E. A. (Edward Albert) Sharpey-Schäfer.

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present ; thus, after remaining fifteen minutes in a damp room heated
to 54°-4, the temperature of the mouth and urine was 37°'8, but a
similar exposure in a dry room heated to 115°-5 — 126° '7, and in which
beefsteaks were being cooked by the heat of the air, did not raise the
temperature of the body above the normal. Similar experiments were
made by Dobson,^ who found that the temperature in the mouth of one
man rose to 37°"5 after he had remained about fifteen minutes in a
room heated to 94°-4; in another case the rise was to 38°-6, after
twenty minutes' exposure to air at 98° '9 ; and in a third case a stay of
ten minutes in a room at 106°'7 caused a rise to 38°-9.

Tillet ^ had previously observed young girls remain without
any inconvenience for five or ten minutes in a kiln heated to about
130,° but he does not give any records of their temperature. In 1747,
Le Monnier "^ found that he could remain for eight minutes in a bath
supplied by a thermal spring, the temperature of which was 44° to 45° ;
at the end of that time his skin was red and swollen, and his distress so
great that he was obliged to get out. ISTo observations upon the
temperature of the body are given. Kurrer ^ and Neuhauss ^ have ob-
served that the temperature of stokers, working in a stoke-hole at 50°
to 56°, is raised to 37° '6, or even to 38°

Numerous experiments have l)een made to determine the effect of

1 "Eesearches," London, 1839, vol. i. p. 20S.
" Phil. Trans., London, 1748, vol. xlv. p. 338.
'■ Ibid., 1758, vol. 1. pt. 2, p. 754.
■^ Ibid., 1775, vol. Ixv. pt. 1, pp. Ill and 484.
6 Ibid., 1775, vol. Ixv. pt. 2, p. 463.
^ Hist. Acad. roy. d. sc, Paris, 1764, p. 188.
" Ibid., 1747, p. 271.

^Deutsche Vrlljschr. f. off. Qsndhtspflg., Braunschweig, (2), Bd. xxiv. S. 291.
" VircJioios Archiv, 1893, Bd. cxxxiv. S. 365.
^" See also Crombie, Indian Ann. Med. Sc, Calcutta, 1873, vol. xvi. p. 601.


extreme heat upon animals. Provoost and Fahrenheit, working under
the direction of Boerhaave/ found that a dog and a cat placed in a hot
stove (63°) died in twenty-eight minutes, whilst a sparrow, under
similar conditions, died in seven minutes. Duntze^ ol)served that
dogs could live in an atmosphere at 42° -2, but died when the
temperature was raised to 45°. It was found by Delaroche^ that
cats, rabbits, pigeons, and various insects could remain for one
hour in a temperature of 36° without fatal results ; the most marked
symptom was the greatly quickened respiration. When the tempera-
ture was raised to 45° or 53°, the cat and rabbit died within two hours,
the pigeon in one hour and twenty minutes, the most marked symptom
being convulsions. A frog, under similar conditions, was alive at the
end of two hours. The temperature of a rabbit exposed to a heat of 45^^
for one hour and forty minutes rose from 39° "7 to 43° -8. Exposure to
moist heat quickly raised the temperature of animals, as shown in the
following table : —




Moist Heat.

Time of

Rabbit ....
Guinea-pig .
Pigeon ....
Frog . .




Not stated



40° -7
25° -6

55 minutes





The effect of dry and moist hot air upon different animals was
determined by Bernard ^ in numerous experiments ; some of the results
are here given : —

In moist hot air the animals died very quickly ; thus, when the
temperature was 80°, 60°, and 45°, the rabbits died in two, three, and
ten minutes respectively. Experiments made by immersing the body
of the animal in hot water gave similar results. To determine the effect
of exposing the body to dry heat without warming the air used for
respiration, Bernard made the following comparative experiments upon
rabbits of similar size : —

1 "Praelect. Anat.," p. 231 ; "Elem. de chymie," tome i. jip. 148, 277, 278.
^ Quoted from Delaroche (^).

