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lake ; see note 476), and was defeated. Algu then returned
to his residence on the river Hile (Hi), and disbanded his
troops, when suddenly Assutai, one of Arikbuga's gene-
rals, at the head of another division, advanced through
the defile called " Irongate," ^^ crossed the river JSile and

^'^ This mountain is mentioned in the Zafernameh. In book ii. 13, «. a.
1375, Timur's expedition against the Jetes in Mogholistan, it is stated that
Kamareddin, the commander of the Jetes, was encamped at Gheuk topa (Blue
HiUs), situated, it seems, not far from the river Ab lie (Iii river), in which
one of Timur's generals was drowned. In book iii. 9, s. a. 1 390, we read
that Timur's generals sent against the Jetes marched to Isaighetd (lake
Issikul), arrived at Gheuk topa, and then took the road to the mountain
Ardjatu and Almcdeghf near the river Ab lie.

^ The Talki defile, north of Kuldja. See notes 317, 805.

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captured AlmcUik,^^ Algu retired towards Khotan and
Kashgar, and when Arikbuga himself had arrived and had
established his headquarters on the river Hile, to pass
the winter there, Algu retreated to Samarkand. In 1264
Arikbuga made peace with his brother Kubilai. In 1266,
after the death of Algu, Kubilai gave the uluss of Chaga-
tai to Mularek Shah, son of Kara Hulagu.

The Chinese annals record the war between Kubilai
and Arikbuga, but not the struggle between Arikbuga and
Algu. A-li-ma-li is for the first time mentioned in the
Yuan shi, annals, $. a. 1277, in connection with the war
against Kaidu, This war, which was continued for about
twenty-five years, caused much trouble to Kubilai, who
was obliged to maintain a considerable army at the north-
western frontier against his nephew. The expeditions
against Kaidu are recorded in some detail in the Chinese
annals as well as by the Persian historians. M. Polo also
devotes a chapter (ii 457 seq) to the battles fought be-
tween the Great Kaan and Caidu.

According to the great traveller, in the year 1266, King
Caidu and another prince called Yesudar^^ made an expe-
dition to attack the Great Kaan's barons Chibai and
Chiban^ sons of Chagatai, and defeated them. In 1268
Caidu attacked the Great Kaan's son Nomogan, and George^
the grandson of Prester John, who were at Caracoron.
The battle was without victory on either side ; but Caidu,

** The above details are taken from d'Ohsson, ii. 340-356, who trans-
lates from the Persian authors. Qoatrem^re, in his " Histoire des Mon-
gols,'* 146, translates the same, but from another MS. He gives a more
intelligible version of the above passage. He writes the name of the river
Jli, and translates : " Assutai, after passing through the Timur hahlakah
(porte de fer), arrived near the river Hi and AlmcUik, and attacked un-
expectedly the hordes of Algu."

^<^ The name Ye-mirda-rh occurs repeatedly in the Tiian shi. In chaps.
cxxix. and czxxiii. we find the biographies of two -persons of this name.
I am not, however, prepared to identify M. Polo's Yesudar.

^^ Perhaps M. Polo means by Chibai the prince Chi-bie-t'ie-mu-rJi, who,
however, according to the Tuan shi, was a son ofO gotai. He is there men-
tioned as a general in Kubilai's army, and in connection with the war
against Hai-ckk (Kaidu).

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hearing that the Great Kaan was sending a great army to
reinforce his son, retired to great Turkey and Samarkand.

There are some discrepancies between the records of
these events in the Chinese annals and those given by M.
Polo, especially respecting the dates. The Yuan shi, in the
article Si pei ti, gives the following note on A-li-ma-li
and the expeditions against Kaidu : —

The prince ffai-du had his encampment in A-li-ma-li
and the other places.^ Proceeding from Sharig tu (Kubi-
lai's summer residence) in a north-western direction 6000
li, one reaches the Five cities of the Wei-wu-rh (Bishbalik
of the Uigurs). Four to five thousand li farther westward
YiQ% A-li-ma-li. In the year 1268 Hai-du revolted, raised
an army, and went southward (evidently a mistake for
eastward). Shi tsu (Kubilai) repelled his aggression near
Fei fing (Bishbalik). Hai-du was pursued as far as A-li-
ma-li, when the emperor gave orders to discontinue the
pursuit. At the same time he conferred the chief com-
mand of the troops in the country of A-li-ma-li on the
prince Fei ping wang?^ The latter was assisted by the
minister An-tumg?^^

