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PRODUCTIVE
FARM CRO

BY

E.G.MONTGOMERY, M.A




SBI85



The first farmer was the first man, and all historic
nobility rests on possession and use of land."

EMERSON.



LIPPINCOTT'S

FARM MANUALS

EDITED BY

KARY C. DAVIS, PH.D. (CORNELL)

PROFESSOR OF AGRICULTURE, SCHOOL OF COUNTRY LIFE
GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE



PRODUCTIVE FARM CROPS

BY E. G. MONTGOMERY, M.A.

PROFESSOR OF FARM CROPS, CORNELL UNIVERSITY



LippiNcoTT's FARM MANUALS

Edited by K. C. DAVIS, Ph.D., Knapp School of Country Life, Nashville, Tenn.

PRODUCTIVE SWINE HUSBANDRY 1915

BY GEORGE E. DAY, B.S.A.
PRODUCTIVE POULTRY HUSBANDRY 1921

BY HARRY R. LEWIS, M.Agr.
PRODUCTIVE HORSE HUSBANDRY 1920
BY CARL W. GAY, D.V.M., B.S.A.

PRODUCTIVE ORCHARDING 1917
BY FRED C. SEARS, M.S.

PRODUCTIVE VEGETABLE GROWING 1918

BY JOHN W. LLOYD, M.S.A.
PRODUCTIVE FEEDING of FARM ANIMALS 1921

BY F. W. WOLL, PH.D.
COMMON DISEASES OF FARM ANIMALS 1919

BY R. A. CRAIG, D.V.M.
PRODUCTIVE FARM CROPS 1918

BY E. G. MONTGOMERY, M.A.
PRODUCTIVE BEE KEEPING 1918

BY FRANK C. PELLETT
PRODUCTIVE DAIRYING 1919

BY R. M. WASHBURN, M.S.A.
INJURIOUS INSECTS AND USEFUL BIRDS 1918

BY F. L. WASHBURN, M.A.
PRODUCTIVE SHEEP HUSBANDRY 1918

BY WALTER C. COFFEY, M.S.
PRODUCTIVE SMALL FRUIT CULTURE 1920

BY FRED C. SEARS, M.S.

PRODUCTIVE SOILS 1920

BY WILBERT W. WEIR, M.S.

LIPPINCOTT'S COLLEGE TEXTS

SOIL PHYSICS AND MANAGEMENT 1919
BY J. G. MOSIER, B.S., A. F. GUSTAFSON, M.S.

FARM LIFE TEXT SERIES
APPLIED ECONOMIC BOTANY 1919

BY MELVILLE T. COOK, PH.D.
PRODUCTIVE PLANT HUSBANDRY 1918

BY KARY C. DAVIS
HORTICULTURE FOR HIGH SCHOOLS 1919

BY KARY C. DAVIS

PRODUCTIVE SOILS Abridged Edition 1920
BY WILBERT W. WEIR, M.S.

LABORATORY MANUALS AND NOTEBOOKS

ON THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS

SOILS, BY J. F. EASTMAN and K. C. DAVIS 1915 POULTRY, BY H. R.
LEWIS 1918 DAIRYING, BY E. L. ANTHONY 1917 FEEDING, BY
F W WOLL 1917 FARM CROPS, BY F. W. LATHROP 1920



LiPPiNCOTT's FARM MANUALS

EDITED BY K. C. DAVIS, PH.D. (CORNELL)

PRODUCTIVE
FARM CROPS



BY

E. G. MONTGOMERY, M.A.



PROFESSOR OF FARM CROPS, CORNELL UNIVERSViy . .'. , , ., '



203 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT



" If vain our toil,
We ought to blame the culture, not the soil."

POPE Essay on Man

SECOND EDITION REVISED




PHILADELPHIA & LONDON

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



f COPYRIGHT, IQl6

,* BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



COPYRIGHT, IpiS
BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



Electrotyped and Printed by J. B. Lippincott Company
The Washington Square Press, Philadelphia, U. S. A.



