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E. C. (Eugene Clarence) Gardner.

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-E'OGARDNER-



&b KELLOGG- &-CO NEW YoRK-D'CH



FHOM

Jokes' BooK Bazar,

Los ANGB.LKS. GAL



TOWN AND COUNTRY

SCHOOL BUILDINGS

A COLLECTION OF PLANS AND DESIGNS

FOR

SCHOOLS OF VARIOUS SIZES

GRADED AND UNGRADED



DESCRIPTIONS OF CONSTRUCTION, OF SANITARY ARRANGEMENTS,
LIGHT, HEAT, AND VENTILATION



E. C. GARDNER

ARCHITECT

Author of " The House that Jill Built," "Homes and All About ThemC'
"Common-sense in Church-building" etc.



NEW YORK AND .CHICAGO

E, L. KELLOGG & CO

1888



COPYRIGHT, 1888,
E. L. KELLOGG & CO.

NEW YORK.



DRUMMOND & NKU,

Electrotypem,

1 to 7 HaKUf Street,

New York.



SRL8
URL



INTRODUCTION.



THERE is no need of an extended argument to prove that suc-
cessful government by the people of this or any other country
is impossible unless the people are educated ; what is scarcely
less important, their education must be homogeneous. It may well
be questioned whether a certain amount, and a considerable amount,
of education in the common schools should not be required of all who
participate in government even to the extent of exercising the right
of suffrage.

Private, special schools of all kinds, scientific, literary, religious,
ethical, have their important place ; but the fundamental intellectual
training of the citizens of a republic must be the homogeneous train-
ing of the public institutions of learning. Neither is an argument
necessary to demonstrate that whatever we build, house, tower, or
nation, its permanent existence depends upon the foundation ; if that
is secure, the superstructure if wisely planned may grow indefinitely
in grandeur and might ; if it is defective, the grander the superstruc-
ture the more terrible will be its ruin. There is, however, this point
where the analogy between the foundation of the inanimate building
and that of the nation ceases. In the case of the building, the foun-
dation once laid is laid for all time ; with the nation it must be per-
petually changed, because with every generation we have a new re-
public, composed of new materials, having new duties, new prob-
lems, new dangers, and new conditions of existence. It is not true
of institutions large or small, public or private, which are composed
of intelligent, active men, that their foundations may be permanently
laid at the outset. Whenever this is attempted the result is stagna-
tion, mortification, and ignominious collapse.



iv INTRODUCTION.

Yet the important fact remains that at the present time the pub-
lic school is the only possible basis for popular government. Of
course the converse of this is true ; that it is only in republics that
popular education is either possible or, so far as government is
concerned, desirable.

This book, it hardly need be said, deals with only one phase of
the common-school question, and that a purely external one the
buildings. Not indeed the most important element in education,
but a highly essential one. Possibly the generation that has
passed away was so eager to get the wisdom of books that the visible
appearance of the temple was of no moment. Our fathers may have
been so anxious to gather the fruits of the tree of knowledge that
they were indifferent to close, dirty, poorly lighted, poorly warmed,
and non-ventilated rooms. That state of affairs no longer exists. If
the public school is to be popular, if it is to do the work that must
be done, if it is to exert the influence and gain the respect that is due
to the fundamental institution of the country, its external equipment
must be worthy of its high service. There must be the same regard
for sanitary considerations in the heating, lighting, and ventilation
that is exercised in the best private houses. There must be a
thoughtful and scientific study of all matters of convenience and
safety, and there must be in addition to this a wise provision for the
cultivation of the aesthetic sense which is nowhere so easily developed
as in children, and nowhere more imperatively needed than in their
training.

Wherever a well-situated, well-planned, thoroughly constructed,
and beautifully designed public school-house, large or small, has been
built, there is sure to be found a wise, healthful, and progressive sen-
timent in all matters relating to the general welfare. Magnificent
cathedrals, consecrated to the name of religion, may stand in the
midst of superstition, mental and moral degradation ; colossal indus-
trial enterprises may thrive upon the poverty and excessive toil of the
multitude; but a nobly equipped institution of popular education is



INTRODUCTION. v

the strongest possible evidence of wise public sentiment, free thought,
and all the noblest possibilities of human character.