^ Journ. de phys., Paris, 1806, tome Ixiii. pp. 207, 468 ; 1810, tome Ixxi. p. 289.
^ Gaz. vied, de Paris, 1859, tome xiv. p. 462; " Le9ona sur la chaleur animale,"
1876, p. 349.

5J ^^ J

„ 15 ,

„ 20 ,

„ 25 ,

„ 30

„ 38


(a) Rabbit placed in dry air 100^ —

Temperature before = 40°

„ after 5 minutes = 41°

„ ,, 10 „ =44° — respiration quickened.

„ 16 „ =44°-5- death.

(&) Head of rabbit placed in dry air 100°, body in cool air —
Temperature before = 40°

„ after 5 minutes = 40°

= 40° — respiration quickened.


_ .o» /respiration very rapid.

= 43°)

= 43°— death.

(c) Body of rabbit m dry air 100°, head in cool air —
Temperature before =39°'5

„ after 4 minutes = 42°

„ ,, 10 ,, =43° — respiration quickened.

15 =44°

„ 20 „ =45°— death.

Obernier^ found that when the external temperature was first
raised, the rectal temperature of dogs and rabbits fell slightly, about
0°'4, but soon after the air reached 30° to 35° the temperature of the
animal began to rise. Death generally resulted before the internal
temperature rose to 45°, but in one case it reached 46° '2. The most
important symptoms were restlessness, quickening of respiration and
pulse, and finally convulsions and loss of consciousness. A short time
before death it was impossible to feel the pulse, a fact explained by the
fibrillar contraction of the heart observed by Obernier when the thorax
was opened. An examination of the body directly after death showed
marked congestion of the brain and lungs; the muscles were inexcitable,
and quickly went into rigor mortis. Similar changes were observed
in the bodies of soldiers who had died from sunstroke.

Numerous facts show that cold-blooded animals can live in hot
media. Thus, internal parasites of mammals and birds can live in sur-
roundings at temperatures of 37° and 43°"9; and there are well-authentic-
ated cases of fishes living in springs as hot as 37°-44°.2 Sonnerat^
even states that he saw fish actively swimming about in the hot water
(60°-62°) of thermal springs in New Guinea ; it is doubtful, however,
if the temperature was correctly recorded in this case.

It has been shown by Davenport and Castle * that by gradually
raising the temperature tadpoles can be kept alive in warm water.
Hertwig^ has observed that no development takes place in the ova
of the frog when the temperature of the water is zero, but between
2° and 33° it progresses with different rapidity, cold delaying, warmth
hastening the process. A temperature, however, of 34° is fatal.

1 "Der Hitzschlag," Bonn, 1867.

- Spallanzani, " de ]ihys. anim.," tome i. pp. 54-69, 101 ; Desfontaiues. quoted
from Gavarret, " De la chaleur produite pas les etres vivants," Paris, 185.5, p. 464 ; Tripier, rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, tome ix. p. 602 ; Cumberland, Bihlioth. univ., Geneve,
1839, tome xx. p. 204; Prinsep, ibid.

^ " Voyage a la Nouvelle Guinde," Paris, 1776, pp. 38-41.

* Arch. f. Anat. u. Entv;cklnrjsgescli. , Leipzig, 1885, Bd. ii. S. 227.

^ Sitzunrjah. d. j)i'euss. Akad. d. Wissensch., 1S96, S. 105.



Numerous observations show that the temperature of anmials living
in the Arctic regions is equal to that of animals of the same classes in
temperate climates. The following are some of the results obtained by
different explorers : —


Temperature of

Temperature of




-35° -6

Parry and Lyon.^

Arctic fox .



-35° -6


Wolf . . .




"White hare




43" -2


Black. 2

Prairie foAvl (male)


43° -0





-8° -3

Prairie fowl (female)











Willow grouse (male) .




-32° -8


43° -3

-35° -8


The limits of extreme cold are generally reached when the water in
which the animals live, or the lymph of their tissues, is frozen. Fishes
live in salt water when the temperature is below zero, but usually die
when the water is frozen.

