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presenting its decomposition he gives as follows : —

2Ci,H2cK,Oio + 6H,0 - 4C0H13NO, + 3C,,H,02

(chitin) (water) (glucosamine) (acetic acid)

Glucosamine is an amido-derivative of glucose ; it forms crystalline
salts, of which the hydrochloride is readily prepared by boiling chitin
with hydrochloric acid ; this is soluble in water, and is dextrorotatory
(a)p=z+70°-6. The base is prepared by the action of baryta on the
sulphate. It is crystalline and not fermentable with yeast.

Schmiedeberg ^ looks upon chitin as an acetyl derivate of glucosamine,
and as he has also obtained the latter substance from the chondroitin-
sulphuric acid of cartilage, he regards it as indicating a connection
between the skeletal tissues of vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

By heating chitin with ten times its weight of caustic alkali at 180°,
Hoppe-Seyler and Araki* obtained a substance which possesses the
original form of the pieces of chitin, but differs from chitin in being-
very soluble in dilute acids such as acetic acid ; from such solutions it is
precipitable by alkalis. This substance is called chitosan, and its forma-
tion from chitin is shown in the following equation: —

(chitin) (water) (chitosan) (acetic acid)

Chitosan in dilute acetic acid is levorotatory ; (a)j,= - 17°'7 to 17°'9.
By heating it with acetic acid in sealed tubes to 135°, a substance
very like chitin is regenerated ; it, however, contains three, whereas
true chitin only contains two acetyl groups.

By boiling with concentrated hydrochloric acid, chitosan yields
hydrochloride of glucosamine, formic and acetic acids.

NeurocMtin. — In Crustacea, chitin has been said to take the place of neuro-
keratin as a support to the nerve fibres.-^

Concliiolin (C^QH^gNgO^;^) forms the organic basis of the shells of mussels
and snails. On decomposition it yiekls leucine, perhaps glyeocine, but no
tyrosine or reducing substance. It does not give the xanthoproteic, Millon's,
nor the Adamkiewicz reactions. The hyssus of molluscs is similar. The
cementing substance between the eggs of various molluscs contains a substance
more like keratin. Cornein, from corals (CggH^^jSTgOgg), differs from conchiolin
by giving a red colour with Millon's test ; on decomposition it yields leucine
and a crystalline material called cornicrystallin.

Spongin, the organic basis of the common sponge, yields as decomposition
products, leucine and glyeocine (Stadeler), but no tyrosine.'^' It does not give
the colour reactions just mentioned ; it resembles conchiolin by yielding

1 E. Zander {Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1897, Bd. Ixvi. S. 545) also finds that
chitin gives a colour with iodine very like that given by glycogen.

" Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem., Strassburg, Bd. ii. S. 213 ; iv. S. 137.

^ Arch. f. exper. Path. u. PharmalcoL, Leipzig, Bd. xxviii.

* Ber. d. detitsch. chem. Gesellsch., Berlin, 1894, Bd. xxvii. S. 3329 ; 1895, Bd. xxviii. S.
82 ;_ Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem., Strassburg, 1895, Bd. xx. S. 498.

° Griffiths, Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, tome cxv,

" Zalocostas {ibid., tome cvii. p. 252), however, obtained tyrosine, Initalaninc, and
glucalanine (CoHjoNoO^).



76 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF BODY AND FOOD.

peptone-like materials on digestion, which differ from true peptones and
proteoses by not giving the colour reactions in question.

Fibroin is the substance of which spiders' webs are composed. It
is insoluble except in concentrated mineral acids and alkalis. It yields on
decomposition glycocine, leucine, and tyrosine, and gives the proteid colour
reactions. This substance and sericin, a similar material (which, however,
gives no glycocine on decomposition), are found together in silk.^ Hammarsten '^
gives the following table of percentage compositions : —





C


H


N


s







Conchiolin .


50-92


6-88


17-86


0-31


24-34


Krukenberg.


Spongin


46-5


6-3


16-2


0-5


27-5


Crookewitt.*


5>


, 48-75


6-35


16-4






Possell.^


Cornein


, 48-96


5-9


16-81




28-33


Krukenberg.