It is not expected that this book will serve as a collection of plans
from which any particular design can be chosen, and executed without
farther trouble or effort on the part of those to whom is entrusted
the duty of planning and building the school-house. There is no
royal road to knowledge of any sort, least of all to a knowledge of
art, and the best architectural results can never be reached without
special study for each building. Ready-made plans of dwelling-
houses especially are of little value, for the reason that every man's
house ought to suit his own character and circumstances. This is
not true to the same extent of public school buildings. What is
best for any one score or hundred of children of a given age will
probably be best in all essential points for any other score or hundred
with such changes only as will result from the use of different mate-
rials, variations in cost, and local modes of building. It will be un-
derstood that the floor-plans that are given do not necessarily require
the exterior designs that accompany them, also that the dimensions
of the rooms may be varied to suit varying requirements without
changing either the general arrangement of the interior or the char-
acter of the design. A second story might easily be added to some
of the plans that are drawn for but one, and the basement is always
an alternative feature -to be introduced or omitted according to
circumstances.

It is hoped that teachers will find this book helpful in urging the
rights of children, in explaining to building committees and others
in authority the possibilities and the duties in regard to school-build-
ings. For after all has been said and done that can be said and clone
for other good influences, the welfare of the schools throughout the
country is in the hands of the teachers. The future weal or woe of
our country depends upon this devoted band of home missionaries.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I. PAGE

PREPARING THE GROUND AND OTHER ELEMENTARY WORK .... i

A description of a log building of one room adapted to pioneer wants. Floor
plan, two elevations, and details.

CHAPTER II.

TEMPORARY EXPEDIENTS 6

A cheap building of rough lumber, of same arangement as in Chapter I. Two
elevations, floor plan, and details.

CHAPTER III.

A SINGLE ROOM WITH ABUNDANT CONVENIENCES u

A country school-house of one room, with vestibules, porches, and fuel room.
Floor plan, two elevations, and details.

CHAPTER IV.

A CHANGE OF GARMENTS 16

The same floor plan as in Chapter III., but with different exterior. Floor
plan, two elevations, and details.

CHAPTER V.

ADAPTED TO A MULTITUDE OF CASES 19

A country school-house with cloak-rooms and porches. Two elevations,
perspective, floor plan, and details.

CHAPTER VI.

ROOM FOR GROWTH 24

A country or village school-house of one large room, recitation room, lobby,
and cloak-rooms. Floor plan and two elevations.

CHAPTER VII.

A DISCUSSION OF IMPORTANT OUTSIDE MATTERS .... 28

A building containing two school-rooms, with lobby, cloak-rooms, and porches.
Floor plan, two elevations, perspective, and details.



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VIII. PAGE

A MODERATE GROWTH 33

A building of two rooms and recitation room, with lobbies, porches, and cloak-
rooms. Floor plan, two elevations, and details.

CHAPTER IX.

A HIGHER PLATFORM .... 37

A school-house containing only one room, but of more elaborate exterior
design. Floor plan and two elevations.

CHAPTER X.

A DISTINCTION WITH LITTLE DIFFERENCE 40

The same floor plan as in Chapter IX., but differently clothed. Floor plan,
two elevations, and details.

CHAPTER XI.

FOR THE BEST FAMILIES 43

A building for a country or village school that varies in size at different
seasons of the year. Floor and basement plans, elevations, perspective, and details.

CHAPTER XII.

RELATIVE DIMENSIONS 48

A wooden building with floor school-rooms, cloak-rooms, etc., with basement.
Three floor plans, two elevations, perspective, and details.

CHAPTER XIII.

SAFETY IN WOOD 54

A wooden building with basement, six school-rooms, and hall. Three floor
plans, perspective, and details.

CHAPTER XIV.

NOTHING TO GROW OLD . 59

A building suitable for a village high school, with basement, five school-
rooms, and hall, beside cloak-rooms, etc. Three floor plans, two elevations, and
details.

CHAPTER XV.

THE VALUE OF THE BASEMENT 64

A one-story wooden building of three rooms. Two floor plans, two elevations,
and details.



TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER XVI.

AN HONORABLE COMPETITION 69

A village or country school-house, built of stone, and containing one school-
room, teacher's room, cloak-rooms, and high basement. Floor plan, two eleva-
tions, and details.

CHAPTER XVII.

A BODY OF STONE WITH MEMBERS OF CLAY 74

A building containing two school-rooms; the walls of stone, with terracotta
trimmings. Two elevations, floor plan, and perspective.

CHAPTER XVIII.

CHIEFLY CLAY 77

The same arrangement of rooms as in Chapter XVII. The walls being of
brick instead of stone. Floor plan, two elevations, and details.

CHAPTER XIX.

SAFEGUARDS 8r

A substantial stone building with high basement. Three school-rooms, cloak-
rooms, etc. Two floor plans, two elevations, perspective, and details.

CHAPTER XX.

