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Lumbricus .


112


0-1013
(70-8 c.c.)


0-108
(54-9 c.c.)


-77


?




Regnault and
Reiset. -








0-593




18°-19''


One determination.


Pott."


Hirudo






0-645
(328 c c.)




16'-19°


Mean of two deter-
minations.


"


Hiriulo officinalis


2-2


0-0328


0-0312


-69


13''-5


Before ■"!

Vn in pal


Jolyet and






(22-98 c.c.)


(15-9 c.c.)






Regnard. *






0-0567


0-0701


-90


13°


After r ™®^^-


jj






(39-70 c.c.)


(35-7 C.C.)








ISSECTA—
















Anthercea (18)


42-5


0-840
(588 c.c.)


0-916
(465-7 c.c.)


-79


?




Regnault and
Reiset.


,,


39


0-687
(480 c.c.)


0-767
(390-7 c.c.)


-81


9




"


42)


40


1-170
(818 c.c.)


1-189
(604-5 c.c.)


-73


1




"


Melolotttha (40)


40-3


1-076
(752 c.c.)


1-1699
(.594-8 c.c.)


-79


?




'■


(37)


37


0-962
(673 c.c.)


1-092
(555 c.c.)


-82


?




"


Geotru'pes .


0-32




1-130
(.574 c.c.)




20°-21°


Mean of two deter-
minations.


Pott.


Melolontha .


2-0




0-987
(503 c.c.)




15°-17°


Larva. Mean of four
determinations.


"


Locusta






0-839
(427 c.c.)




16"-19°


Mean of three deter-
minations.


"


G-ryllus campes-


0-25




2-305






,, ,,





tris






(1172 c.c.)













0-05




2-127
(1081 c.c.)




17°-21°


Mean of two deter-
minations.


"


Blatta orientalis .






0-268
1-045




15°-20°
30°-3a°




Biitschli.'


MOLLUSCA—
















Octopus vulgaris


2310


-0630
(44-1 c.c.)


■0745
(37-9 c.c.)


-86


15° -5




Jolyet and
Regnard.


,






•1115


-95


16°




Vernon.


Tethys leporina .






•0165


-84


16°




"


Crustacea —




-0543


-064-2










Astacus fluviulis .


31


(38 c.c.)


(32-7 c.c.)


-86


12°-5




Jolyet and
Regnard.


Ganivw/nts pulex




(132 c.c.)


(95 c.c.)


-72


12''-5




"


Paleriion squilta .




(125 c.c.)


(103-8'c.c.)


-83


19°







Cancer pagurus .


470


(107 c.c.)


(89-9 c.c.)


-84


10°




,


Homarus vulgaris


315


(68 c.c.)


(54-4 c.c.)


-80


15°






Palinurus qiMCL-


520


(44-2 c.c.)


(38-9'c.c.)


-88


15°






ricorn

















^ For experimeuts upon the respiration of nematoid worms, .see Bunge, Ztschr. f.
physiol. Chem., Strasshurg, 1883, Bd. viii. S. 48 ; 1890, Bd. xiv. S. 318.

"Ann. de chim. ctpliys., Paris, 1849, Ser. 3, tomexxvi.

^ Landunrthsch. Versuclisstat. , Bd. xviii. S. 81.

* Arch, dephysiol. norm, ctxiaili., Paris, 1877, tome iv. p. 44.

^ Biitsclili, Arch. f. Anat., Physiol., u.wissensch. Med., 1874, S. 348. For further details
on the respiratory exchange of insects, see Spallaiizaiii, Juurn. f. Chem. Physik. u, Min.,
Berlin, Bd. iii. S. 378 ; Vauquelin, Ann. de chim., Paris, 1792, tome xii. ; Treviranus, Ztschr.
f. Physiol, 183-2, Bd. iv. S. 23 ; Newport, Phil. Trans., London, 1837, pt. ii. p. 259 ; Detmer,
La'iulwirthsch. Versuchsstat. , Bd. xv. S. 196 ; Liebe, Jahrcsh. ii. d. Fortschr. d. Thier-Chem.,
"Wiesbaden, 1872, S. 332 ; Schniidt-Schwedt, Bcrl. entomol. Ztschr., Bd. xxxi. S. 325.



