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Fig. 77. — Daily variations in temperature
observed by Ogle, Clifford Allbutt,
Casey and Rattray, and Crombie.



The next curves (Fig. 78) represent the daily variation according to
Jlirgensen and Liebermeister's observations.^



Evening



Night



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Mid-day



Fig. 78. — Daily variations in temperature observed by Jurgensen and Liebernieister.
The observations e.xtend over 30 hours.

The average results of Thierfelder's ^ observations upon the daily
variations of temperature found in subjects of different age and sex are
shown in the following table : —

1 Crombie, Indian Ann. Med. Sc, Calcutta, 1873, vol. xvi. p. 568.
" "Handbuch der Pathologie und Therapie des Fiebers," Leipzig, 1875.
' Schmidt's Jahrb., Leipzig, 1851, Bd. Ixxi.



INFL UENCE OF DA Y AND NIGHT.



8or





Morning.

(7-9 A.M.)


Noon.


Evening.


Newly born .
Children

^^^^^^*^ j Women \ '.
Aged ....


37°-41

37°-37

37°-0
37°-22

37°-25


37'-80

38°-07

37°-25
37° -55

37°-58


37°-61

37°-12

36°-60
37°-10

37°-31



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The following curve ^ (Fig. 79) represents the mean results of records
of the temperature of the urine taken by Eichet, Gley, and Eondeau ; the
times of meals were 7 a.m., 11 a.m., and 7 p.m., and no observations were
made between 9 o'clock in the evening and 7 o'clock in the morning.

Daily variations in
temperature, similar to
those already described,
have been observed in
natives of different
races living in the
tropics.^

As regards the
causes of the daily
variation in tempera-
ture, muscular activity
and food appear to be
the most important
factors. In ordinary
life man is most active
and takes food during
the day, and is least
active during the night.
Debczynski^ found that

continuous work carried on throughout the night reversed the variation,
so that the maximal temperature 37°"8 occurred in the morning, and the
minimal 35°'3 in the evening. Night-watching without work had a similar
but smaller effect, the maximal temperature 37°"7 being in the morning,
the minimal 37°'5 in the evening. Jaeger* has obtained similar results,
and Krieger ^ states that work during the night and rest during the day
reverse the daily variation. The influence of inversion of the ordinary
routine of daily life has been studied by U. Mosso^; a series of observa-
tions of the rectal temperature was first made during a period when work
was performed in the daytime and sleep taken at night, and the two chief
meals were at 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. ; then there followed another period in
which sleep was taken during the day and work performed at night, and

^ Richet, Rev. scient., Paris, 1885, torae ix. p. 430.

" Davy, "Researches," London, 1839, vol. 1. y). 169 ; Jonsset, Arch, de mid. nav., Paris,
1883, tome xl. p. 124 ; Maurel, £v.H. Soc. d'anthrop. de Paris, 1884, tome vii. p. 381.
^ Jahresh. il. d. Leistung. . . . d. ges. Med., Berlin, 1875, Bd. i. S. 248.
* Jaeger, Deutsches Arch. f. klin. Med., Leipzig, 1881, Bd. xxix. S. 533.
^ Ztschr.f. Biol., Mlinchen, 1869, Bd. v. S. 479.
" Arch. ital. de bioL, Turin, 1887, tome viii. p. 177.

VOL. I. — 51



Fig. 79.



-Curve of daily variation in the temperature of
the urine.



8o2



ANIMAL HEAT.



the two chief meals were at 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. Notwithstanding the
inversion of daily routine, Mosso found that the morning rise still took
place about the same time, and, as the following curves (Fig. 80) will
show, the daily variation was not inverted, although the sleep during
the day caused a fall, and getting up in the evening a marked rise, in
temperature. The effect of the experiment was to disturb the regularity
of the daily variation, but on the fourth day the influence of the sleep
during the day was most marked, a fact which seems to indicate that,
if the habit were long continued, a tendency to inversion would be
observed in the daily variation of temperature.



Normal.





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Routine of life inverted.

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Fig. 80. — Daily variations iu temperature observed during U. Mosso's experiments.

Buchser,! an engineer, who was accustomed to sleep during the day
and work at night, found that his average morning temperature was
37°'25, while his evening temperature was 36°"8.