DESIRABLE FORMALITY 86

A building of two stories above the basement, each floor having three school-
rooms. Two elevations, floor plans, and details.

CHAPTER XXI.

A CARDINAL VIRTUE 90

The same floor plan as in Chapter V., with a different exterior. Two eleva-
tions, floor plan, and details.

CHAPTER XXII.

MINOR CONCESSIONS 94

A brick building of two stories above the basement ; each floor containing four
school-rooms, cloak-rooms, etc. Two floor plans, perspective, elevation, and
details.

CHAPTER XXIII.
ROOM FOR GROWTH . .... . . . . 100

A two-story brick building with basement, each floor containing two school-
rooms, cloak-rooms, and teacher's rooms; the whole arranged for future addition.
Three floor plans, perspective, and details.



x TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXIV. PAGE

9

CONCERNING ALTERATIONS 107

CHAPTER XXV.
CONCERNING VENTILATION 109

CHAPTER XXVI.

OUT-OF-DOOR SURROUNDINGS 114.

Treating of playgrounds, front yards, entrances, gateways, fences, and other
useful and decorative adjuncts.

CHAPTER XXVII.
DETACHED SUGGESTIONS



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE

Door-way for Log School-house . . i

Division Fence of Logs ... 2

Floor Plan, Design A . . .2

Front Elevation, " 3

Side " " . . . 4

Rough Fire Place .... 6

Front Elevation, Design B . . .7

Floor Plan, . . 8

Side Elevation, " " . . .8

Fire-place Screen .... 10

Detail of Frieze and Cornice . .n

Floor Plan, Design C . . 12

Front Elevation, " " . . 13

Side " . . 13

Detail of Window Transom . . .16

Floor Plan, Design D 17

Front Elevation, " " . . 17

Side " 18

Detail of Chimney Construction . . 19

Floor Plan, Design E . . 20

Front Elevation, " " . . .20

Perspective " 21

Side Elevation, " " . . .22

Detail of Stove Screen ... 24

Floor Plan, Design F . . -25

Front Elevation. " " . . 26

Side " . - 26

Front Elevation, Design G . . 28

Floor Plan, " " . . 30

Perspective, ' . . 31

Side Elevation, " . -3'

Detail of Porch 32

" Heating and Ventilating Flue 33

Floor Plan, Design H . . 34

Front Elevation, " " . . -35



Side Elevation, Design H
Details of Cornice and Cresting .
Floor Plan, Design I

Front Elevation, " " .
Side " "

Detail of Eaves and Gable .
Floor Plan, Design K

Front Elevation, " " .
Side "

Fire-place .....
Front Elevation, Design L
Basement Plan, " " .
Floor Plan, " " . .

Perspective, " " .

Detail of Wardrobe ....

" " Truss ....
Perspective, Design M

Basement Plan, " " .
First Floor " "

Second " " " " .
Alternative Second Floor Plan, Design
Side Elevation,
Detail of Ventilating Turret
First Floor Plan, Design N
Second " " " " .

Perspective, "

Basement Plan, " " .

Detail of Floor Construction
Terra-cotta Detail ....
Front Elevation. Design O
Basement Plan, " " .
First Floor

Second " " " " .

Side Elevation,
Detail of Porch .



37
33
39
39
40



42
43
44
45
45
46

47
48

49
49
50
5



M



54
55
56
56
57
53
59
60
60
61
61
62
64



Xll



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Basement Plan, Design P

First Floor

Front Elevation

Side

Stone Detail .

Floor Plan, Design Q

Front Elevation, "

Side

Belfry ....

Floor Plan, Design R

Perspective, "

Front Elevation, " "

Terra-cotta Dormer .

Front Elevation, Design S

Floor Plan, " "

Side Elevation, "

Stone Capital

Basement Plan, Design T

First Floor " " "

Perspective,

Front Elevation, "

Side

Cresting and Finials .

First Floor Plan, Design U

Front Elevation,

End

Inside Detail

Floor Plan, Design V



I'AGE | PAGE

65 ! Front Elevation, Design V . . 92

66 Side " " " . . . 92

66 Brick Detail 94

67 Basement Plan, Design W . . -95

69 First Floor " " 96

70 Perspective, " " . . -97

71 Side Elevation, " " . . 98

72 Detail of Stairway 100

73 Perspective, Design X . . 100

74 Basement Plan, " . . 102

75 First Floor " " " . . 103

75 Second " . . 104

76 Fence for Playground . . . 114

77 Broken Sky-line for Plain Fences . 115

78 A Close Fence made of if-inch Plank

79 Sawed at Top 115

80 Wooden Fence for the Front Yard . 116

81 Iron Fence on a Stone Base . .116

82 Wrought-iron Gate with Stone Posts 116

82 A Combination of Stone, Brick, Terra-

83 cotta, Iron, and Glass . . . 117

84 Stone Curb where no Fence is" Needed 118

85 Sheltered Gateway and Seat . . 119

86 Dos-a-Dos 120

87 Sheltered Seat Resting on a Paving of

88 Asphalt with Stone Coping . .122
88 An Appropriate Gift from a Public-
go spirited Citizen to his Native District 124



TOWN AND COUNTRY SCHOOL-BUILDINGS.