EXCHANGE OF COLD-BLOODED ANLMALS.
TAB LE — continued.



703







S-t



















a 3

















■c












^^


Wo


•pw^




U






Animal




Si§ £


.2x1 S


CO.,


13

i


Remarks.


Observer.




■|o




§^3
OS


0,








Pisces—
















Cyprinus aura-


12-14


•0376


•0411


-79


S"


Fascing.


Baumert. '


tiis




(26-3 c.c.)


(•20-9 c.c.)










"


12-14


-0590
(41-3 c.c.)


-0617
(31-4 c.c.)


-76


11°-12°


Fasting. Mean of
tiiree determina-
tions.


"


>i


33-40


-0655


-0643


-71


12°


Mean of two deter-


Jolyet and






(45-8 c.c.)


(32-7 c.c.)






minations.


Regnard.


Cyprinus tinea .


222


•0796
(55-7 c.c.)


-0721
(36-7 c.c.)


-66


14°






"


500


-1001
(70-0 c.c.)






?




Quinquand. ^




190-


-0165


-0159


■70







Baumert.




223


(11-53 c.c.)


(8-09 c.c.)










Cyprinus carpio .


12




0-352
(179 c.c.)




13°-14°


Young. Mean of two
determinations.


Pott.


Colitis fossilis


43-61


-0455
(31-8 c.c.)


-0633
(32-2 c.c.)


1-01


9°-12°


Mean of six deter-
minations.


Baumert.


"


16


•1234
(86-3 c.c.)


-1323
(67-3 c.c.)


-78


l7°-22°




Jolyet and
Regnard.


MiLrcena anguilla


51


-0580
(40-5 c.c.)


-0629
(32 c.c.)


■79


14°






"


112


-0686
(48-0 c.c.)


-0566
(28-8 c.c.)


-60


15°






Mullus


28


•1916
(134 c.c.)


-2132
(108-5 c.c.)


-81


14°






SiMrus auratus .


75


•2031
(142 c.c.)


-1787
(90-9 c.c.)


-64


19-






Trigla hirundo .


350


•1351
(94^5 c.c.)


•1337
(68 c.c.)


•71


15°






Murcena conger .


545


•0855
(59-8 c.c)


•0865
(43 c.c.)


-72


13°






Eaja torpedo


315


•0672
(47-0 c.c.)


•0540
(27^5 c.c.)


-58


14-5°


Mean of two deter-
minations.




Amphibia—
















Axolotl


42


•0646
(45^2 c.c.)


•0497
(25^3 c.c.)


-56


ll°-5




Jolyet and
Regnard.


Eana escidenta .




•063
(44-2 c.c.)

•105
(73-4 c.c.)


0^060
(30-76 c.c.)

0-1134
(57-7 c.c.)


-69

-78


15°-19°


1 Minimal and max-
V imal of five ex-
1 periments.


Regnault and
Reiset.


"




(50-46 C.C.)


(47-98 c.c.)
0-082


-95


17° -7
17°




Oertmann.
Schulz.3


,, temporaria


13-9




0-355




19°-20°




Pott.


"






0-602




23°-l


Mean of twenty-two
experiments.


Moleschott.


" "


31-64




0-038




13°


^ Duration of ex-
periment was
V three and four


Pembrey.


"


31-64




0-035




13°


hours (winter
J frog).




" "


34-47




0-033




12°-5


Winter frog


Vernon.



An examination of the above results shows that the respiratory
exchange of most of the cold-blooded animals is very small, but that a
marked exception exists in the case of insects; which have a metabolism
equal to that of the larger mammals. This remarkable exception finds
confirmation in the relatively high temperature ^ of insects and in their
wonderful muscular activity.

1 " Chem. Uiitersuch. u. d. Respir. d. Schlammpeitzgers, " Breslau, 1855, S. 24.
- Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1873, tome Ixxvi. p. 1141.
^ Arch. f. d. gcs. Physiol., Bonn, 1877, Bd. xiv. S. 78.
■* Article "Animal Heat," this Text-book, vol. i.