PREFACE

IN the preparation of this book, the author has endeavored to
develop the fundamental principles of crop production, as demon-
strated by practical experience. In general the principles referred
to are supported by experimental evidence. No exhaustive analysis
of experimental evidence is attempted, but only sufficient to clearly
prove the principles. Involved and debatable problems are generally
avoided, as there is sufficient standard and accepted work for the
scope of this book.

The text is intended for the use of students having some prac-
tical knowledge of crop production. It is hoped to meet the needs
of such students in agricultural short courses, and secondary schools,
and also a considerable class of beginners in agricultural colleges.
Being of a practical nature, the >book will also be found a handy book
for farmers desiring a reference book covering all of the cultivated
crops.

E. G. MONTGOMERY.
CORNELL UNIVERSITY, Ithaca, N. Y.,
December, 1915.



-



6980



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

CLASSIFICATION, ORIGIN, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FIELD CROPS 1

Early Culture of Plants Number of Cultivated Plants Classifica-
tion by Use Important Botanical Groups The Most Important
Crops Factors Affecting the Culture of Crops.

CHAPTER II

How PLANTS GROW 5

The Parts of a Plant The General Functions Elements Required
for Growth Plant Food Sources Relative Composition of Plants
How Roots and Leaves Perform Their Functions The Root System
Root-hairs Osmosis Evaporation of Plant Water Leaves and
Their Functions Leaf Structure Assimilation Distribution of
Manufactured Products.

CHAPTER III

THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDS 13

Function and Use of Seeds Nature of Seeds Preserving the Vital-
ity of Seeds Good Seeds How Germination Takes Place When
Seeds Sprout Large and Small Seeds Shrunken Seeds Structure
of Seeds.

CHAPTER IV

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CEREALS 21

Germination Temporary and Permanent Roots Tillers The
Stems of Cereals The Ear or Head The Spikelet The Flower
Fertilization Cross- and Self-Fertilization Formation of the Seed



Composition ot the fee
of Hard and Soft Grain ]



-Effect of Climate on Composition Moisture
in Grain.

CHAPTER V

CROPPING SYSTEMS 31

Productiveness How Rock Minerals Become Soluble Nitrogen
Its Fixation by Legumes Importance of Organic Matter Effects
of Cropping Single Cropping System Alternating Crops Rota-
tion Farming What Rotation Does Rotations Do Not Keep Up
Mineral Supply Some Results with Rotation Applying Fertilizers
Amount Applied Lime Manure Care of Manure.

CHAPTER VI

CORN 41

Where Corn is Produced The Corn Belt The Origin of Corn
Classification of Corn Pop-corn Flint Corn Dent Corn Soft
Corn Sweet Corn Number of Varieties Growth and Develop-
ment of Parts Fertilization Hybridizing.

CHAPTER VII

CLIMATE AND SOIL REQUIRED FOR CORN 55

Effect of ClimateSunshine Soils for Corn Length of Growing
Season Rainfall Importance of Adaptation.

vii



Viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER VIII
CORN CULTURE 58

Selecting a Variety Improvement and Breeding of Corn Varie-
ties Ear-to-row Breeding Crossing Selection and Care of Seed
Corn Selecting Seed from Crib Field Selection Storing Seed
Corn Examining Seed Corn Germination Tests Germination
Box Doll Baby Germinator Butt and Tip Kernels for Seed.

CHAPTER IX

PREPARATION OF LAND FOR CORN 67

Plowing Corn Land Depth of Plowing Fall or Spring Plowing
Time of Spring Plowing Preparation After Plowing Planting Corn
Hand Planting Drilling Check-row Planting Listing 'Yield
of Hill and Drill Planting Time of Planting Depth of Planting
Rate of Planting Relation of Soil and Climate.