There are secondary causes of the daily variation. The periods of
high and low bodily temperature more or less correspond with the times
of day when the external temperature is high and low respectively.
Further, there appears to be a certain periodicity, the rqsult of long-con-
tinued habits of life, stamped upon the processes which regulate tem-
perature. This is shown by the fact that the daily variation still
persists, although it may be slightly modified, during a period of fasting
or night-watching,2 and a similar daily variation is observed in the
respiration and pulse,^ in the discharge of urea,^ and in the capacity

1 Quoted from Carter, Journ. New. and Ment. Dis., N.Y., 1890, vol. xvii. p. 78.').

^ Jtirgensen, "Die Kiirpervvarme des gesunden Menschen," Leipzig, 1873; Ogle, St.
George. -i Hosp. Rep., London, 1866, vol. i. p. 228; Crombie, Indian Ann. Med. Sc,
Calcutta, 1873, vol. xvi. p. 597; Liebermeister, "Haudbuch d. Path. u. Therap. des
Fiebers."

^ Lichtenfels and Frohlich, Denkschriften d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. JVieii, 1852, Bd. iii.
Abth. 2, S. 113 ; Neuhauss, Virchoiu's Archiv, 1893, Bd. cxxxiv. S. 365. See also this
article, p. 813 ; Bosanquet, Lancet, London, 1895, vol. i. p. 672 ; Damrosch, Deutsches
Arch.f. Mill. Med., Leipzig, 1853, S. 342; Jous.set, Arch, de mdd. nav., Paris, 1883, tome
xl. pp. 284-5 ; Chossat, Mem. Acad. d. sc. de I' Inst, de France, Paris, 1843, toraeviii. p. 540.

•* Weigelin, Arch.f. Anat., Physiol, u. wissensch. Med., Leipzig, 1868, S. 207.



INFLUENCE OF AGE. 803

for muscular work.^ Daily variations in the output of carbon dioxide
and in the intake of oxygen have been observed by Prout, Pettenkofer
and Voit, Fredericq,^ and others ; these variations in metabolism more
or less correspond with those observed in the temperature, and will be
found discussed more fully in another part of this work.^

Eest in bed throughout the day does not abolish the daily variation ;
it is still present, although modified, in cases of disease, attended or
unattended by fever ; the morning rise still takes place even when light
is excluded (Ogle).

In animals, daily variations in temperature have also been observed,
but upon this point there are few exact observations taken throughout
the day and night. Strecker,* from observations upon 150 horses, found
the average temperature between 6.30 a.m. and 8 a.m. to be 37°'9, that
between 5 p.m. and 6.30 p.m. to be 37°'93 ; but the minimum was 37°'2
and the maximum 3 8° '6. In the case of oxen, Eobertson ° found the
average morning temperature 38°-7, the evening temperature 38°-9 ; in
the cat the minimum is 37°"8 at 7 a.m. and the maximum 39°-08 at
10 P.M. (Bidder and Schmidt).^ Hunter states that the temperature of
an ass was 0°-5 higher in the evening than in the morning. According
to the observations of Siedamgrotzky,'' the maximal daily temperature in
horses was 38°-2 at 6 p.m., the minimum 37°-5 at 4 a.m. ; in a cow the
maximum was 39°-l at 5 p.m., and the minimum 38°-7 at midnight.
Corin and Van Beneden ^ have observed the daily variation in pigeons,*^
and find that the minimum is at 4 a.m. ; that from this time to 8 a.m.
there is a rise, then a fall to noon, followed by a rise to the maximum
at 4 p.m. ; the daily variation amounts to 2°-2. In the case of horses,
Hobday ^"^ finds that the rectal temperature at 10 a.m. is 37°-6, and 37°"9
at 5 p.m. ; in the case of the rabbit, cat, and'dog. Carter ^^ has shown that
there is a distinct rhythm of temperature, the maximum occurring in
the evening (7-11 p.m.) and the minimum in the morning (7-11 a.m).

We may conclude that the daily variation in temperature is one of
the features of a corresponding variation in the activity of the tissues of
the body, as shown by the rate of the contraction of the heart, the
frequency of respiration, the intake of oxygen, the output of carbon
dioxide, the discharge of urea, and the capacity for muscular work.