Boyle ^ exposed lampreys in a vessel of water to an exceedingly
sharp frost, and found next day that one lamprey was frozen in the ice ;
when the ice was partly broken and partly thawed the animal was at first
motionless, but in a few minutes recovered, and dragged after it a large
piece of ice in which its tail was fixed. Similar experiments were made
with similar results upon gudgeons and frogs. Hunter ^ found by
experiment that the internal temperature of a frog and an eel could be
reduced to -0°'6, and that, although the animals appeared to be dead,
they revived when the temperature rose. Eegnard^ found that carp
will live in water containing 2i- per cent, of magnesium sulphate,
even when the temperature is a degree or two below zero ; at -2° the fish
appear to be asleep, and at -3'' their vitality is so greatly reduced that
they seem to be dead, but revive when the water is gradually warmed.
Pictet'' exhibited at one of his lectures frozen gold fish, pike, and
frogs, and at the next lecture the same animals alive and well after
gradual thawing. According to this observer, fishes can be rapidly
frozen so hard that they can be snapped in two, and yet other fishes
frozen equally hard recover when slowly thawed. It has been observed
by Marcet ^ that gold fish completely embedded in the ice showed no
signs of life on thawing, but one fish, which was partly encased in ice
and was surrounded by a little water, appeared lifeless, but recovered
perfectly in a short time. Observations and experiments made by

^ Parry, "Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage,"
London, 1824, p. 157 ; Ann. de diim. et phys., Pa.ris, 1825, Ser. 2, tome xxviii. p. 223.

- Com2)t. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1836, tome ii. p. 621.

^ "Philosophical Works," Shaw's edition, vol. i. p. 688.

* "Works," Palmer's edition, London, 1837, vol. iv. p. 131 et seq.

" ComiJt. rend. Soc. de hiol., Paris, 1895, p. 652.
Quoted from Marcet, Croonian Lectures, Brit. Med. Jonrn., London, 1895, vol. i.
p. 1367.





Gajmard ^ and Gavarret - show that toads and fishes may be frozen
perfectly stiff and yet revive when gradually thawed ; according to the
former observer, the freezing must be gradual, otherwise the animals are
killed. During Franklin's ^ explorations in the Arctic regions, it was
observed that fish frozen completely hard recovered when they were
thawed ; a carp, which had been frozen for thirty-six hours, was able
after it was thawed to leap about with much vigour.

The influence of baths. — A warm or cold bath has a greater effect
upon the temperatm-e of the body than exposm-e to air at the same
temperatm-e, for the power of conduction of water is greater than that
of au'. The first important experiments upon this subject were made
by Currie in 1797.^ He found that the immediate effect of a cold bath
might be a slight rise in the temperature of the mouth, but the per-
manent effect was a fall. The followino; are some of his results : —

Temperature of

Duration of

Temperature before
the Bath.

Temperature after
the Bath.

Sea water 6° "7

12 minutes




30 „



Fresh water 4''"3

34 .„



The temperatm'e was taken in the mouth, and therefore the depres-
sion was greater than it would have been in the rectum.

Flem-ys found the temperature in the mouth sink to 34°, 32°-9, and
even to 29° during a cold bath; Virchow^ observed a fall to 34°;
Speck'' found that the immediate effect of a shower bath at 22° was
to raise the temperature of the mouth, but after ten minutes' exposure
the temperature fell l°-23.

Numerous observations have been made by Liebermeister,^ who
selected the temperature of the closed axilla as representing more
exactly the temperature of the body. He concludes that the immediate
effect of a cold bath is to slightly raise the temperature, and that a bath
of moderate cold and duration does not lower the temperature below
the normal, for an increase in the heat production compensates for the
increased loss. Liebermeister, as Currie had previously done, used the
b'ath as a water calorimeter, and calculated that in a bath of from 20°
to 30° the heat production was three or four times greater than the
normal. Jlirgensen ^ confirmed many of these results ; he found that
the rectal temperature of men did not fall more than 1°, often less, after
remaining twenty-five minutes in a cold bath at 11° to 9°. Eecently
Lefe\Te ^° has given excellent proofs of the power of regulation of

1 Bihlioth. univ., Geneve, 1840, tome xxvi. p. 207.

- " De ]a clialeur produite par les etres A'ivants," Paris, 1855, p. 502.