CHAPTER I.

PREPARING THE GROUND AND OTHER ELEMENTARY

WORK.

YEN in frontier regions where only
primitive resources are at hand, it is
expedient in building school-houses
to pay due regard to matters of
taste, convenience, and health.
The rawest kinds of raw materials
may be put into artistic forms by
thoughtful arrangement. Convenience does not
depend upon complex machinery, and experi-
ence proves that the simplest precautions and
expedients are of vastly more importance in
sanitary matters than the elegant and elaborate
devices that have come to be considered a part
of modern civilization.

The single cell is the beginning of all school-houses, the germ
from which all others are developed. Through whatever changes of
complicated growth it may pass, it is the same in kind and purpose,
one room large enough to hold from twenty to fifty children in the
care of a single teacher. This building has no cellar, because it would
have no use for one, but the preparation of the ground on which it
stands is of the first importance. The sods, roots, stumps, and perish-
able matters of all kinds must be thoroughly removed. And after
this is done, the surface covered by the building or enclosed by its




TOWN AND COUNTRY SCHOOL-BUILDINGS.



&



foundation-walls must be several inches higher than the ground out-
side. In a region where there are deep snows in winter it should be
not less than a foot higher. The common custom of making an
excavation in order to secure an air-space under the floor-timbers is
most unwise. The air-space is all right provided it is well ventilated,

but it should be obtained by raising the
-o^ building, not by sinking the ground.

There is no more active
cause of sore throats, diph-
theria, and pneumonia than
the pools of melting snow
mingled with the inevitable

fc*M MMMII//]// uncleanness, if not positive filth, that will
accumulate during the winter around and un-
der a district school-house. To excavate underneath a building even
for the purpose of removing materials liable to decay, and then re-
fill the excavation with sand, would not insure either dryness or
cleanness, if the nature of the subsoil is such as to hold water, be-
cause the space between the walls is still a basin in which the sand lies
like a wet sponge from which hurtful emanations may arise longer,
perhaps, than if it had not been filled with sand.

In making provision for dryness, there are two sources of danger
to be taken into account : the dampness which comes from a naturally





Floor Plan of Improved Country School-house. (Design A.)



PREPARING THE GROUND AND OTHER ELEMENTARY WORK. 3

wet soil, that is, a soil which is rarely if ever dry on account of
underground springs, or leaching from hjigher ground ; and the




Front Elevation of Design A.



temporary moisture to which all land is subject from rainfall or melt-
ing snow. From whichever cause it arises, there must be absolute




Side Elevation of Design A.



protection from this ground-moisture. In the former case, that
is, the chronic dampness, if such land must be occupied by a



4 TOWN AND COUNTRY SCHOOL-BUILDINGS.

building, the least precaution admissible is a drain entirely
around the building at^ the foot of the foundation-wall, having a
steady fall to some outlet that will always be open. This will
prevent a stagnant pool of water in the earth and keep the bit of
land covered by the building comparatively dry. This drain may
be of common agricultural tiles, where they can be obtained, and
where they cannot, small stones thrown into a trench and covered
with fine brush before the earth is filled in will answer.

To prevent surface water, rains, and melting snow from accumu-
lating under and around a building it is necessary that the surface of
the ground should slope rapidly away from it in all directions. In a
small, if not in a large way, every school-house should be set on a hill,
not only that its light may shine, but that the children's feet may be dry.
If they must choose between clean hands and dry feet, let them have
the dry feet. In a level country where there are no natural hills, a
hill must be made. It is not a serious fault to set a building upon
stone or wooden posts if close economy requires it, leaving the space
underneath entirely open. The most obvious objections to this are
the ugly appearance of the building perched upon stilts, and the diffi-
culty of keeping warm in cold weather. It will also be necessary to
protect the ground underneath from the marble-pits and other
earth-works of the small boys, by a paving of concrete, bricks,
or cobble-stones. It would be more satisfactory to set a strong
wooden lattice between the posts, which may be rough and cheap,
but should be very substantial, and put together with screws in-
stead of nails.