Fibroin


. 48-23


6-27


18-31




27-19


Cramer.'^


)5


. 48-3


6-5


19-20




26-0


Vignon."


Sericin


. 44-32


6-18


18-30




30-2


Cramer.



Inorganic Compounds.

Water forms about 58-5 per cent, of the weight of the body ;
in infants it is 66-4 per cent. An adult takes in food 2,500 c.c. of
water daily, and excretes rather more, as some is formed in the body
by the oxidation of hydrogen.

Hydrogen 2^^"^" oxide is stated by Wurster ^ to be given off in various
situations ; he uses tetramethyl-paraphenylenediamine papers to detect
it.

Hydrogen sulphide occurs in small quantities as the result of putre-
factive changes in the alimentary canal.

Ammonia is also formed in putrefactive processes, and in pancreatic
digestion. A small quantity occurs in fresh urine, and increases when
the urine putrefies.

Hydrochloric acid occurs in gastric juice.

Carlonic acid occurs in the blood, lymph, and secretions.

The acids found in the body are, however, usually in combination as
salts.

Salts. — The chief salts found are the chlorides of sodium and potassium,
the sulphates of the same metals, phosphates of sodium, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium, carbonates of sodium and calcium. Bone,
dentine, and enamel are chiefly rich in calcium salts, especially the
phosphate. Other solid tissues are especially rich in potassium salts.
In the tiuids (milk excepted) the most abundant salt is sodium chloride.

A fuller consideration of the various saline constituents will be taken with
the individual tissues and secretions. The following general tables may be,
however, quoted here;-' the figures give percentage quantities of mineral
matters in the ash : —



^ Weyl, Ber. d. denf.sch. diem. Gesellsch., Berlin, Bd. xxi. S. 1^07, 1529.

- " Physiol. Chem.," 3rd German edition, S. 49.

^ Ber. d. deutsch. chem. GcselUch., Berlin, Bd. xvii.

* Ann. d. Chem., Leipzig, Bd. xlviii. ^ Ibid., Bd. xlv.

^' Joiorn. f. pralct. Chem., Leipzig, Bd. xcvi.

"^ Comi^l. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, tome ex v.

8 Ber. d. deutsah. chem. Gesellsch., Berlin, 15d. xix. S. 3195 ; xx. S. 263, 1033.

^ From Beaiiuis, " Physiologic humaiue."



INORGANIC COMPOUNDS.



77



Tissue .


Bone.


Calf-muscles.


Brain.


Liver.


Lungs.


Spleen.


Analyst


Heintz.


Staflfel.


Breed.


Oidtniann


C. Schmidt.


Oidtmann.


Sodium cliloride .




10-59


4-74




13-0




Soda .




2-35


10-69


14-51


19-5


44-33


Potash




31-40


34-42


25-23


1-3


9-60


Lime .


37-58


1-99


0-72


3-61


1-9


7-48


Magnesia .


1-22


1-45


1-23


0-20


1-9


0-49


Ferric oxide








2-74


3-2


7-28


Chlorine








2-58




0-54


Fluorine


1-66












Phosphoric acid .


53-31


48-13


48-17


50-18


48-5


27- 10


Sulphuric acid .






0-75


0-92


1-4


2-54


Carbonic acid


5-47












Silicic acid .




0-81


0-12


0-27




017



Fluid .


Blood.


Serum.


Blood-
clot.


Lymph.


Urine.


Milk.


Bile.


Excre-
ments.


Analyst


Verdeil.


Weber.


Weber.


Dahn-
liardt.


Porter.


Wilden-

stein.


Rose.


Porter.


Sodium chloride


58-81


72-88


17-36


74-48


67-26


10-73


27-70


4-33


Potassium , ,






29-87






26-33






Soda .


4-15


12-93


3-55


10-35


1-33




36-73


5-07


Potash


11-97


2-95


22-36


3-25


13-64


21-44


4-80


6-10


Lime .


1-76


2-28


2-58


0-97


1-15


18-78


1-43


26-40


Magnesia .


1-12


0-27


0-53


0-26


1-34


0-87


0-53


10-54 '


Ferric oxide


8-37


0-26


10-43


0-05




0-10


0-23


2-50


Phosphoric acid .