704 CHEMISTRY OF RESPIRATION.

The respiration of fishes.— The necessity of air for the life of fishes
"vvas proved by Boyle ^ during his experiments with the air-pump. He states
that " there is wont to lurk in water many little parcels of interspersed air,
whereof it seems not impossible that fishes may make some use, either by
separating it when they strain the matter through their gills, or by some other
way." Mayow^ (1674) appears to have been the first to understand and to
correctly describe how fish breathed by taking up nitro-aerial gas (oxygen)
from the water by means of the blood flowing through their gills ; and Ber-
nouilli^ in 1690 demonstrated that fish could not live in cold water from
which the air had been expelled by boiling.

The methods employed and quantitative results obtained by different
observers, who have studied the respiration of fishes and other animals living
in water, have already been described. A few additional facts, however,
must be mentioned. Humboldt and Provencal * state that nitrogen was in
some cases absorbed, but when the water was impregnated with oxygen and
hydrogen none of the latter gas Avas taken up by the fishes ; a certain amount
of cutaneous respiration also occurs, and fishes can breathe in the air as long as
their gills are kept moist with water. The respiration of fishes living in the
sea is facilitated by the absence of any free carbon dioxide in the water, for
any carbon dioxide formed is at once fixed by the excess of alkaline base
present in the water. ^

In connection with the respiration of fishes, the sicimming-hladder must be
considered, for this organ is one which can secrete gases and in some cases
store up almost pure oxygen.

Biot^ found that the percentage of oxygen increased with the depth from
which the fish was taken ; the greatest percentage was 87. This was con-
firmed by the observations of Delaroche,''' who obtained 70 per cent, oxygen from
the bladder of fishes drawn up from a greater depth than 50 metres (164 feet),
and 29 per cent, from those taken at smaller depths. Erman,^ Vauquelin,'^
Configliachi,^'^ and Delaroche ^^ analysed the gas in the SAvimming-bladder of
fresh-water fish, and found the percentage of oxygen generally less than that
in the atmosphere, little or no carbon dioxide, but much nitrogen. The mean
of analyses made by Humboldt and Proven9al showed 7*1 parts of oxygen,
5'2 of carbon dioxide, and 87*7 parts of nitrogen in 100 volumes of gas from
the swimming-bladder of a carp, while the results obtained by F. Schultz ^^
varied between I'l and 13-2 per cent, oxygen and 1*4 and 5*4 per cent, carbon
dioxide.

According to Humboldt and Provencal, the tench {Cyprinus tinea), in which
there is a duct communicating between the air-bladder and the mouth, does
not take hydrogen into its bladder Avhen the water in which it is confined is
saturated with that gas. Moreau obtained similar negative results ; but more

^ "New Experiments, Physico-Mechanical, touching the Spring of the Air," 1662;
Phil. Trans., London, 1670, pp. 2011, 2035 ; "Works," Shaw's edition, vol. 1. p. 109.

2 "Tractatus quinque," Oxon., 1674, vol. i. ch. xv. p. 259.

^ "Dissertatio de effervesceutia et fermentatione nova hypothesi fuudata," ch. xiv.
Basillse, 1690.

■* J/e'm. de la Soc. de fliy^. et de cMm. d'Arcueil, Paris, 1809, tome ii. p. 359 ; Journ.
f. Chem. u. Plujs., Nlirnberg, 1811, Bd. i. S. 86.

^ Dittinar, Proc. Phil. Soc. Glasgoiv, vol. xvi. p. 61 ; M'Kendrick, Nature, London,
1888, Aug. 16 ; Brit. Med. Journ., London, 1888, vol. ii. p. 331 ; Petersen, Scottish
Geociraph. Mag., Edinburgh, 1895, June, p. 294.

'® Mem. de la Soc. de 'phys. et de chim. d'Arcueil, Paris, 1807, tome i. p. 252 ; Ann. d.
Phys. u. Chem., Leijizig, Bd. xxvi. S. 454.

■^ Jou.rn.f. Chem. u. Phys., Nurnberg, 1811, Bd. i. S. 122.