I have shown this primitive cell with a solid-looking stone under-
pinning, assuming that it is built in a region where rocks and forests
both abound, and will cost nothing but the labor of getting them.
If it should happen that labor is the most valuable of all the elements
that enter into its construction, it may be objected that there is a need-
less outlay upon this simple building ; yet the only difference between
this and the baldest structure possible is in the use of one tier of
larger logs at the height of the top of the doors, one side of which has



PREPARING THE GROUND AND OTHER ELEMENTARY WORK. 5

been gashed with an axe, and the few feet of extra length in the logs
that support the overhanging roof.

The details of construction for such a building I shall not attempt
to describe. An actual pioneer who has learned wisdom and inven-
tion in the best of all schools, experience, would laugh at my rules,
but I shall not yield an iota of my opinion that it is the truest wisdom
and the closest economy to give even to the primitive buildings that
are devoted to educational purposes, some visible evidence of thought-
ful study in their external appearance, some sign of honorable regard,
and to the preparation of the ground on which they are to stand at
least as much care as a wise gardener would give to an asparagus-bed.



. CHAPTER II.



TEMPORARY EXPEDIENTS.



F1KE PLACE.- To BE OF - rW(,H ST^NE WJ1T1




THIS is a design for the
same primitive structure,
but in regions where the saw-
mill is the prompt attendant, if not
the precursor, of that permanent
settlement of the country in which
schools have their growth. Labor
is still the most precious of the
materials that are required, and a
structure that can be built as

Rome was not, in a day, is the most suitable, and perhaps the only
available one. This is made on the mollusk plan ; that is to say, the
skeleton is on the outside. In the utmost economy of raw material
this would not be the wisest method, for there is somewhat more
liability to decay in this case than when the frame is protected in the
ordinary way by the outer covering. But it has the advantage of fin-
ishing the interior neatly and at once, and of giving a more attractive-
looking exterior, while still leaving the building in such condition that
it may at any future time be completed in the most thorough and dur-
able manner. In both these designs the windows are grouped to form
the large single side-light. There is a question whether the light should
be admitted from both sides or from the left of the scholars only. In
small country buildings it generally seems more satisfactory to have
the windows on both sides of the room, and provide shades or shut-
ters for one side if there is too much light, or trouble from cross-lights.
Whether from one or both sides, groups of windows cost no more



TEMPORARY EXPEDIENTS,




Front Elevation of Design B.

than smaller detached openings. Of course the sizes of the panes of
glass must be left to circumstances. Indeed the pioneer school-house
may be thankful if it has glass in its windows at all; nor would it be
such a serious deprivation if it should be thrown back upon the old
substitute, oiled paper. The time seems to be fast approaching, not
exactly when " all the land will be paper and all the seas of ink," but
when everything needed for the necessities of men, except food and
drink, will be made of that artificial material which adapts itself so
readily to a constantly increasing variety of purposes.

There are strong water-proof papers that are semi-transparent
which would make excellent temporary substitutes for glass, and
roofing and sheathing papers that will keep out the rain far better,
and I am not sure but longer, than the cheap, sawed shingles of half-
decayed lumber which find their way into the markets. Being light
in weight, the transportation of paper beyond the lines of the rail-
ways will not be a difficult or expensive matter.

Neither of these simple plans provides for cloak-rooms, vestibules,
or any other of the numerous conveniences that are expected in the
fully developed building. The fireplace is the only means of warm-



TOWN AND COUNTRY SCHOOL-BUILDINGS.




Floor Plan of One-room Country School-house (Design B).

ing, and that, with the opening of doors and windows, furnishes also
the crude but none the less effective ventilation. Although as regards
the latter, structures of this primitive kind will not lack ample
breathing-spaces through the cracks and crannies between the logs or
rough timbers of which it is composed. In the matter of fresh air our
forefathers, in the days of wigwams and log-cabins, builded better
than they knew.




Side Elevation of Design B.

Large bins at the rear corners of the room will hold the day's
stock of fuel, and the outer wraps of the children will hang against



TEMPORARY EXPEDIENTS. 9

the wall at either side of the teacher's platform. Concerning the
furniture it would be useless to prescribe, for necessity will dictate
what it shall be : whether slab seats in long rows, home-made chairs,
or ready-made furniture. Only one thing must be insisted upon: the


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Online LibraryE. C. (Eugene Clarence) GardnerTown and country school buildings; a collection of plans and designs for schools of various sizes, graded and ungraded .. → online text (page 1 of 7)