* Franklin, "Journey to the Polar Sea," 1819-1822, 2nd edition, vol. ii. p. 17.

* "Medical Reports on the Effect of "Water, Cold and Warm, as a Remedy in Fever and
other Diseases."

^ Progres mcd., Paris, 1858, p. 337. ^ Virchow's Archiv, 1858, Bd. xv. S. 70.

''Arch. d. Ver. f. gemeinsch. Arb. z. Ford. d. vHssensch. Heilk., Gottingen, 1861, Bd.
v. S. 422.

^ Arch. f. Anai. Physiol, u. wissensch. Med., Lei])zig, 1860, S. 520, 589 ; " Handbuch
d. Path. u. Therap. des Fiebers," 1875. S. 102.

'^ Deutsches Arch. f. Bin. Med., Leipzig, 1867, Bd. iii. S. 165 ; Bd. iv. S. 110, 323.
^^ C'ompt. rend. Soc. de hiol., Paris, 1895, j). 559 ; 1896, pp. 492, 564.


temperature in man. He remained three hours in a hath at 15°, and yet
his axillary temperature fell only one degree (oT^'SO to o6'"30 in the
first two hours and a half, and then remained stationary at SG^'SO) ; the
amount of heat lost was 800 kilo-calories. A bath in water at 25° for
three hours caused a fall in temperature from 37°"20 to 36°-60, with a
loss of 312 kilo-calories ; while a bath of one hour's duration in water at
7° caused a fall from 37°-70 to 36°, the loss of heat being 530 kilo-

In comparing the effect of baths on different people, it is important
to consider the size of the body and the amount of subcutaneous fat,
for the greater the size and amount of fat the slower is the coohng of the
body. Liebermeister found that the temperature of the axilla of a fat
man only fell 0''-2 during a bath of 21° to 30°, lasting one hour and a

The effect of a warm bath is to raise the temperature, but after the
bath there is, as Currie and Liebermeister observed, a fall in temperature
followed by a gradual rise to the normal.

It is impossible here to consider all the numerous results, some
contradictory, which have been obtained by different observers.^ It is
important, however, to note that the different results markedly show
the power of compensation possessed by the higher animals. A cold
bath abstracts a large quantity of heat, but within certain limits does
not cause the temperature of the body to fall, for the cutaneous blood
vessels contract and thus diminish the loss of heat, and the cold acting
on the nervous system stimulates the tissues to increased production
of heat ; on the other hand, a hot bath would quickly cause a rise in
temperature, if the animal were not able within certain limits to in-
crease its loss of heat by an excessive vascularity of the skin and to
diminish its production of heat. These compensating factors show their
influence by a rise in temperature after a cold bath and by a fall after
a hot bath, as the case may be. For this reason a hot bath is most
effective in producing a cooling effect upon the body in tropical climates.
The after-effects, however, soon disappear, and the temperature becomes

The compensation is, in fact, so exact in a healthy man, that any fall
or rise in tenrperature, caused by too long exposure to cold or heat, is
followed respectively by a rise above or fall below the normal. Thus it
is that the mean daily temperature and the daily variations are very
slightly or not at all affected by baths (Jiirgensen,^ Liebermeister,^ Einger
and Stuart,* and others). Still it must be remembered that this com-
pensation is only effective within certain narrow limits,^ and does not in
any way invalidate the use of cold baths in the treatment of high
temperatures in cases of fever.

Experiments upon the influence of warm and cold Imths have also
been made npon animals, and the results agree with those obtained
upon man. Crawford^ in 1871 found that the temperature of a dog
kept in a hot bath, 45° -6 to 44° 4, rose in thirty minutes to 42°-8, and

1 For further details and references see Lieljermeister, "Handbuch d. Path. u. Therap.
des Fiehers," Leipzig, 1875 ; Wunderlich, "Medical Thermometry," p. 109.

