after the mercury has become stationary.

Different values have been given by various oliservers for the
temperature in the mouth, axilla, and rectum ; these will be critically
examined later, but at present it may be stated that the temperature
in the rectum is generally about three- or four-tenths higher than that
in the axilla or mouth. Under certain circumstances, however, this
relationship is altered. Thus Bosanquet^ found that, although the
temperature in the rectum was almost invariably higher than that in
the mouth, the average difference being four-tenths, yet on some occa-
sions, as immediately after eating, the temperature in the mouth
exceeded that in the bowel; while on others, as during vigorous
exercise, the heat of the mouth sank considerably, e.g. to 35°'6 (96° F.),
that of the rectum rising to 37°-7 (99°-8) or 37°-8 (100°). Violent
exercise was found by Davy ^ to lower the temperature in the mouth,
and raise that in the axilla. The probable explanations of these differ-
ences are that vigorous exercise would, by the increase of respiration,
cool the mouth, and by increasing the vascularity of the axilla raise the
heat in that part. The increase in the temperature of the mouth
immediately after eating is probably due to the increase in the blood
supply and activity of the muscles and glands in that cavity.

In order to obtain the maximal temperature of the interior of the body,
Kronecker and Meyer ^ used small bulbs of mercury, made according to
the principle of Dulong and Petit's outflow thermometer. The animal
was made to swallow the small bulb, which, after evacuation by the
bowel, was placed in water gradually warmed until the mercury ex-
panded to the point of outflow; the temperature of the water repre-
sented the maximal temperature of the body. It was found by this
method that the maximal temperature of a dog was 39°-2 and that of a
rabbit 40°-2, the rectal temperatures varying respectively from 37°'8 to
38°-2, and 37°-0 to 37°-9. Special thermo-electric methods will be
mentioned in the discussion of surface temperature.

Warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals. — An important differ-
ence in temperature exists between the higher and lower animals. Those
animals which are high in the scale of evolution, such as birds and
mammals, have a high temperature, which is fairly constant and in-
dependent of the temperature of the surrounding air. The lower
animals, on the contrary, have a temperature dependent upon, and only
slightly above, that of their surroundings, and thus liable to considerable
variations. This difference between the two classes is expressed by
the terms " warm-blooded " and " cold-blooded " animals. The classifica-
tion, however, is not absolutely exact, for there are mammals, such as
the marmot, hedgehog, bat, and dormouse, which are in an intermediate
position ; in warm weather these animals have a high temperature,
which is fairly constant and independent of their surroundings, but in
winter they become inactive, they hibernate, and their temperature
falls and varies with that of their surroundings. On the other hand,
there are bees, animals of a much lower order, which have and maintain

1 Crombie, Indian Ann. Mad. Sc, Calcutta, 1873, vol. xvi. pp. 554-559.

- Lancet, Loudon, 1895, vol. i. p. 672.

^ "Researches," London, 1839, vol. i. p. 199.

4 Arch./. Physiol., Leipzig, 1878, S. 546.



788 ANIMAL HEAT.

a higher temperature than that of most cold-blooded animals, and are
not reduced to spend the winter in a torpid state.

Even in the case of the most perfectly warm-blooded animals there is
a stage in which they resemble cold-blooded animals ; infants and young
animals born in an immature condition cannot maintain the temperature
of their bodies at the normal height of the temperature of the adult ;
they need some accessory source of heat, such as the warmth of the
parent's body.

The terms " warm-blooded " and " cold-blooded " are inexact, for the tem-
perature of a so-called cold-blooded animal living in the tropics may, under
some circumstances, equal that of a mammal. John Hunter ^ shoAved that
the essential difference in the two classes was in the constancy and incon-
stancy of the temperature of the two groups, and he suggested that the warm-
blooded animals should be called " animals of a permanent heat in all atmo-
spheres;" the cold-blooded, "animals of a heat variable with every atmosphere."
Again, in 1845, Donders- pointed out the same fact, and called the two groups
of animals, those with a constant and those with an inconstant temperature.
A year or two later, Bergmann^ discussed very fully the objections to the
old terms, and suggested the definitions, " animals Avith a constant temperature
and animals with a varying temperature, or liomoiothermic and 2^oi]dlothermic
animals." In the present article, however, the terms " warm-blooded " and
" cold-biooded " are retained, for they have been sanctioned by long usage, and
their meaning is well understood. A further reason for their retention is
found in the fact that there is no hard-and-fast line between the animals with
a constant temperature and those with a varying temperature.