CHAPTER X

TILLAGE FOR CORN 74

Tillage Machinery Weeders Lister Cultivators Reasons for Inter-
tillage Loss of Soil Moisture Water Loss in Fields Conserving
Moisture in a Corn Field Effect of Weeds The Function of Inter-
culture for Corn Depth of Cultivation Frequency of Cultivation.

CHAPTER XI

HARVESTING AND UTILIZING CORN 80

Methods of Harvesting Pasturing Corn Stalks Cost of Saving
Stover Harvesting Corn Fodder Corn Harvesters and Binders
Shocking Fodder Hauling and Storing Fodder When to Harvest
Fodder Relative Proportion of Parts Husking Ears Storing
Ears Shrinkage of Corn in Curing Cost of Producing Corn How
Silage is Made Uses of Corn Glucose Cereal Foods Starch
Distillery Products.

CHAPTER XII

CORN INSECTS AND DISEASES 91

Corn Insects Below Ground Insects Above Ground Migratory
Insects Birds and Rodents.

CHAPTER XIII

POP-CORN AND SWEET CORN 93

Pop-corn Varieties Harvesting Marketing Sweet Corn Varie-
ties Harvesting.

CHAPTER XIV

CORN JUDGING 95

Practical Characters Maturity Soundness Fancy Characters
Shape of Ear Shape of Kernels Character of Germ The Score
Card Corn Judging Explanation of Points Fancy Points Prac-
tice Work in Scoring Corn.

CHAPTER XV

WHEAT 104

Production of Wheat Wheat in the United States Production Not
Increasing Spring and Winter Wheat Advantages of Winter Wheat
Wheat as a Bread Crop.



CONTENTS ix

CHAPTER XVI

ORIGIN AND DESCRIPTION OF WHEAT TYPES 109

Origin Related Wild Forms Classification Bread Wheats
Hard and Soft Wheat Wheat Regions The Durum Wheat Group
Drought Resistance Durum Wheat Types The Spelt Wheat Group
How Varieties Originate Varieties by Selection Natural Occur-
rence of New Types Examples of Successful Selection Crossing
Wheats Winter and Spring Varieties.

CHAPTER XVII

WHEAT CULTURE 123

Soils for Wheat Soil Types Compared Early Plowing for Winter
Wheat The Compact Seed-bed Deep or Shallow Plowing Un-
certainty of Rules Fertilizers for Wheat Minerals Used in Early
Growth Time of Sowing Winter Wheat Time of Sowing Spring
Wheat Rate of Sowing Wheat Broadcast Sowing vs. Drilling
Winter-killing Seed Wheat Changing Seed Home-grown Seed at
Ontario Cultivation of Wheat Pasturing Wheat Summer Fallow
for Wheat The Listing Method.

CHAPTER XVIII

HARVESTING, MARKETING, AND UTILIZING WHEAT 132

Harvesting Shocking Threshing from Shock or Stack Cost of
Producing Wheat Shrinkage in Storage Market Grades.

CHAPTER XIX

DISEASES AND INSECT ENEMIES : 137

Rust Smut Infection Treatment of Seed Scab Insect Ene-
mies Hessian Fly Chinch Bugs The Plant Louse The Wheat
Midge.

CHAPTER XX

OATS 141

Production of Oats Oats in the United States Early History
Classification of Oats Color of Grain Distribution of Groups
Spring and Winter Oats Early and Late Oats Hulless Oats
Description of Oat Plant Tillering or Stooling Description of Oat
Spikelet The Oat Grain Factors Affecting Percentage of Hull
Value of Hull and Kernel Estimating Value of Oat Grain Weight
per Bushel Clipped Oats Quality of Oat Straw Proportion of
Grain to Straw.

CHAPTER XXI

CULTURE OF OATS 157

Climatic Requirements Importance of Water Soils Adapted to
Oats Fertilizer and Manure for Oats Kind of Fertilizer Prepara-
tion of Seed-bed Preparing Seed Oats Treating Oats for Smut
Formalin Treatment Time of Seeding Oats Rate of Seeding .
Method of Sowing Depth of Sowing Oats as a Nurse Crop Sow-
ing Oats in Mixtures Cultivation of Oats Spraying for Weeds.