The influence of age.— The temperature of newly-born infants and
animals is generally equal to, or even slightly higher than, that of their
parents, but it is much less stable, and is liable to much greater varia-
tions.

Edwards ^- found that the temperature of newly-born pups, kittens,
and rabbits fell when they were removed from their warm surroundings,
and continued to fall until it reached a point a few degrees above the

1 Patrizi, Arch. ital. de Mol., Turin, 1892, tome xvii. p. 134.

"Prout, Ann. Phil., London, 1813, vol. ii. p. 330; vol. iv. p. 331 ; Pettenkofer and
Voit, Ztschr. f. Biol. Miinchen, 1866, Bd. ii. S. 459 ; Fredericq, Arch, de hiol., Gand,
1882, tome iii. p. 729.

^ "Chemistry of Respiration," tliis Text-book, vol. i. p. 721.

•* Ellenberger, "Vergleichende Physiologic derHaussaugethiere" 1892, Bd. ii.Th.2, S. 81.

^ Veterinary Journ., London, 1885, vol. xx. p. 311.

*' "Die Verdauungssafte und der Stofi'wechsel," Leipzig, 1852, S. 346.

"^ Deutsche Ztschr. f. Thiermed., Leipzig, 1875, Bd. i. S. 87.

'^ Arch, de hiol., Gand, 1887, tome vii. p. 265.

« See also Chossat, Mem. Acad. d. sc. de I'Inst. de France, Paris, 1843, tome viii. p. 540.
^^ Journ. Comp. Path, and Therap., Edinburgh and London, 1896, vol. ix. p. 286.
" Journ. Nerv. and Ment. Dis., N.Y. , 1890, vol. xvii. p. 782.
■'- "De rinfluence des agens physiques sur la vie," Paris, 1824.



8o4 ANIMAL HEAT.

temperature of the air. Newly-born guinea-pigs, however, were able
to maintain their temperature, provided that the exposure to cold was
not very great. Edwards therefore divided the young warm-blooded
animals into two classes, the warm-blooded and the cold-blooded. In
the former class the young animals are at birth blind, helpless, in some
cases naked, and cannot maintain their temperature. The members of
the latter class are even at birth in a condition of great development ;
their eyes are open, they are active, and maintain a fairly constant
temperature. It was also found that young birds could be classified
in a similar manner. As the animal grows, the fall in temperature on
exposure becomes less and less, and about the fifteenth day after birth
a fairly constant temperature can be maintained.

Edwards showed by comparative experiments that the fall in tem-
perature on the exposure of newly-born animals was not due to the
greater cutaneous surface, in proportion to the mass of the body, as com-
pared with the ratio in adults. The absence or presence of feathers or
fur was only of secondary import, for an adult sparrow w^as able to
maintain its temperature even after all its feathers had been plucked
out.

Eaudnitz^ in 1888 discussed very fully the temperature of infants.
He made observations upon the variations of temperature in infants at
birth and during the first few days after birth. The influence of the
large cutaneous surface in relation to the mass of the body, and the loss
of heat from the skin, were shown by experiment to be only secondary
causes of the irregular temperature. Observations made upon the effect
of affusions of cold water showed that the rectal temperature in infants
a day or two old rose in the case of strong subjects, but remained
stationary or fell in the case of the weak. Eaudnitz concludes that
the imperfect development of the power of regulating temperature is
the chief cause of the variable temperature in infants ; and it has been
shown by the writer ^ that this is also the cause in the case of young
immature animals.

Before birth the temperature of the infant is slightly higher than
that of the mother's uterus ; ■' at birth the average rectal temperature
is 37°"5 (99°-5). Soon after birth, especially after the first bath, the
temperature falls to about 36°-75 (98°-15), and during the next week or
two rises somewhat, and remains fairly constant between 37°"25 (99°"05)
and 37°'6 (99°"68). These figures are to be looked upon only as average
results, for all observers appear to agree that the daily fluctuations of
temperature are greater and more uncertain in children than in adults."*

1 Ztschr.f. Biol., Miinchen, 1888, Bd. xxiv. S. 423. At the end of this paper is a very
complete list of papers hearing upon the subject.

- Penibrey, Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1895, vol. xviii. p. 363.