The temperature of man and other warm-blooded animals. —

The temijerature of man. — The mean daily temperature of a healthy
man varies slightly according to the part of the body in which it is
observed: in the rectum it is 37°-2 (98°-96 F.), in the axilla 36°-9
(98°-45 F.), in the mouth 36°-87 (98°-36 F.). These figures are the
averages selected from the different observations given in the table on
p. 789, and represent the mean temperature of a working day.

The normal temperature of man is generally stated, as the result
of John Davy's numerous observations, to be 36°'9 (98°'4 F.) in the mouth.
This, however, is wrongly looked upon as the mean temperature of
twenty-four hours, for it represents the mean of observations taken
chiefly during the active part of a day, from about 8 A.M. to 12 o'clock
midnight ; all observers agree that the lowest temperatures are found
between midnight and early morning, and for very evident reasons the
observations during this period are few. The mean temperature of
twenty-four hours is therefore without doubt below 36°-9 (98°-4 F.), and
the observations of Casey, Clifford Allbutt, and Ogle show that this
figure is even too high for the mean temperature of a working day.
The average obtained from their results is 36°-7 (98°-14 F.) for the
temperature taken in the mouth. The observations upon the tem-
perature between midnight and morning are so few, that it is im-
possible at present to give the mean temperature of a day of twenty-four
hours.

^ "Works," Palmer's edition, London, 1837, vol. iii. p. 16.

- "Der Stoffwechsel als die Quelle der Eigenwixrme bei Pilanzen iind Thiereii," Wies-
baden, 1847, S. 12-13.

» "GiJttinger Studien," 1847, Abth. 1, S. 595.



TEMPERATURE OF MAN AND ANIMALS.



789



Maximum.


Minimum.


Mean Daily
Temperature.


Place of
Observation.


Observer.


37°-2


36°-5


36° -9


Mouth


Davy. 1


37°-5


36°-8


37°-2


jj


Gierse."


37°-0


36°-3


36°-7


^j


Hooper. 3


37°-36


36°-63


37°-05


))


Hallmann.^


37°-14
37°-12


36°-63
36°-39


36°-93\
36°-81/




Lichtenfels and Frohlich.''


37° -0


36° -1


36°-7


,,


Casey."


37°-0


36°-6


36°-8


J )


Cliftbrd AUbutt.'^


37°-0


36°-2


36°-65




Ogle.«


38°-0


36°-2


37° -0


Axilla


Wunderlicli.^


37°-3


36°-l




J,


Piinger and Stuart.^''


37°-44


36°-15


36'°-89


,,


Liebermeister."


37°-13


36°-73


36° -9


J,


Damrosch.^-


37°-4


36°-l


36°-7


J,


Billet. 13


37°-9


36°-3


37°-l


))


Billroth."


37° -8


36°-5


37°-2


Rectum


Jurgensen.i'


37°-l


36°-6


36°-85
37°-l


"


Neuhauss.^®
Bosanquet."


37"°-'35


36°-95


37°-13


, J


Jaeger. ^^


37° -4


36°-15


36° -8


';


mcol.i"


37°-3


36°-l


36° -9


Urine


Richet.2»


37°-95


36°-4


37°-2
36°-9
37°-l


"


Mantegazza.^^
Gley.2^
Rondeau. 2^


37'°-6


36° -2


36° -9


"


Pembrey.^'*



The temijerature of other warm-hloodecl animals. — The observations
upon the temperature of animals are numerous, but have not been
repeated often enough under different conditions which are known to
affect the temperature of man. On this account, and also because
animals are known to have a somewhat variable temperature, it is
impossible in most cases to give the mean temperature. The following
table gives some of the results obtained by different observers : —

^ Phil. Trans., London, 1845, pt. 2, p. 319.

- "Qufenam sit Ratio Caloris Organici, etc.," Halae, 1842, p. 40.
3 Med. Times and Gaz., London, 1866, vol. ii. p. 483.
* Quoted from Landois, "Lehrbuch d. Physiol.," Aufl. 3, S. 406.

^ Denkschriften d. k. Akad. d. Wisscnsch. Math. -naturiv. 01. , Wien, 1852, Bd. iii.
Abth. 2, S. 113.

® Lancet, London, 1873, vol. i. p. 200.

"^ Journ. Anat. and Physiol., London, 1872, vol. vii. p. 106.
^ St. George's Hosp. Px^ep., London, 1866, vol. i. p. 221.
^ " Medical Thermometry," p. 95.
■"^ Proc. Pmij. Soc. London, 1877, vol. xxvi. p. 186.

11 "Handbuch d. Path. u. Therap. d. Fiebers," 1875, S. 78.