10-23


1-73


10-64


1-09


11-21


19-00


10-45


36-03


Sulphuric acid .


1-67


2-10


0-09






2-64


6-39




Carbonic acid


1-19


4-40


2-17


8-20






11-26




Silicic acid .




0-20


0-42


0-42


4-06




0-36


3-13



Sodium and potassium salts. — Probably 200 grms. may be taken
as an average amount of sodimn chloride (common salt) in the adult
human body. It is a most important food, and about 16 grms. are
daily excreted in the mine,^ and smaller amounts in the sweat and
fceces. If potassium chloride be substituted in the food for the sodium
salt, disturbances arise from deficiency of the latter. The tissues, how-
ever, retain common salt very tenaciously, so that during a dietary
devoid of salt it disappears slowly from the mine.

During its passage through the body, it facilitates the absorption of
proteid food, and increases tissue metabolism. The following table ^ gives
the probable relative amounts of sodium and potassium chlorides in
parts per thousand : —



Blood


NaCl
2-70


Blood corpuscles
Plasma


5-54


Lymph
Chyle
Pancreatic juice


5-67
5-84


(from perman-
ent fistula)


2-50



KCl
2-05
3-67
0-35



0-93



IsaCl ECl



Pancreatic juice






(from tempo
rary fistula)
Gastric juice


7-35
1-45


0-02
0-55


Bile .


5-33


0-28


Milk .


0-87


2-13


L^rine


11-00


4-50



Bunge found that the soda salts are more abundant in embryonic

1 Vierordt's "Daten u. Tabellen," 1893, Aufl. 2, S. 122.

- From M'Kendrick's "Text-book of Physiology, " Glasgow, 1888, vol. i. p. 39.



78 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF BODY AND FOOD.

and early life than in adult life. This is illustrated by the followmg
table :—

XaoO K.,0 Xa.,0 E:„0

Eabbit's embryo . 2-183 2-605 i Cat 29 days old 2-292 2-684

Eabbit U days old 1-630 2-967 | Dog 4 „ „ 2-589 2-667

Kitten 1 day „ 2-666 2-691 j Adult mouse . . 1-700 3-280

Cat 19 days „ 2-285 2-790

This fact is probably due to the larger amount of cartilage (rich in
soda salts) and the smaller amount of muscle (rich in potash salts) in
early life as compared with the adult condition.^

Various phosphates of sodimn and potassium are found in the Idood,
lymph, mine, and other secretions.

SocUmn carbonate and bicarbonate occur in the food, and originate
in the body from the salts of vegetable acids (tartaric, citric, etc.).

Sodium and potassium sulphate exist in smaller quantities in the
body. Only minute quantities of these salts are introduced with the
food; they are chieiiy formed by the oxidation of proteids and other
organic substances containing sidphm\

Ammonium salts. — Minute traces of ammonium chloride are found in
the mine. The m^ine of reptiles and birds is largely composed of
ammonium m'ate. Small quantities of this salt, and also of ammonio-
magnesic phosphate, are found in human m^ine. Ammonium carbonate
is formed from m-ea in decomposing urine.

Calcium salts. — About three-quarters of the total mineral sohds in
the body consist of calcium phosphate, Ca3(P04)._> : this is because of the
great preponderance of this salt in bone. Other calcium salts occm^riug
in bone, dentine, and enamel are the carbonate, sulphate, and fluoride.
Calcium phosphate, urate, and oxalate, are found in the lU'ine. Most
tissues contain small quantities of the phosphate and carbonate. Egg
shells, the shells of Crustacea, coral, and otoHths consist cliiefly of
carbonate of lime.-

Magnesium salts. — Magnesimn phosphate (Mg3(P04)2) occm^s in the
tissues along with the calcium phosphates (Ca3(P04)2 and Ca,'S.^(POi\)
but in smaller amount. It occm's also in the urine. A ui m onio-magnesimn
or triple phosphate (NH^MgPO^+GHjO) is also often found in decom-
posing urine. Magnesimn pahnitate and stearate are found in the fa'ces.