^ hoc. cit. ■ ^ Loc. cit.

■* Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1877, vol. xxvi. p. 203.

^Lowy, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1889, Bd. xlv. S. 625 ; 1890, Bd. xlvi. S.
189; see also "Chemistry of Respiration," this Text-book, vol. i. p. 712.

« Phil. Trans., London, 1781, vol. Ixxi. p. 486.


the dog became very languid ; the venous blood of dogs kept in a warm
bath had an arterial colour, whereas a cold bath, 7°"2, rendered the
blood in the jugular vein very dark. More extended oljservations were
made l;)y Hoppe ^ upon l)oth the immediate and after effects of baths
upon dogs. The rectal temperature of a dog placed in water at 48"
for three minutes rose from 3 8° -75 to 41°-45 ; a cold bath at 9°'12,
lasting half a minute, caused a fall of 1° ; a bath of freezing water,
lasting respectively two and four minutes, produced a fall of 1°*7 and
4°-88 below the normal. Hoppe found that the temperature fell during
a cold Ijath but afterwards rose above the normal, that it rose during
a hot Ijath Init afterwards fell below the normal. The sensation of
cold stimulated the organism to an increased production of heat, for
if evaporation from the wet skin was rapid the temperature rose, but
if it was hindered by a covermg of rubber the temperature fell.

Bernard 2 found that very hot baths quickly caused death, the
symptoms being similar to those observed from exposure to liot air.

The influence of certain drugs upon the temperature of the
body. — Alcohol^ — The effect of alcohol is a fall in temperature, and
not, as is popularly beheved, an increased heat of the body. It is
true that after the use of alcohol there is a feeling of increased warmth,
but this is due only to the increased vascularity of the skin and the
activity of the sweat glands.

Alcohol seems to act in tw^o ways : it has little or no effect upon
the production of heat in the tissues, but greatly increases the loss of
heat \yY causing the cutaneous vessels to dilate, stimulating the sweat
glands and quickening the circulation. The normal reaction to cold,
namely, increased production of heat and contraction of the cutaneous
vessels, is partly paralysed Ijy large doses of alcohol, with the result that
drunkards exposed to cold quickly " freeze " to death.

Various observers * have found that alcohol taken in ordinary quan-
tities as a beverage causes a slight depression, generally less than half
a degree, in tlie temperature of healthy men; on the other hand,
poisonous doses may cause a fall of five or six degrees — in fact, many
of the lowest temperatures recorded in man have been observed in
drunken persons exposed to cold.

Experiments upon animals have given similar results. Walther^
exposed two rabbits to a temperature of 21°*2 below zero : in two and a
quarter hours the temperature of the normal rabbit fell from 3 8° "8 to
35°"6, while that of the rabbit which had received 35 c.c. of brandy fell
from 38°-8 to 19^-8. A guinea-pig was given a dose of 6 or 7 grms.
of Ijrandy, and then exposed to moderate cold ; its temperature fell 10°,

^ Virchoiv's Archiv, 1857, Bd. xi. S. 4.53.

- This article, p. 815.

^ For further details, see works on therapeutics.

■* Dav3', Fhil. Trans., London, 1850, p. 444; Lichtenfels and ¥v'6h.\ich, Denkschr if ten
d. k. AkaxL d. JFissensch., Wien, 1852, Bd. iii. Abth. 2, S. 131 ; Lallemand, Perrin, and
Duroy, " Du role de ralcool et des anesthesiques dans I'organisme," Paris, 1860; Ogle,
St. George's Hosp. Rep., London, 1866, vol. i. p. 233. Ringer and Rickards, Lancet,
London, \%m, vol. ii. p. 208; Cuny Bouvier, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1869,
Bd. ii. S. 370 ; Godfrin, "De I'alcool, son action physiologique, ses applications thtira-
peutiques," 1869; Weckerling, Beutsches Arch. f. klin. Med., Leipzig, 1877, Bd. xix.
S. 317 ; Zuntz, Fortschr. d. Med., Berlin, 1887 ; Geppert, Arch. f. ex'per. Path. u. Phar-
makol., Leipzig, Bd. xxii. Parkes and Wollowicz, Proc. Pmij. Soc. London, 1870, vol. xviii.
p. 362, found that alcoliol in ordinary c^uantities had no effect on the temperature of a
healthy man.