^8 Kaidu's. appanage was originally, it seems, at Kayalih (see note 813),
a place mentioned by the Mohammedan authors, the Cailac of Rubruck.
In the Yiian shi, annals, s. a. 1252, it is recorded that Mangu khan, after
his accession, ordered Hai-du to live in the country of Hai-ya-li,

** Pei p'ing wang was the title of Na-mu-ha/n, the fourth son of Kubilai.
In the short biographical note devoted to this prince in the Yiian shi lei
pien, chap. xxx. fol 16, we read that this title was granted to him in 1266.
in 1282 it was changed into Pei an wang.

8^® An-t'ung of the Yiian shi is evidently the Noyan ffantum of Bashid
(d'Ohsson, ii. 452). His biography is found there in chap, cxxvi. He is
stated to have been a great-grandson of the celebrated Mongol general
Mu-hua-U (see notes 44, 47), the conqueror of Northern China. In the
year 1275 he went with Na-mu-han, who was sent by the emperor to de-
fend Ho-lin (Karakorum) against Hai-du. They then passed some years
at the northern frontier, were made prisoners by the revolted prince Si-li-
hit ^ut finally returned to China in 1284.

Detailed accounts of the treason of Si-li-ki and the seizure of Na-mu-
han may be read in de Mailla's *' Histoire de la Chine," ix. 389. Rashid's
record on the same subject is given in d'Ohsson, IL 452 seq. Si-li-ki
{Shireki of Rashid), a son of Mangu khan, was in the army of Na-mu-han

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It seems that in the expeditions sent by Kubilai against
Kaidu, the armies of the Great Khan advanced sometimes
to great distances. Thus in the biography of Tu-wa-shiy
Yiian shi, chap, cxxxii., this general is stated to have given
battle to Hai-du in the country of I-bi-rh Shi-li-rh?'^^
Vassaf states that in 1301 the united hosts of Kaidu and
Dua met the army of the Great Khan some days' journey
distant from Kaycdiky which was on the frontier of the
two empires (of Dua and Kaidu). There Kaidu fought
his last battle ; he was victorious, but died soon after.
According to the Yuan shi, however, this battle was fought
between Kardkorum and the river Tamir (d'Ohsson, ii.


Mention is made of Almalik by most of the mediaeval
travellers who traversed Central Asia. As to the reports
of Chinese travellers respecting this place, they have been
noticed in Part I. It remains to review the statements
of western mediaeval travellers about Almalik.

when he formed ft conspiracy against Kubilai. Na-mu-han and An-t'ung
were made prisoners by the conspirators, who directed their forces towards
Karakorum ; but the latter were defeated by Kubilai's valiant general
Pe-yen. According to the Yiian shi, Na-mu-han was made prisoner by
Si-li-ki in 1277, in the country of A-li-ma-li,

^^ It is not difficult to recognise in this name Siberia. Rashid in his
notice of the Kirghizes (d'Ohsson, i. 103) states that their country stretches
to the great river Angara^ which runs to the boundary of Aber S^ir. In
the Tiian ch'ao pi shi we read that in 1206 Djuchi, the son of Chinghiz,
subdued all the tribes who lived in the forests {Oriangutes sylveatres
of Rashid) south of Shibir. Compare Quatrem^re's learned note on Ibir
SUnr inhia " Hist, des Mongols/' p. 413. The Mesalek alabsar (first half
of the fourteenth century) writes Sibir or Abir. Ibn Arab Shah (i. 45)
states that Kipchak on the north borders upon Abir or SiMr. The Sebur
on the northern border of the Catalan map is evidently intended for Sibir.
J. Schildberger, who from 1394- 142 7 visited many countries of Asia, and
accompanied the great Tamerlane in his expeditions, mentions a country

The ancient history of Siberia before these tracts had been conquered by
the Russians is very dark. Regarding the origin of the name, we know only
that there existed in the sixteenth century, on the river Irtysh, sixteen versts
above the present Tobolsk, a Tatar city, Sibir ^ taken by Termak in 1581,
the ruins of which are still traceable. Subsequently the Russians began to
apply this name, as a general appellation, to the whole of Northern Asia.