Iron is an important constituent of the blood pigment. The blood
of an adult contains 3 grms. of ii'on. Small quantities are found in
other liquids of the body (chyle, lymph, bile, milk, urine, gastric juice) ;
it is also contained in the black pigment of the skin and hair, and of
melanotic sarcomata. A small quantity of ferric sulphide is found in
the faeces, and small quantities of u'on are found in both liver and
spleen.^ It is present in the tissues in organic combination with nuclein
(see p. 68).

Copper is found in two proximate principles, lisemocyauin, the blue pig-
ment of the blood of many invertebrates (crustaeea, cuttle-fishes, scorpions,
etc.), and in the pigment, turacin, of birds' feathers. Small quantities of this
metal, and also of aluminiiim, manganese and lead, may occur accidentally in

^ Bunge, Ztschr.f. physiol. CJwm., Strassbm-g, Bd. siii. S. 399.

- On excretion and absorption of lime see Key, C'Jiem. Centr.-BL, Leipzig, 1895, Bd. ii.
S, 55, 8-37.

* For data concerning tlie amount of iron in foods, see Stockman, Journ. Physiol.,
Cambridge and London, 1895, vol. x^-iii. p. 484 ; 1897, vol. xxi. p. 55. An ordinary
daily diet contains 9-10 mgrms. of iron.



INORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 79

other parts, being taken in with the food,^ and not excreted at once with the
feces, but deposited in some tissue or organ. Drugs and poisons (mercury,
arsenic) may be similarly deposited.

Silica. — A minute quantity of silica exists in the blood, urine, bones,
hair, and other parts.

Fli08'pliate,8. — The amount of phosphoric acid given in analyses of
the ash of animal structures is not always correct, since a certain
quantity is obtained during the process of incineration, from the decom-
position of organic compounds, which, like lecithin, contain phosphorus.

The phosphoric acid which occurs in mineral compounds in the body
is derived in part directly from the food, and in part from the metabohsm
of lecithin and nuclein. It unites with soda, potash, lime, and magnesia
to form the various phosphates already alluded to. An adult man
eliminates by the kidneys 2'5 to 3'5 grms. of phosphoric acid daily.
Carnivora eliminate phosphates chiefly b}^ the kidneys, herbivora chiefly
with the fgeces.

Carhonates. — -The presence of carbonates in the ash of animal matters
is partly derived from the decomposition of organic compounds.
Alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates are, however, found in blood,
urine, lymph, saliva, etc.

Sulphates. — These also may be partly formed during the process of
incineration, from proteids and other organic compounds containing
sulphur. The sulphuric acid in the urine is in part combined as ordinary
sulphates, in part as ethereal sulphates. It is derived to a small extent
from the food, but chiefly from the metabolism of proteids, the amounts
of sulphuric acid and m^ea in the urine running parallel.

^ Karl B. Lehmaini {Arch. f. Hyg., Mimclien u. Leipzig, Bd. xxiv. S. 1, 18, 72)
states that in an ordinary diet we take 20 mgrms. of copper daily, and if preserves are much
used, it may rise to over 300 mgrms. per diem ; more than 120 mgrms. appears to be harmful.



THE CHE.MISTEY OF THE TISSUES AXD ORGANS.
By W. D. Hallibuetox.

Co:sTEifTS. — Cells and Protoplasm, p. 80 ; Liver, p. 85 ; Spleen, p. 87 ; Thymus,
p. 88 ; Thyroid, p. 88 ; Siiin'arenals, p. 90 ; Pancreas, p. 92 ; Kidneys, p.
92 ; Testis, jj. 92 ; Muscle, p. 95 ; Skeletal Tissues, p. Ill ; Nei-vous Tissues,
p. 115 ; The Eye, p. 121 ; Milk. p. 125.

The preceding article contains an account of the principal proximate
principles occurring in the body and in food.

In the present article I propose to present the subject from another
standpoint, and to discuss the chemical composition of the various
animal tissues and organs. This will in gi'eat measm-e be complemental
to what has been akeady done, and will give the opportunity of describ-
ino- some substances which have only been treated incidentallv in the
foregoing chapter.

In describing the chemistry of the organs, I shall endeavom^ to avoid
discussions as to their metabolic functions, and shall omit all considera-
tion of their secretions, since these are treated elsewhere in this work ;
an exception, however, will be made in the case of milk.