8 Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem., Leipzig, 1808, Bd. xxx. S. 113.

^ Vauquelin, quoted from Erman, reference 8.

1" Journ. f. Chem. u. Phys., Nilrnberg, 1811, Bd. i. S. 137.
" Ibid., S. 164.

1- Arch./, d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1872, Bd. v. S. 48.



EXCHANGE OF COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS.



705



recent experiments by Mengarini ^ show that the goldfish {Carassius auratus)
and roach {Leuciscus), in which there is a ductus pneuniaticus, the mullet
(Mugil cephalus) and rockling (Motella), in which there is no duct, do take up
hydrogen from water saturated with that gas.

Moreau ^ has shown that the withdrawal of the gas of the swimming-bladder
by means of a trocar leads in a short time to the secretion of a gas richer in
oxygen, and that by a repetition of this process the percentage of oxygen can be
raised as high as 85 ; he also states that section of the sympathetic nerve hastens
the process of secretion. These observations have been repeated and extended
by Hiifner^ and Bohr.'' Cod-fish (Gadus callarias) Avere caught in a net at a
depth of about 14 metres (46 feet), and when they were drawn to the surface
the gas in the air-bladder expanded so much that the fish swam with their backs
doAvn wards. The gas was found in one case to contain 52 per cent, of oxygen ;
but when the fish had been near the surface of the water for some time only 13
per cent, of oxygen was obtained. After the removal of the gas from the bladder,
its secretion begins again : within six hours a little gas has accumulated, and in
twenty-four hours the bladder is again full. The rapidity of the process and the
increase in the percentage of oxygen is shown by the following examples : —



Number of


Hours after the


Percentage


Percentage of








Experiment.


First Puncture.


of Oxygen.


Carbon Dioxide.








{





15-0




8 c.c.


of gas ill the air


-bladd ;r.


24 .


48


78-5


1-0


7i c.c


,,




1


71


83-7


0-5


7 c.c.


.,




25 . j





15-0




6 c.c.






50


78-4.


0-8


5 c.c.






\


73


72-7


1-0


6 c.c.






15 . j





16-3


0-1








5


16-3 ..


0-2









Bohr has also shown that after section of the branches (rami intestinales)
of the vagus which supply the air-bladder, the secretion of the gas ceases en-
tirely, but that no effect upon the secretion is observed after section of the
rami cardiaci or the nervi laterales. These phenomena observed in the case of
the swimming-bladder can at present be explained only as a process of secretion.
The air is not swallowed, for the fishes with the greatest percentage of oxygen
in their bladders are those which do not come to the surface, but live at great
depths ; in some of them, moreover, such as the cod {Gadus callarias), there is
no communication between the bladder and the mouth. The phenomena can-
not be accounted for by simple diffusion, for the water which surrounds the fish
cannot have a higher tension of oxygen than 21 per cent, of an atmosphere.^
Further, Bohr has shown that the percentage of oxygen is not reduced by
diffusion outwards, for when the secretion of fresh oxygen is prevented by
section of the vagus, the high percentage of oxygen is maintained for two or
three days. As long as the swimming-bladder is fresh, it is almost im-
permeable to oxygen, even when the difference of pressures inside and outside
the bladder amounts to one atmosphere. It is to be noted that the membrane
lining the swimming-bladder has a peculiar glandular structure.

^Arch.f. Phy-uol., Leipzig, 1889, S. 54.

2 Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc, Paris, 1873, tome Ivii. pp. 37, 816 ; "Recherches experi-
mentales sur les functioiies de la vessie natatoire," Paris, 1876 ; " M6m. de physioL," Paris,
1877, pp. 69-86.

^ Arch.f. Physiol., Leipzig, 1892, S. 54.

■^ Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1894, vol. xv. p. 494 ; Compt. rend. Acad,
d. sc, Paris, 1892, tome cxiv. p. 1560.

5 Biot, Delaroclie, Moreau, loc. cit. ; Jakobsen, Ann. d. Cheni. u. Pharvi., Bd. clxvii.
S. 1 ; Hiifner, Arch. f. Physiol., Leipzig, 1897, S. 112.