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In the narratives of Piano Carpini and Rubruck, a name
similar to Almalik does not appear; but it seems that
Eubruck applies the name Organum to the country of
Almalik (see note 285).

Haithon, the king of Little Armenia, on his way home
from Mongolia, passed through Halualekh (Almalik). Far-
ther on he arrived at IlanhaUkh, and crossed the river
Han (Hi).

Almalik in the fourteenth century was a Latin mission-
ary bishopric, and, it seems, also a metropolitan see of the
Nestorian Church. There is a letter of a Franciscan mis-
sionary extant, dated at Armalec, in the empire of the Medes
(probably Imperium medium is meant), a.d. 1338 (Yule's
" Cathay," ccxliv. 231).

Marignolli visited " Armalec of the Middle Empire " in
1 341, a year after the Bishop and six Minorites had suf-
fered martyrdom there (L c, 338).

Ibn Batuta (about 1 3 30-34) speaks of Almalik as situated
at the extremity of Maver-al-nahar (Transoxiana),near the
place where Sin (China) begins. In another passage we
find Ibn Batuta observing that Almalik was the proper
capital of the empire of the Tatar Sultan Ala-eddin Tar-
mashirin ^^^ {I, c. 503, 522).

Pegolotti, in his notices of the land route to Cathay
(first half of. the fourteenth century), reckons a distance
of forty-five days' journey with pack-asses between Oltrare
(Otrar) and Armalec^ and a journey of seventy days from
Armalec to Camexu (Kanchou in China), I. c, 288.

As has already been noticed in note 803, the name of
Almalegh appears in the Zafernameh^ book iii. 9, in the
relation of Timur's expedition against the Jetes in Mo-
ghulistan in the year 1390.

Sultan Baber, who wrote in the beginning of the six-
teenth century, in his Memoirs (i. i) speaks of Almalik

8*" Tarma thvrin in d'Ohsson's table of the Chagatai branch (iv. 748).
He reigned tiU 1330.

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as of a city destroyed before his time by the Mongols and

That is all I have been able to gather regarding ancient


This appears on the ancient map north of Almalik.
Evidently the Karluks are meant, who formed one of the
sections into which, according to the Mohammedan histo-
rians, the nation of the Turks was divided.

From the statements of Istakhri, who lived in the tenth
century, about the Kharlekhie, we may conclude that they
lived east of the Ghizes, who occupied the tract between
the Caspian Sea and the Sihun, and west of the Tagazgaz,
who, as we have seen, are identical with the Uigurs.

It seems that the Chinese annals mention the Kar-
luks two or three centuries earlier. In the history of the
T*ang there is a long article on the rie-le, a people in-
habiting Western Mongolia and Central Asia. (See note
596.) They were divided into many tribes, which are all
enumerated. One of these tribes there is termed Ko-lo-lUy
and said to be descended from the T^u-hue (Turks). They
lived in the mountainous country north-west of Pei-
t*ing (Urumtsi), on both sides of the river F^u-gurcKen.
There are in their country many cross mountain ridges.
In the second half of the eighth century they quarrelled
with the Uigurs, their eastern neighbours, and extended
their dominions far to the west. They took even pos-
session of the city of Sui ye (on the Chu river ; see note
583). For further particulars see Hyacinth's translation
of the whole article on the Ko-lo-lu in his "Ancient
Nations of Central Asia," i. 437.

We have seen that, according to Chinese history, the
Uigurs, after their dispersion by the Kirghizes in the
middle of the ninth century, partly fled to the Ko-lolu
(in fehe west).