12 Deutsche Klinik, Berlin, 1853, Bd. v. S. 317.

13 These, Strasbourg, 1869.

^"^Arch.f. klin. Chir., Berlin, 1862, Bd. ii. S. 331.

1^ "Die Korperwarme des gesunden Menschen," Leipzig, 1873.

16 See p. 813.

" Lancet, London, 1895, vol. i. p. 672.

^^ Leutsches Arch. f. klin. Med., Leipzig, 1881, Bd. xxix. S. 522.

1^ Result of observations not yet published.

-•' Rev. sclent., Paris, 1885, tome ix. p. 629.

-1 Presse med. beige, Bruxelles, 1863, tome xv. p. 111.

^" Quoted from Richet, Pev. scicnt., Paris, 1885, tome ix. p. 432.

23 Ibid.

-* Result of observations not yet published.



79°



ANIMAL HEAT.





Average Rectal


Extremes of


Nmnber of


wDSGrv6r,


Animals.


Temperature.


Observations.


Observations.




Horse . . . \


37°-9 (100°-2)


37°-2-38°-6


On 150 horses


Strecker. ^


37°-7 ^99°-9)




600 on 100 „


Fohringer. ^


37°-9 (i00"-2)


36°-l-38°-6


On 212


Hobday."


Ox . . .


38°-So (101°-9)


37°-7-40°-3


On 352 cows
and oxen


Robertson.^


f


38°-9 (102°-0)


38°-7-39°-l


39 on 1 cow


Siedamgrotzky.'*


Cow . . .\


38°-6 (101°-5)


37°-5-39°-4 .


On 87 cows


Hobday. ^


J


38°-6 (lOr-5)


37°-7-39°-6


On 100 cows


Singleton.''


r


40°-6 (105*-1)


40°-0-41°-07


On 24 sheep


Davy. 6




40°-2 (104°-4)


38° -5-41° -8


284 on 6 ,,


Siedamgrotzky . ■*


Slieep . . . -|


40°'0 (104°-0)


39°-7-40°-2


On more than
100 sheep


Hobday. -




40°-l (104°-2)


39°-6-41"-0


On 100 .sheep


Singleton.^


r


38°-3 (100°-9)




190 on 17 dogs


Siedamgrotzky. ■*




37°-91 (100°-2)


37° -15-38° -45


44 on several,.


Hoppe.''


Dog .


38°-8 (101°-8)


38°-3-39°-9


6 on 6 „


Obernier.^




38°-6 (101°-5)


38°-l-39°-2


On more than
200 dogs


Hobday.^


I


38°-8 -(101° -8)


38°-0-39°-8


On 100 dogs


Singleton.^


Cat . . .


38°-7 (101°-7)


37°-9-39°-7


On 41 cats


Hobday. 2


'


39°-6 (103°-3)


38°-3-40°-8


169 on 4 young
pigs


Siedamgrotzky.'*


Pig . . .-


38°-7 (101°-7)


38°-7-39°-3


On more than
100 pigs


Hobday. 2


[


39°-2 (102=-5)


37°-3-39°-9


72 on 27 rabbits


Hale White.9


Rabbit . . A


38°-8 (101°'8)


38° -0-39° -5


7 on 7 ,,


Obernier.^


1


38°-7 (101°-7)


37°-0-40°-8


31 on 10 „


Pembrey.


Ferret .


39°-3 (102°-8)


37°-9-40°-4


On 8 ferrets


Hobday.^


/


38°-7 (101°-7)


38°-5-39°-4


About 50 ob-
servations


Finkler.i"




37°-93 (100"-2)


37°-0-39°-2


19 on 5 guinea-


Pembrey.


Guiuea-raa; . . /


39"-21 (102°-6)


37° -9-40° -2


pigs
35 observations


Richet."




37°-4 (99°-4)


36° -0-38° -5


40 on 4 guinea-


Colasanti.^-




38°-85 (101°-9)


38°-0-39°-6


pigs
30 on 1 guinea-


Pitts.


Eat (black and white)


37° -5 (99° -5)


37° -0-38° -5


pig
16 on 4 rats


Pembrey.


Rat (white) .


37"-96(100°-3)


37°-4-38°-9


60 on 2 rats


Pitts.


Mouse (black and


37°-4 (99°-3)


36°-l-38°-6


27 on 8 mice


Pembrey.


white)










Monkey {Rhesus) .