'^ Wurster, Bcrl. Uin. TFchnschr., 1869, Nr. 37; Alexceff, Arch. f. Gynack., Berlin,
Bd. X. S. 141; Fehling, ibid., Bd. vii. S. 146; Preyer, " Specielle Physiologie des
Embryo," Leipzig, 1885, S. 362.

■^ Barensprung, Arch. f. Anat., Physiol, u. wissensch. Med., 1851, S. 138 ; Finlayson,
"On the Normal Temperature of Children," Glasgow Med. Journ., 1869, p. 186 ; Squire,
Trans. Ohst. Sac. London, vol. x. p. 274; Raudnitz, Ztschr. f. Biol., Miinchen, 1888,
Bd. xxiv. S. 423; here other references will be found; Jlirgensen, "Die Korperwarme
des gesunden Menschen," 1873, S. 49 ; Davy, "Researches," London, 1839, vol. i. p. 156 ;
Crorabie, Indian Ann. Med. Sc, Calcutta, 1873, vol. xvi. p. 594 ; Mignot, These de Paris,
1851 ; Wurster, Berl. Jclin. Wchnschr., 1869, Bd. vi. S. 37 ; Andral, Compt. rend. Acad.
d. sc, Paris, 1870, p. 815 ; Roger, Arch. gen. de med., Paris, Ser. 4, tome v. p. 273 ; " De
la temperature chez les enfants," Paris, 1844 ; Lepine, Gaz. med. de Paris, 1870 ; Fehling,
Arch./. Gynack., Berlin, 1874, Bd. vi. S. 385.



INFLUENCE OF AGE.



805



The average temperature falls one- or two-tenths from infancy to
puberty, and about the same amount from puberty to middle age ; after
that stage is reached the temperature rises, and al:)Out the eightieth
year is almost as high as in infancy.''- According to Einger and Stuart,^
the average daily maximum in persons under 25 years is 37°"2 (99°), in
those over 40 years, 37°-l (98°-8).

As regards the temperature in old age, all observers seem to agree
that it is equal to or slightly above that of adults. Davy ^ found the
mean temperature of eight healthy old persons, with an average age of
88, to be 36°-9 (98°-4o) in the mouth. Charcot^ states, as the result
of numerous determinations, that the rectal temperature in the aged
is 37''"2 to 37°'5, and is rarely higher or lower than in the adult; but
the temperature in the well-closed axilla is often two or three degrees
below that in the rectum, on account of the small and feeble circulation
in the skin of the aged. Moss^ and Ducamp^ have compared the
temperature of the axilla and rectum of aged people, and have obtained
the following results ; each figure represents the mean of twelve or
fifteen observations : —



Age.


Morning Tejiperature.


Evening Temperature.


Axilla.


Rectum.


Axilla.


Rectum.


75
76
80


36°-40

36°-48
36°-08


36°-83
37°-06
36°-46


36°-58
36°-41
36°-40


37°-04
36°-86
36°-94



The results obtained by Eoger ^ upon seven healthy people, whose
ages ranged between 72 and 95 years, are, for the mean temperature,
Se'-eS and 36°-23 ; for the minimum 36° and 35°-5, for the maximum
37°"10 and 37"", in the axilla and mouth respectively.

In the case of young animals born in an advanced condition of develop-
ment, the temperature is generally higher than that of the parents. Thus
foals and calves, several hours after birth, have a temperature 0°"5 to 1° above
that of their mothers. The average temjDerature of foals for the first five
days is 39° "3, and then gradually falls, as shown by the table on p. 806, Avhich
represents the results of six hundred observations made by Fcihringer " upon
one hundred horses.

Similar results as regards the eff'ect of age in horses were obtained by
Siedamgrotzky,® and in the case of cows and sheep by Hobday.^

■^ Wimderlich, "Medical Thermometry"; Barensprung, Arcli. f. Anat., Physiol, u.
vnsseiisch. Med., 1851, S. 148.

^ Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1877, vol. xxvi. p. 194.

^ Phil. Trans., London, 1844, pt. 1, p. 59; "Researches," London, 1839, vol. iii.
p. 4.

* Gaz. held, de med., Paris, 1869, tome vi. p. 324.

^ Gaz. hebd. d. sc. med. de Montpellier, 1886.

•^ Arch. gen. de med., Paris, Ser. 4, tome v. p. 273.