VOL. I.— 45



7o6



CHEMISTR V OF RESPIRA TION.



Table of the Respiratory Exchange of Warm-Blooded Animals.



,




Oxygen

per Kilo.

and Hour

(in Grms.).


Carbon




ci








Weight


Dioxide


CO J








Animal.


(in
Grms.).


per Kilo,
and Hour
(in Grms.).


o^


1^


Remarks.


Observer.


Birds—
















Common Hen r


1280


1-058


1-327


•91


19°


Fed on oats and


Regnault and




(740 c.c.)


(675 c.c.)






water.


Reiset.l


\




1-057


1-403


•96


23°


jj


,,




(739 c.c.)


(714 c.c.)










{


157S


1-084
(758 C.C.)


1-486
(756 c.c.)


-99


14°


"


"


" ■{


1546


1-067
(746 c.c.)


1-447
(736 c.c.)


-93


19°


"


"


I


1687


1-109
(775 c.c.)


1-561
(793-6)


1-02


19'


"


"


"


1820




1-665


-83




Mean of 12 experi-
ments on 2 hens.


Richet.2


"


1500




1-755


•83




Mean of 7 experi-
ments.


"


Duck .


1740




2-270


•74




Mean of 5 experi-
ments.


"


Goose (4) .


18,400


•677
(473 c.c.)


•649
(330 c.c.)


•69


16=


Determination
lasted 25 hrs.,
no food given.


Reiset.3


„ (1) . .


2975




1-490


■80




Mean of 12 experi-
ments.


Richet.


Turkaj'-cock (2) .


12,250


-702
(490 c.c.)


•791
(402 c.c.)


•77


16°


Determination
lasted 18i hrs.,
no food given.


Reiset.


„ (1) .


2650




1-319


•71




Mean of 5 experi-
ments.


Richet.


Pigeon .


325




3-360


•79




Mean of 11 experi-
ments.


"


) • • •


232-




3-236






Mean of 10 experi-


Corin and Van




380










ments.


Beneden.-i


Turtle-dove


167




4-591






Mean of 11 experi-
ments on 3
doves.


Boussingault.5


r


25


13-000


13-590


•76


17°




Regnault and


Greenfinch . -!


25


(9091 c.c.)

9-742
(6813 c.c.)


(6909 c.c.)

9-246
(4701 c.c.)


•69


17°




Reiset.


Goldfinch .


21-5




12-582


•71




Mean of 3 experi-
ments.


Richet.


Sparrow


22


9-595
(6710 c.c.)


10-492
(5334-5 c.c.)


•79


18°




"


"


25




7-783
(3957 c.c.)




10°-15°


Mean of two de-
terminations.


Pott. 6


Crossbill .


28-6


10-974
(7674 c.c.)


12-014
(6108-5 c.c.)


•79


17°




Regnault and
Reiset.


Mammalia—
















Rabbit . . r


2755


0-987
(690 c.c.)


1-244
(632 c.c.)


•91


21''-22°




"


■' • • I


2780


0-877
(613 c.c.)


1-107
(563 c.c.)


•92


23°


••


"


„ . . .


4140


0-797
(557 c.c.)


1-039
(528 c.c.)


•95


"




"


„ . . .


1433


1-012


1-354


•97


18°-20°


Fed on swedes.


Pembrey and
Gtirber.7


„ . . .


1882


0-762


0-943


•90


»


..


"


„ . . .


1931


0-883


1-142


•94








,,


Guinea-pig ,




"


1-35




••


Mean of 6 experi-
ments.


Marchand.S



1 Ann. cle chini. etjyhys., Paris, 1849, Si^r. 3, tome xxvi.

-Arch, de xiliysiol. norm, ctixdli., Paris, 1890, tome xxii. p. 485.

3 Ann. de chivi. etpJiys., Paris, 1863, Ser. 3, tome Ixix. p. 129,

^ Trav. du lah. de Liege, 1888, tome i. p. 110.

^ Ann. de chim. et^ihys., Paris, 1844, S^r. 3, tome xi. p, 444,

^ Landwirthsch. Versudisstat., Bd. xviii. S. 81.

'' Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and Loudon, 1894, vol. xv. p. 449.

^ Joxirn. f. nrakt. Chem., Leipzig, 1848, Bd. xliv. S. 1,



EXCHANGE OF COLD-BLOODED ANLMALS.



707



TABLE — continued.







Oxygen

per Kilo

and Hour

(in Grms.).


Carbon




<S






Animal.


Weight

(in
Grms.).


Dioxide

per Kilo.

and Hour

(in Grms.).


CO,
O2


II


Remarks.


Observer.


Mammalia —
















Guinea-pig2




1-612


1-896


-86


18^8




Colasanti.l


M


444-9


1-478


1-758


-86


22°


Duration of ex-


Pembrey.
















periment was


















2J hours.




..




445-6


1-416


1-885


•96


20°


»


..


Dog .




6213


1-303


1-325


■74


21°


Fed on raw meat.


Regnault and










(911 c.c.)


(674 c.c.)








Reiset.


"






6158


1-393
(975 O.C.)


1-425
(724 c.c.)


•74


15°


"


"









20,000-




1-026


•748




Mean of e.xperi-


Richet.3








28,000










ments on 4 dogs.




,,






13,000-




1-210


•748




Mean of experi-


,,








14,000










ments on 5 dogs.











11,000-




1-380


•748




Mean of experi-


,,








12,000










ments on 7 dogs.




J,






8000-




1-506


•748




Mean of experi-


,,








10,000










ments on 4 dogs.




,,






6000-




1-624


•748




Mean of experi-


,,








7000










ments on 3 dogs.




,,






4700-




1-688


•748




,,


,,








5600





















2800-




1-9C4


•748




Mean of experi-


,,








3800










ments on 6 dogs.




,,






2200-




2-650


•748




Mean of experi-


,,








2500










ments on 4 dogs.




"






34,000




0-709








Leyden and
Frankel.-i


"






33,000




0-668






Mean of 17 experi-
ments.


Pettenkofer
and Voit.5


"






18,000




1-230








Grehant and
Quinquand.6








6750




0-939








Wood. 7








5300




0-690






Mean of 9 experi-
ments.


Senator. 8








5200




1-288






Mean of 7 e.xperi-
ments.


Bauer and
Bceck.9








4000




1-126






Mean of 4 experi-
ments.


Page. 10


Cat






2464-
3047


1-356
(947 c.c.)

0-645 .
(450 c.c.)


1-397
(710 c.c.)

0-766
(389 c.c.)

1-364
(693 c.c.)

1-423
(723 c.c.)




-3° -2
29° -6


Liberal diet of
meat.


CarlTheodor.il

Bidder and
Schmidt. 12


Sheep .






66,000


0-490
(343 c.c.)


0-671
(341 c.c.)

0-733


•99


16°


Exprmnt. lasted
14-1 hours ; no
food during
that time.


Reiset.
Henneberg.13


Ox' !






638,000-




0-389-








,,




660,000




0-485










11 • . .


710,000




0-488-
0-616






^'


"



1 Arch./, d. ges. Physiol., Bonn, 1877, Bd. iv. S. 92 and 469.

- See also Finkler, ibid., Bonn, 1877, Bd. xv. S. 603.

^ Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc., Paris, 1889, tome cix. p. 190; Arch, de 2Jhysiol, norm, et
path., Paris, 1890, tome xxii. p. 17.

* Virchow's Archiv, 1879, Bd. Ixxvii. S. 136.

^ Ztschr.f. Biol., Miinehen, 1873, Bd. ix. S. 1.

® Joum. de Vanat. tt fhysiol., etc., Paris, 1882, tome xviii. p, 469.

'^ Fever, Smithson. Contrih. Knowl., Washington, 1880.

^ Arch. f. Anaf., Physiol., u. wissensch. Med., 1872, S. 1.

^ Ztschr.f. Biol., Miinehen, 1874, Bd. x. S. 341.
^" Joum. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1879, voL ii. p. 228.
" Ztschr.f. Biol., Miinehen, 1878, Bd. xiv. S. 51.