38'-4 (101°-1)


36°-9-39°-7


22 on 2 mon-
keys


Hale White and
Washbourn.^^




27°-5 (81°-5)


25° -5-30°


5 on 2 speci-


Mikloucho




(cloaca or in




mens


Maclay. "


Echidna {Hystrix) -


abdomen)










32" -5 (90° -5)


26°-5-34°-2


7 on 7 speci-


Semon.^^


V


(cloaca)




mens




Ornithorhynchus .


24°-8 (76°-6)


24°-4-25°-2


2 on 1 speci-


Mikloucho




(cloaca)




men


Maclay. ^^



[Continued on next page.

1 Ellenberger, " Vergleichende Physiol, der Haussaugethiere," 1892, Bd. ii. Th. 2, S. 81.

- Journ. Comp. Path, and Therap)., Edin. and London, 1896, vol. ix. p.- 286.

•* Veterinary Journ., London, 1885, vol. xx. p. oil.

•> Deutsche Ztschr. f. Thiermed., Leipzig, 1875, Bd. i. S. 87.

^ Veterinarian, London, 1888. ® "Researches," London, 1839, vol. i. p. 208.

■^ Virchow's Archiv, 1857, Bd. xi. S. 459. » " Der Hitzschlag," Bonn, 1867.

^ Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1890, vol. xi. ]). 1.
^'> Arch./, d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1882, Bd. xxi.K. S. 112.
^1 Rev. scient., Paris, 1884, tome viii. p. 306.
^'^Arch.f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1877, Bd. xiv. S. 123.
^^ Journ. Anat. and Physiol., London, vol. xxv. p. 379.

" Proc. Linn. Sac. New South Wales, 1883. vol. viii. p. 425 ; vol. ix. p. 1205.
^^ Arch.f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1894, Bd. Iviii. S. 229.



TEMPERA TURE OE MAN AND ANIMALS.



791



Animals.


Average Rectal


Extremes of


Number of


Observer.


Temperature.


Observations.


Observations.


Fowl (common) . j


42°-8 (109°-0)
41°-6 (106°-9)


41°'7-43°-9
40° -6-43° -0


On 14 fowls
On 111 fowls


Davy. ^
Hobday.^


Duck . . . j


43°-6 (110°-5)


43°-4-43°-9


On 8 ducks


Davy.-^


42°-l (107°-8)


41°-4-43°-0


On 24 ducks


Hobday."


Goose .


41°-7 (107°-0)


4i°-l-41°-7


On 5 geese


Davy. 1


Pigeon .


40°-9 (lG5°-6)


40° •0-42° -5


20 on 4 pigeons


Corin and Van
Beneden.^


Ostrich .


37°-3 (99°-2)


36°-9-37°-8


On 5 ostriches


Hobday. 2



In the next table are collected the results of various observations
upon other mammals and birds ; in most of these cases the figure given
for the temperature represents the result of a single observation * : —



Animal.


Temperature.


Place of Observation.


Observer.


Monkey {Simia aygula)


39°


7


(103°-5)


Rectum


Davy.




Ass ....


36°


95


( 98°-5)


) )


Hunter. 5




Elk






39°


4


(103°)




Davy.**




Goat






39°


4


1103°)


jj


J?




Tiger .






37°


2


( 99°)


J J


J)




Ichneumon






39°


4


(103°)








Squirrel .






38°


9


(102°)


,,


,^




Manatee .






39°


4


(103°)


Abdomen


Martine.'^




Whale .






38°


8


(ior-8)








Greenland whale






38°


9


(102°)


J J


Scoresby. ^




Seal






38°


9


(102°)


,j


Tiedemann."




Porpoise






37°


5


( 99°-5)


,,


,j




Pigeon .






42°


2


108°)


Rectum


Davy.




Thrush .






42°


8


(109°)


j^


jj




Turkey .






42°


8


(109°)


! J


,,




Guinea-fowl .






43°


3


(110°)




jj




Pheasant






42°


6


(108°-7)


jj


Richet.io




Great titmouse






44°





(in°-2)


,,


Tiedemann.




Sparrow .






42°


1


(107°-8)


,,


Davy.




Swift .






44°





(lll°-2)


,,


Tiedemann.




Heron .






41°





(105°-8)


,,


Prt^vost and Dumas


1]


Redwing






43°


3


(109°-9)


,,


Hobday.




Fieldfare






43°


7


(110°-6)


,j


5 J




Yellowhammer






43° -2


(109°-8)


"







The above tables show that the rectal temperature of most of
the mammals is higher than that of man ; the most marked ex-
ception is found in the monotremata, the lowest group of the mam-
malia; thus the temperature of the porcupine echidna {Echidna hystrix)
varies from 25°"5 to 34°'2, that of the duckbilled platypus (Ornitho-

^ "Researches," London, 1839, vol. i. p. 186.