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Eashid, who traces the origin of the Karluks back to
Oghuz Khan, the progenitor also of the Uigurs, Kankalis,
Kipchaks, and other Turkish tribes (Berezin, i. 19), says
nothing about their abodes in the thirteenth century;
but, as we may conclude from a statement of the Tarikh
Djihankushai, they dwelt not far from Kayalik.^^^ It is
there recorded (d'Ohsson, I. iii.) that in 1211 Arslckn khan,
chief of the Turk Karluks and at the same time prince of
Kayalik, together with Ozar, prince of Almcdik, both till
then vassals of the gurkhan of Karakhitai, came to submit
to Chinghiz, who gave to Arslan a Mongol princess in

In the Yiian shi, annals, s. a. 121 1, it is stated that A-si-
Ian Han, from the Si yil (western countries), the chief of the
tribe Ha-la-lu, surrendered to Chinghiz.

In the Yuan ch*ao pi shi we read (Pallad. transL 130) :
Chinghiz sent Kubilai to subdue the people of the Khar-
luut (Mongol plural form of Kharlu); but their chief,
Arselan, surrendered voluntarily, and presented himself to
Chinghiz, who gave him one of his daughters in marriage.

The same is recorded in about the same terms by
Eashid (Berezin, i. 132): ^'In the days of Chinghiz, the
chief of the Karluks was Arslan khan, Chinghiz sent
Kubilai noyen, of the tribe Berulas^^^ to subdue the Kar-
luks, but Arslan surrendered voluntarily ; when Chinghiz
gave him a princess of his house in marriage, and granted

^^' Kayalih is mentioned by Vassaf in connection with the battle fought
in 1 30 1 between the army of Kubilai and the united forces of Kaidu and
Dua (d'Ohsson, ii. 516). It is the Cailac of Rubruck (281). Colonel Yule
("Cathay," ccxiii. ) thinks that this city was situated near the modem city
of Kopal. It is an interesting fact, noticed in the " Trans. Euss. Greogr.
Soc.," 1867, i. 290, that in a tumulus (kurgan) in Eopal an ancient gold
ring with precious stones was found by a Tatar in 1857. It bore the
inscription "Arslan," in Turkish letters. Regarding the Chinese name
for Kayalik, comp. note 808.

^* The marriage of A-rh-sz* -Ian with a Mongol princess is also recorded
in the Tiian shi, chap, cix., table of the princesses.

^1^ In the Yiian shi, chap. cvii. (see also Yiian shi lei pien, chap.
XXX. foL i), the Berulas are termed £a'lu-la-8z\ They were divided into
the Great and the Little Ba-lu-la-sz'.

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him the title Sart,^^ i.e. Tadjik^ observing that it was im-
possible to leave him the title Arslan khan/*

I have no doubt that the Corola, mentioned by PL
Carpini, 709, among the nations subdued by the Mongols,
are the Karluks.

In the Yiian shi the Karluks are generally termed J7a-
la-lu. In chap, cxxxiii., biography of Te-han di-ghin, the
name is written Hia-la-lu, Ye-han di-ghin, who was a
general under Kubilai khan, belonged to this tribe. It
is stated in his biography that his grandfather was in the
country of Wa-sz^-gien (Uzghend) with three thousand
men, troops of the Hia-la-lu, when Chinghiz invaded
Western Asia. He came to the emperor to surrender,
and presented a great number of cattle and sheep. His
son, the father of Ye-han, was called Ye-mi huo-dji.
Ye-han*s sons were Ho-na-cKi di-ghin and Ye-sv^sha,
All these were in the service of the Mongol emperors.

Sha-ts^uan (biogr. in chap, cxxxii.) was also a Ha-la-lu
or Karluk. His father, Sha-di, had been a general under
Chinghiz, and had distinguished himself in the war with
the Kin in Northern China.

lu chap. cxc. Ha-la-lu appears again as the native
country of Bo-yen.

P'U'LA = VT51JlT>,

This is the city of Pulad of the Persian historians,
mentioned in connection with the war between Arikbuga
and Algu (see p. 34), as situated not far from the lake
Sat Haithon, when proceeding homeward from Mon-
golia, passed through Pulad, and then arrived at the lake
SutJcul (Sairam lake).