^- "Die Verdauungssafte und der Stoffwechsel, " Leipzig, 1852, S. 321-362.
^^ Zcmdivirthsch. Versuchsstat., 1866, Bd. viii. S. 443; " Neue Beitr. z. Bcgi'iindung
einer rationellen Fiitterung der Wiederkauer, " Gottingen, 1870-72.



7o8



CHEMISTR Y OF RESPIRATION.



TABLE — continued.









Carbon




k






Animal.


Weight

(in
Grms.).


Oxyg-en

per Kilo.

and Hour

(in Grms.).


Dioxide

per Kilo.

and Hour

(in Grms.).


CO2
0.


s


- Remarks.
3


Observer.


Mammalia—
















Boar .


135,000


0-391
(273 c.c.)


0-443
(225 cc)


-82


16


Exprmnt. lasted
13^ hrs.; food
during the ex-
periment.


Reiset.


Sow


105,000


0-561
(392 CO.)


0-661
(336 cc)


-85


17°


-9


"


Rat (white) .


SO -5




3-518
(1789 cc)









Pott,


,. (grey) .


55-0




4-308
(2190 cc)




16




- "


Mouse (white) .


13




S-880
(4514 cc)








, ..


>> »


25




8-4




17


" ...


Pembrey.i


„ (common)


19-2


6-660


7-443


■80


10°


-5


OddJ,.'-3


Man


70,000-




0-41






"1 Minimum and


Pettenkofer






73,000




0-61
0-76






I maximum in
j 24 hrs.; man
^ at rest.

Man at work.


and Voit.3






71,000-




0-373






Hunger.


Ranke.-i






74,220




0-52






Very liberal diet.


,,






65,500




0-512








Scharling.5






82,000




0-497








'






57,'750




0-694















57,000-


0-601


0-717


-98




Max. ^


Speck. 6






60,000


(420 c.c)

0-461
(322 c.c)

0-516
(361 cc)


(364 cc.)
0-535

(271 cc)
0-619

(314 cc)


-82
•87




Of
Min. 12

r experi-
Mean ments.


"






50;Q00


17,000 c.c.


13,000 c.c


-77




I^Per hour and (^


Hanriot and






"


16,000 .,,


13,300 ,,


-S3




j 50 kilos. 1


Richet.'? 1









18,200 „


13,550 „


-75










67,500


222-9 „


202-7 „


-88




Hunger(perminute
and 67j kilos.).


Lowy.S






60,500


247-2 „


196-1 „


-79




Hunger(per minute
and 60i kilos.).


"






59,000


3-53 „


2-88 „




14


- ^


Geppert.9






96,000


3-27 ,;


2-28 ,,




19"
16°-
19°


•g

. Man at rest

•q f (per kilo, and


"..






72,000


4-41 „


3-47 „




17°-


g_ minute).


jj












19"


•2 ;





^ Journ. Physiol., Cambridge and London, 1894, vol. xv. p. 401.

^ Arch. Hal. de biol., Turin, 1891, tome xv. p. 223.

'^ Ann. d. Chcm. u. Pharm., 1867, Bd. cxli. S. 295; Ztschr. f. Biol., M'imchen,
1866, Bd. ii. S. 459 ; .1869, Bd. v. S. 319; Sltzimgsh. cl. k. Akad. d. TFissensch., Wien,
Nov. 10, 1866 ; Feb. 9, 1867.

■* Arch. f. Anat., Physiol., to. wissensch. Med., 1862, S. 311.

•■^ Ann. d. Chcm. u. Pharm., 1843, Bd. xlv. S. 214.

® " Untersiich. ueber Sauerstoffverbraucb. n. Kolilensaureausathmung des Menscben,"
Cassel, 1871, S. 31.

■^ C'om2}t. rend. Acad. d. se., Paris, 1888, tome cvi. p. 419.

^ Arch.f. cl. cjcs. Physiol., Bonn, 1888, Bd. xliii. S. 523, 524.

^ Arch.f. e:i:per, Path, u, P'harmakol,, Leipzig, 1887, Bd. xxii. S. 381.



EXCHANGE OF WARM-BLOODED ANIMALS. 709

The respiratory exchange of warm-blooded animals. — The



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