^ Arch. f. Anat., Physiol, u. icis^enHcli. Med., Leipzig, 1865, S. 45.


whereas that of a normal animal exposed to cold only varied one, or
two-tenths of a degree. Similar results have l^een obtained ]:)y others.^

Calorimetric oljservations have been made l:)y Eeichert^ upon the
influence of alcohol on the production and loss of heat in dogs ; he
found that the total heat production was not essentially altered, but the
loss exceeded the production, and therefore the temperature fell. The
doses given were 1"25, 2'5, and 5 c.c. per kilo, of the animal's weight.

Chloroform,, ether, morphia, chloral, and nicotine. — The general
effect of these drugs is to cause a fall in the temperature of the body,^
and in poisonous doses to so greatly depress the power of heat regulation
that a warm-blooded animal passes into a condition in which it cannot
maintain its temperature, its respiratory exchange and temperature
varying with, and in the same direction as, that of its surroundings
(Eumpf, Pembrey). Calorimetric observations made by J. Eosenthal
show that under the influence of chloral the temperature of rabbits falls,*
the discharge of heat is 30 to 40 per cent, greater than the normal, and
the production of heat and also of carbon dioxide is diminished ; strychnia
and tetanus, on the other hand, increase the production but diminish the
loss of heat.

Cocain,^ atropin, Ijrucin, caffein, and veratrin raise the temperature ;
the most remarkable pyretic drug, however, is /3-tetra hydronaphthyl-
amine, w^hich causes in the case of rabbits a rapid rise of three or four
degrees in the rectal temperature ^ ; curari '^ causes a marked fall in

The limits of bodily temperature compatible with life. — Although
the range of temperature in a normal man is less than 2°, yet a
much wider range is observed in certain pathological conditions.
Thus by exposure to cold, especially when the subjects are drunk,
the temperature may fall even as low as 24° without a fatal issue.
Reincke^ has recorded numerous cases of low temperature resulting
from the accidental exposure of drunkards to cold air and water.
In two of these cases the rectal temperature was 30" and 24° re-
spectively ; the patients were unconscious, but under treatment

^ Rumpf, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1884, Bd. xxxiii. S. 538; Ringer and Eickards,
loc. cit. ; Tschescliichin, Arch. f. Anat., Physiol, u. wissensch. Med., 1866, S. 161 ; Cuny
Bonvier, loc. cit.

2 Therap. Gaz., Detroit, February, 1890.

•^ Dumeril and Deniarquay, "Recherches experimentales sur les modifications imprimees
a la temperature animale par I'ether et I'chloroforme," 1848 ; Brown-Sequard, Comi^t. rend.
Soe. de hiol., Paris, 1849, ISTo. 7, p. 102 ; Tscheschicliin, loc. cit. ; Lallemand, Perrin, and
Duroy, " Du role de I'alcool et des anesth^siques dans I'organisme," Paris, 1860 ; Spencer
Wells, Edin. Med. Journ., 1869, 1870 ; Richardson, Practitioner, London, 1869, 1870 ;
AVaren Tay, Brit. Med. Journ., London, 1870, vol. i. p. 329 ; Oglesby, Practitioner, London,
1870; Angelesco, Gompt. rend. Sac. de biol., Paris, 1894, p. 786 ; Richet, Coinpt. rend. Acad,
d. sc, Paris, 1889, tome cix. p. 190 ; Arch, de physiol. norm, et path., Paris, 1890, tome ii.
p. 221 ; Warter, Med. Times and Gaz., London, 1866, vol. ii. p. 416 ; Lichtenfels and
Frohlicli, Denkschriften d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. Math.-naturw. CI., Wien, 1852, Bd. iii.
Abth. 2, S. 137 ; Hobday, Journ. Conii?. Path, and Therap., Edin. and London, vol. viii.

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