Rubruck, when speaking of the Germans (Teutonici)
in the service of the prince Buri, says (280) : " De illis

8^* D*bh88on, who translates the same passage (i. 218), writes Arslan
Sirtahi (le Syriaque), instead of Arslan Sart. There was probably a cleri-
cal error in his Persian text. We have seen that the Mongols called the
Mohammedan people Sart or SartoL

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Teutonicis nihil potui cognoscere usque ad curiam Man-
guchan. . . . Quando veni in curia Manguchan intellexi
quod ipse Mangu transtulerat eos, de licencia Baatu, ver-
sus orientem (they had been before in Tolas) spacio
itineris unius mensis a Talas, ad quamdam villam que
dicitur Bolat, ubi fodiunt aurum et fabricant arma, unde
non potui ire nee redire per eos."

Eashid-eddin, enumerating the countries and places in-
habited by Turk tribes, also mentions Pida (Berezin, i 2).

The Chinese mediaeval travellers through Central Asia
mention the same place in the same regions. Ye-lib
CJCu tsai passed, in the suite of Chinghiz, through the
city oiBvr-la, north of the Yin shan mountains, on the top
of which was a lake (the Sairam lake). In the itinerary
of r^-Zw Hi liang the name of the same city, Bu-la, ap-
pears again. The city of Bo-lo, to which Chiang Te came
before crossing the defile T^ie^mi-rh ts^an-cKa (in the Talki
mountains, north of Kuldja), seems also to be identical
with Pulad (see i 17, 125, 162). This place was situated
evidently on the great highway from Mongolia to Persia,
not very far from lake Sairam, perhaps in the fertile
valley of the river Boro tola, which discharges itself into
the Ebinor. The ancient Chinese map places P'u-la
between Almalik and Emil, near or in the country of the


Ye-mi-shi is placed on the ancient map north-east of
Pulad, and I feel no hesitation in identifying it with JEmil
or Imil, the name of a river and a city repeatedly men-
tioned by the Chinese as well as by the Mohammedan
authors of the Mongol period. There can be no doubt
that the character shi in the Chinese name on the map is
a misprint or a clerical error; for the Yiian shi writes
the name Ye-mi-li. There is still a river JEmUy south
of Chuguchak, emptying itself into lake Alak kul. The

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EMIL. 43

valley of this river is famed for its pastures, and, as I have
been informed by Russian travellers, traces of ancient
settlements can be seen there.

We know from the Tarikh Djihankushai that the
Karakhitai, on their peregrinations to the west in
about 1 122, founded a city in the country of Imil (see
i 226).

PI. Carpini writes (648) : *' In terra autem praedictorum
Kara-kitaorum Occoday-can iSlius Chinghis-can, postquam
positus f uit imperator, quandam civitatem sedificavit, quam
Omyl appellavit."

Ibidem (751): "Deinde terram nigrorum Kitaorum
f uimus ingressi ; in qua tantum de novo unam civitatem
sedificaverunt, quae Omyl appellatur; ubi Imperator domum
sedificavit, in qua vocati fuimus ad bibendum."

According to the Tarikh Djihankushai, Ogotai, the third
son of Chinghiz, had his appanage on the river ImU.^^'^ The
same work states that Ogotai's son Kuyuk (Great Khan,
1246-48), in the spring of 1248, set out for the banks of
the Imil, his own special uluss, where he hoped the climate
would better agree with the broken state of his healtL
But he died when seven days' journey from Bishbalik
(d'Ohsson, ii. 2, 234).

A place or country, Te-mi-li, is several times men-
tioned in the Yiian shi. In chap, cxxi., biography of
Su-bu-tai (see note 689), we read that, after accomplish-
ing the conquest of the countries north of the Cauca-
sus, Su-bu-tai went home by the way of Te-mi-li and

Ibidem, annals, 5. a. 1252, it is stated that Mangu khan,

^^ In the annals of the Ttian shi we read that after the death of
Chinghiz, his son Ogotai arrived from the country of Ho-bo. It seems
that Ho-bo was somewhere near ImiL At least in the itinerary of Ye-lii
Mi liang, a country Huo-hu is mentioned after Ye-mi-li (Imil).