■^ EUenberger, " Vergleichende Physiologie der Haussaugethiere," 1892, Bd. ii. Th. 2,
S. 81.

8 Deutsche Ztschr. f. TUermed., Leipzig, 1875, Bd. i. S. 87.

^ Journ. Comp. Path, and Therap., Edinburgh and London, 1896, Bd. ix. p. 286.



8o6



ANIMAL HEAT.



Age.


In the Stables.


Age.


In the Fields.


4-6 years
6-8 ,,
8-18 ,,


38' -05
37°-92

37°-85


4-6 years
6-12 ,,
12-18 ,,


37°-40

37° -24-37° -49

37°-48



The influence of muscular ■work.— During muscular work there is
an increased production of heat, and were it not for the compensation
brought about by the increased loss of heat the temperature of the body
would rise considerably. The effect/therefore, of muscular work upon the
mean temperature varies according to the perfection of the compensation.
Jiirgensen ^ found that the work involved in sawing wood for six hours
raised the temperature of a healthy man 1°'2 above the normal, but
as soon as the work was finished the temperature fell rapidly. Davy ^
made numerous observations upon the effect of active exercise on his
own temperature. The highest readings of the thermometer under the
tongue were 37°-5 (99°-5) and 37°"8 (100°); some previous observations
upon the temperature of men after walking two or three hours showed
a rise of -8° in the temperature of the urine, but no change in that
taken in the mouth ; after a rest the temperature rapidly fell to the
normal. Alpine climbing, even on cold days, was found by Clifford
AUbutt ^ to raise the temperature of the mouth about half a degree ;
the same form of exercise was taken by Liebermeister and Hoffmann,*
who observed the temperature in the axilla during both the ascent and
descent ; the chief results were as follows : —

Liebermeister's temperature, 36° '82 before ascent and 37° '85 maximum during ascent.

Hoffmann's ,, 36°-50 .,, ,, ,, 37°-95 ,, ,, „

Liebermeister's ,, 36°'60 ,, descent ,, 37°"60 ., ,, descent.

Hoffmann's ,, 36°-40 ,, ,, ,, 37°-25 ,', ,, ,,

Eesults directly opposed to the above have been obtained by Lortet,^
whose observations Avere made on level ground and during two ascents of
Mont Blanc (4810 metres high) in August 1869. On level ground Lortet
found that, when he was at rest, the temperature of his mouth was 36° "4,
but 36°'2 during bodily exercise. During the ascents of Mont Blanc the
temperature fell progressively and even reached as low a point as 3r*8, but
after a few minutes' rest it raj^idly reached the normal. Lortet explained
these results by saying that dinging work the chemical forces Avhich Avould
have sufficed in the rarefied atmosj^here to maintain the normal temijerature
of the body, were partly resolved in motion, and therefore the temperature
fell. These results have been criticised by Clifford Allbutt and Liebermeister,
and there can be little doubt hut that the low temperatures observed were
due to the cooling of the thermometer in the mouth by the laboured breathing
of the cold air, which was sometimes several degrees below zero. This criticism ^

^ " Die Korperwarme des gesunden Mensclien," Leipzig, 1873, S. 43-46.

"FMl. Trans., London, 1844, pt. 1, p. 62 ; 1845, pt. 2, p. 322 ; 1850, p. 440.

" Joxirn. Anat. and Fhysiol., London, 1872, vol. vii. p. 106.

■* Liebermeister, "Handbuch der Path. u. Therap. des Fiebers," 1875, S. 84.

' Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1869 p. 709.

'' These sources of error liave been shown to exist, for Arkle (experiments made at the
request of the writer, and the results of which will lie published later), during mountain
climbing in the summer of 1897, found a constant rise of two or three degrees in the
rectal temperature, but the mouth gave a low temperature. In fact, it was impossible to
obtain accurate results by placing the thermometer in the mouth.



INFLUENCE OF MENTAL WORK. 807

is further supported by the fact that Lortet found a few minutes' rest sufficient
to raise the temperature to the normal.

Marcet/ shortly before Lortet's observations, found that during an ascent of
some of the Mont Elanc chain of mountains the temperature of his mouth fell.
This result was contested by Vernet, who had determined the rectal tempera-
ture under similar circumstances, and, as the result of the controversy, Marcet



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