- Journ. Com]). Path, and Tliera]}., Edin. and London, 1896, vol. ix. p. 286.

^ Arch, dc biol., Gand, 1887, tome vii. p. 265.

■* For the temperature of other animals, see Gavarret's " De la chaleur produite par les
etres vivants," Paris, 1855, p. 92 ; Richet, Eev. scient., Paris, 1884, tome viii. p. 298.

^ "Works," Palmer's edition, vol. iii. p. 340.

^ "Researches," London, 1839, vol. i. pp. 181, 188.

■^ "Essays, Medical and Philosophical," 1740, p. 337.

^ Milne Edwards, " Le9ons," tome viii. p. 16.

^ "Physiologic," Bd. i. S. 454.
'*^ Rev. scient., Paris, 1885, tome ix. p. 202.
^^ Ann. de chim. etphys., Paris, Ser. 2, tome xxiii. p. 61,



792



ANIMAL HEAT.



rhynchus anatinus) from 24°-4 to 25°-2. In the case of birds the
temperature is generally two or three degrees higher than that of
mammals.

In the observation of the temperature of animals, it is necessary,
if comparable results are to be obtained, to insert the thermometer
to a similar extent each time, and to prevent struggling of the animal
before and during the time of observation. Tinkler ^ found that the
rectal temperature of guinea-pigs was 36°-l, 38°-7, and 38°-9, at a depth
of 2-5, 6, and 9 cms. respectively. Aronsohn and Sachs ^ found
that the rectal temperature of normal rabbits rose to over 40° after
a short chase, Hobday^ observed a rise to 41°-1 in the case of sheep
and pigs, and Mott * has noticed a rise of one or two degrees in the
temperature of monkeys, owing to a similar cause. Moreover, the times
of observation should as far as possible be similar, for animals show
a daily variation in temperature. Eabbits extended on their backs and
tied down lose so much heat that their temperature rapidly falls
(Legallois, Eichet.'^)

The temperature of cold-blooded animals. — It has already been
shown that there is no hard and fast line between the so-called Avarm-lDlooded
animals — those with a constant temperature, and the cold-blooded animals —
those with a varying temperature. Further proofs of this will now be given,
and others will be brought forward when the subject of hibernation is
considered.

John Hunter 6 made some interesting observations upon the temperature
of bees. He found in the month of July, when the temperature of the air was
12°'2, and a north wind was blowing, that the temperature at the top of a hive
full of bees was 27°'8. In December the temperature of the hive was 22° -8,
when that of the external air was only l°-7. A single bee has so little power
of keeping itself warm, that it quickly becomes numb and almost motionless
when exposed to the moderate cold of a summer night. The aggregation,
however, of vast numbers in a hive ensures the production of enough heat to
keep the bees active even in winter, and for this production of heat a constant
supply of food is necessary. The warmth of the hive is needed also for
the eggs, pupae., and larvse, for Hunter found that they would not live in a
temperature of 17°. The wax is by means of the warmth kept so soft that the
bees can model it with ease.

Numerous observations upon the temperature of bees were made by
Newport,'' who found that, when the insects were in a state of activity,
their temperature was above that of their surroundings ; the larva and pupa
had a lower temperature than the imago, and less power of generating as well
as of maintaining their temperature. In winter the temperature of a hive,
when the bees were in a state of repose, fell considerably, and varied slowly
with that of the atmosphere ; the bees did not become torpid, but passed into
a deep sleep, broken at intervals by periods of activity. A very low atmo-
spheric temperature aroused the bees, and thus prevented any great fall in the
temperature of the hive. Thus on January 2, 1836, at 7.15 a.m., when the
temperatme of the air was -7°'5, that of the hive was -1°*1, and the bees were
quiet, but after the bees were disturbed by tapping the hive, the temperature

1 Arch./, d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1882, Bd. xxix. S. 117.

"^ Ibid., 1885, Bd. xxxvii. S. 232.

^ Journ. Cojiip. Path, and Tlierap., Edin. and London, 1896, vol. ix. p. 286.

'' Note communicated to the writer.

' Rev. scient., Paris, 1884, tome viii. p. 300.

" "Works," Palmer's edition, London, 1837, vol. iv. p. 427.

■^ Phil. Trans., London, 1837, pt. 2, p. 253.



TEMPERATURE OF COLD-BLOODED ANLMALS.



793



was raised to 21°"1 "vvithin fifteen minutes. On another occasion, when the
external temperature was 1°'4, that of the hive full of active hees was 38°'9.
The temperatures of individual nurse bees, brooding over the young bees in



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