^^B Imil is coupled here with Ho-dji, I may observe that in the history
of Tamarlane, the (summer) residence of Mogolistan (eastern branch of the
Chagatai empire), taken in 1389 by Timur, is called AymuL Cfuja, Zafer-
nameh, iii. 5.

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after his accession in 1252, ordered ITo-fo^^ to live in the
country of Te-mi-li,

The name of the same country appears in Te-lil Hi
liang's itinerary (see i. 160, 161).


This name in the ancient map seems to represent
Ilibalik, "the city of Ili." It appears there south-west
of Almalife King Haithon, proceeding from Almalik
westward, arrived at Ilan-balek, and then crossed the Ilan
(Hi) river.

This seems to be the only instance that any mediaeval
author mentions a city of this name. The city was evi-
dently situated on the Hi river, perhaps near the place
where now the post-road from Kuldja to Tashkend crosses
the river. There is on the left bank the borough Iliskoye.


It is impossible to identify this name, which, on the
ancient map, is placed west of Ilibalik. I may, however,
observe that a similar-sounding name appears as that of
a river in the Si shi ki. In this narrative a river, Yi-yiin,
is mentioned in the country of the Karakhitai, somewhere
in the region of the river Chu (see i. 1 29).


Here the city of Kucha in Eastern Turkestan is meant.
On modern Chinese maps the name is written K^u-cKe.
The Chinese geographers identify it with ancient Kui-tsz*,
a kingdom in Central Asia, first mentioned, before our era,
in the history of the Anterior Han.

Eashid records (d'Ohsson, i. 105) that Guchluk, the son
of the khan of the Naimans, having been defeated by the

819 T'o-t'Of according to the Yiian shi, chap. cvii. geneaL table, was a
grandson of Ogotai, and son of Ha-la-cKa-rh, The latter is mentioned by
Rashid (2. c. ii. 99) under the name of Karadjar, See note 742.

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Mongols, fled through Bishbalik to Kudja, to the khan of
the Karakhitai Under the article Sunit, Eashid mentions
a corps of the Mongol army composed of Uigurs, Karluks,
Turkmans, and men from Kashgar and Kuchai (Berezin,

This name is assigned on the ancient Chinese map to a
place between Kucha and Kashgar. It may be identified
with the modem city of Uch or Uch Turfan in Eastern
Turkestan, west of Aksu, situated on the great highway
from Kamul to Kashgar, south of the T'ien shan. On
modem Chinese maps the name is written Wu-shi, The
Emperor K*ien lung, who, after the conquest of Eastern
Turkestan and Hi, in the middle of the last century, be-
stowed Chinese names upon the principal cities there,
named Uch Tung ning cKeng, The Chinese geographers
identify Uch with the ancient kingdom Yil fou mentioned
in the histories of the Han. The Si yu wen kien lu states
that the people of Turkestan usually call this place Uch
turfan^ turfan meaning residence.

The ancient Chinese map and the list in the Si pei ti
are, it seems, the only instances in which Uch is men-
tioned in Chinese works of the Mongol period.

I may observe that a place, Uch-ferman, is mentioned
in the history of Timur's military doings in connection
with the war against the Jetes in 1375 (Zafemameh,
il 14).


I can make nothing of this name, which on the ancient
map is placed north of Wo-ch*i or Uch.


Kashgar is often mentioned by the Mohammedan authors
of the Middle Ages. This name appears even in Firdusi's
Shahnameh referring to the ancient history of Persia.

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Abulfeda, II. ii. 229, quotes with respect to Kashgar
authors of the tenth and twelfth centuries.

In the Tarikh Tabari, written towards the end of the
tenth century, and translated by Zotenberg, we read, iv.
198, that in the reign of the Calif Soleiman, 715-717, his
general Kutaiba (proceeding from Ferganah) conquered
Kashgar, a city near the. Chinese frontier, and sent an .
envoy, Hobaira, with horses and other presents to the
king of China. Kutaiba had ordered the envoy to sum-
mon the king of China to submit, and to inform him that
Kutaiba had taken an oath to tread upon Chinese soil.
In return the king despatched four of his princes to the
Arab commander-in-chief, and sent also a little earth
from China, upon which Kutaiba might tread to keep
his oath.820

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