Protoplasm, and cells. — The chemical structm-e of hving substance
is still beyond our knowledge. All that chemists are able to do is to
examine the disintegration products of the substance which they un-
avoidably kill by the use of reagents.

Some authors speak of hAong substance as if it were merely proteid
in composition, and have adopted the phrase " li^dng proteid " (see p. 38).
But it is doubtful if the use of such a term is justifiable, for proto-
plasm even in its simplest condition invariably contains, or yields on
chsintegration, substances other than proteid, though proteids and
compoimd proteids like nucleo-proteid are by far the most alDundant of
these disintegration products. Among the other sohd substances con-
stantly present in protoplasm are lecithin, cholesterin, and inorganic
salts (especially phosphates and chlorides of calcimn, sodiiun, and
potassium) ; and frequently fat and carbohydrate material, such as
glycogen, are also to be found. "Water occm-s to the extent of 75 per
cent, or more. AVhether these substances are all present in the free
state, or, as is much more probable, are linked together in intimate
union, to form the complex protoplasmic molecule, it is at present
impossible to say with certainty. Li^ing cells are alkaline ; after death
they become acid.

The simplest form of protoplasm known is that found in the
Plasmodium of the myxomycetous fungus, u^thalium septicum. It has



PROTOPLASM AND CELLS. 8r

been analysed by Eeinke ^ and Krukenberg,^ and their observations con-
firm what has jnst been stated.

The nucleus of cells, the study of which began with the work of
Brunton, Plosz, and Miescher, has of recent years been very thoroughly
worked at by Hoppe-Seyler, Kossel, and numerous other physiological
chemists ; the result will be gathered from the section in the preceding
chapter on nuclein, and, as will be there seen, there are yet many gaps
in our knowledge which require to be filled up.

The proteids obtained from the cell protoplasm have been examined
in simple cells such as those of lymphoid tissue, and in the more special-
ised cells of secreting organs, such as the liver, kidneys, testis, and so forth.
The main result is the same in all, though there are minor differences
between individual cases.

The proteid contained in greatest abundance is nucleo-proteid ; small
quantities of globulin usually coagulating at the low temperature of
50' C. or even lower, and minute traces of an albumin are also found.

The nucleo-proteids from different cells differ in the amount of
nuclein (as evidenced by the percentage of phosphorus) they contain.^

The nucleo-proteid from the thymus contains 0"8 per cent, of phosphorus.

„ „ kidney „ 0-37

Hver „ 1-45

brain „ 0-5

,, ,, red marrow ,, 1'6 ,, ,,

,, ,, red corpuscles „ 0'68 ,, ,,

Schmidt's fibrin ferment ,, 1'25 ,, „

In my early work * on the proteids of cell protoplasm, I selected the
cells of lymphatic glands, because one can obtain from these structures
an abundant supply of comparatively simple cells ; later, I found that
the cells of thymus ^ gave similar results. At first I described the pro-
teids obtained as four in number, namely nucleo-proteid, cell globulin- a,
cell globulin-,/3, and cell albumin. The nucleo-proteid can be obtained
either by Wooldridge's acetic acid method or by the sodium chloride
process (p. 68).

The material obtained by both methods is the same, though they
differ in their physical condition ; that obtained by the sodium chloride
process being more viscous than that by Wooldridge's method. That
they are the same is shown by the facts that both give the same re-
actions, which closely resemble those of globulins ; both contain
practically the same amount of phosphorus, and both produce intra-
vascular coagulation.^

The term cell globulin was originally introduced by me as a con-
venient designation for the proteids which are coagulable by heat in
sodium sulphate extracts of the cells. The nucleo-proteid just men-
tioned is viscid when extracted by sodium chloride and magnesium
sulphate, but an extract with sodium sulphate solution does not exhibit

^ "Studien neber das Protoplasma," Berlin, 1881.

" Untcrsucli. a. d. physiol. Inst. d. Univ. Heidelberg, 1882, Bd. ii. S. 273.
^ Halliburton, Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1895, vol. xviii. p. 306.
'^ Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1888, vol. xliv. p. 255; Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and
London, 1888, vol. ix. p. 229. 5 Ibid., vol. xviii. p. 306.

^ Halliburton and Brodie, ibid., 1894, vol. xvii. p. 135.
VOL. I.— 6



82 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE TISSUES AND ORGANS.



viscidity, and it was the absence of this character which led me to the
erroneous conchision that no nucleo-proteid had gone into solution.

The sodium sulphate extract contains two proteids, one which co-
agulates at ■48°-50° C, the other at 75° C. The first, which I called cell
glol3ului-a, is really a giobulm : it yields no nuclein on gastric chgestion ; ^
but the second, which I called cell giobulin-/3, though like a globulin in its
solubilities, is really the same nucleo-proteid which by treatment with
other salts is rendered viscid.^ That this substance is related to, if not
identical with, the fibrin ferment or its zymogen (Pekelharmg) has been
rendered probable by the researches of Pekelharing and myself.

The ahumin is only present m minute quantities ; its properties are
like those of serum albumin, and it may partly arise from blood or
lymph imperfectly washed away from the cells.

Proteoses and ■peptone, when present, are the result of post-mortem
changes, or of manipulations dming the processes employed in separating
the other proteids.

Myosin is absent.

LilienfekP has carried out a similar research on the chemistry of
cells which he obtamed from the thymus, by the usual means of pressuj'e
and the centrifuge. He found a proteid corresponding to cell globulin- a
coagulatmg at 48° C, and another corresponding to cell albumin
coagulating at 73-75° C. The nucleo-proteid which he obtained by my
sodium chloride process contained C, 53"46 ; H, 7*64; IS", 15'o7, and P,
0"433 per cent. The alcohoHc extract of the cells contained protagon,
amido-valeric acid, inosite, and monopotassium phosphate.

By Wooldridge's method he obtained the nucleo-proteid he has
called " nucleo-histon " (see p. 68), and he considers that this, in part at
any rate, is derived from the nuclei. Its percentage composition is C,
48-46 ; H, 7-0 ; N, 16-86 ; P, 3-025 ; and S, 0-701. The action of artificial
gastric juice, or of 0-8 per cent, hydi'ochloric acid, on this, is to separate
the nuclein from the proteid, which goes into solution as peptone. The
nuclein contains 4-991 per cent., and the nucleic acid prepared from
this 9-94 per cent., of phosphorus.

In the following table he gives the quantitative composition of
leucocytes : —



Water
Solids



88-51
11-49



One hundred parts of the sohds contain-



Total phosphorus
Total nitrogen



Proteid

Nuclein

Histon {i.e. proteid part

Lecithin

Fat .

Cholesterin .

Glycogen



of the nucleo-proteid)



3-01
15-03

1-76
68-78
8-67
7-51
4-02
4-40
0-80



^ Halliburton, Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 189'2, vol. xiii. p. 806.
- Ibid., 1895, vol. xviii. p. .312. Pekelharing showed this also to be the case.
^ Ztschr, f. 'physiol. C'hem., Strassburg, 13d, xviii. S. 473.



PROTOPLASM AND CELLS. 83

The high percentage of phosphorus in the nucleo-proteid obtained by this
method is certainly not in accord with the observations of Brodie and myself.

We are justified in concluding from this work that the colourless
corpuscles of the blood which originate from lymphoid structures have a
similar composition. It is, however, impossible to investigate the actual
colourless blood corpuscles by macrochemical methods. Microchemically
they can be shown sometimes to contain fat and glycogen.^

Pu8 cells are colourless corpuscles, which show a considerable amount
of fatty degeneration and are generally dead ; these have been the subject
of several researches. The nuclei consist of nuclein, which is historically
interesting, because this was the first preparation made by the method of
gastric digestion (Miescher).^

The protoplasm consists of proteids chiefly, but it also yields ex-
tractives and inorganic salts. Hoppe-Seyler's analysis of two samples of
dried pus cells give the following percentage results : —

I. II.

Proteids . . . 13-762 )

I^uclein . . . 34-257 V 68-585 67-369

Insoluble substances . 20-566 )

Lecithin ) , . 000 f 7-564

Fats j 1 7-500

Cholesterin . . . 7-400 7*283

Cerebrin . . . 5-199) ■|0-'>84

Extractives . . . 4-433)

Inorganic constituents in one hundred parts of dried pus corpuscles—



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