CHAPTER XXII

HARVESTING AND UTILIZING THE OAT CROP 167

Time of Cutting Methods of Harvesting Shocking Oats Thresh-
ing Oats Storing Oats in Barns or Stacks Diseases and Insects
Affecting Oats Oat Smut and Rust Spikelet Blight Blade Blight
Utilizing the Oat Crop Preparing for Market Market Grades.



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXIII

BARLEY 174

Production of Barley Barley in the United States Origin and
Description of Barley Types Classification of Barleys Structure of
the Spike The Hulless Barleys Types of Awn Color of Grain
Winter and Spring Barleys Types in Cultivation Distribution of
Types Varieties in Use Comparative Qualities Feed Barley.

CHAPTER XXIV

RYE 189

Rye Production Origin and History Description of the Plant The
Rye Grain Classification of Rye Climate for Rye Soils for Rye
Rye in Rotations Rye and Vetch Cultural Methods Harvesting
Rye Threshing Rye Market for Rye Straw World's Rye Crop
and Price of Wheat Insect Enemies and Diseases.

CHAPTER XXV

BUCKWHEAT 196

Buckwheat Production Origin and History Relationships De-
scription of Plant The Flowers The Buckwheat Grain Composi-
tion, Classification Common Buckwheat Tartary Buckwheat
Climate for Buckwheat Soils for Buckwheat Fertilizers Prepara-
tion of Land Time of Seeding Sowing the Seed Harvesting
Threshing Uses of Buckwheat Buckwheat as Green Manure.

CHAPTER XXVI

COTTON 203

World Production of Cotton Production in the United States Pro-
duction by States Early History of Cotton History in America
Invention of the Cotton Gin Cotton Manufacture in the United
States Classification Species Grown in the United States Up-
land Cotton Varieties Description of the Cotton Plant Fiber
Seed By-products of Cotton.

CHAPTER XXVII

COTTON CULTURE 218

Climate Soils Fertilizers The Culture of Cotton Disposal of
Old Stalks Time of Plowing Method of Plowing Depth of
Plowing Disking and Harrowing Importance of Thorough Prepa-
ration Planting on Ridges or Beds Planting Level Level Culture
vs. Ridge Culture Date of Planting The Process of Planting
Thinning or Chopping Cultivation Harvesting Marketing the
Crop Insect Enemies of Cotton Diseases of Cotton.

CHAPTER XXVIII

FLAX 239

Importance of the Crop Culture Harvesting Diseases.

CHAPTER XXIX

SORGHUMS 244

Where Produced The Acreage 1 Classification Kafir or Kafir Corn
Durra The Broom Corn Group Climate for Sorghums
Drought -resistance Soils for Sorghums Effect of Sorghums on
Land Cultural Methods Rate of Seeding Time of Seeding
Planting and Cultivation Harvesting Grain Sorghums Yield of
Grain Sorghums Feeding Value of Grain Sorghums Sorghum for
Forage Rate of SowingSorghums for Soiling For Syrup Broom
Corn Culture.



CONTENTS xi

CHAPTER XXX

IRISH POTATOES 255

Where Grown Origin and History of Potatoes Description of
Plant Seeds Tuber Classification Shape of Tuber Color of
Skin Sprouts Flowers Principal Groups Importance of Groups
In the Northeastern States In Southeastern States North
Central States Western States Market Types Depth of and
Number of Eyes Structure and Composition Climate and Soils
for Potatoes Degeneration Soils for Potatoes Manures and Fer-
tilizers Lime Rotations Applying Fertilizer.

CHAPTER XXXI

CULTURE OF IRISH POTATOES 271

Source of Seed Second Crop Seed Immature Seed Storage of
Seed Sprouting Seed Greening Seed Amount of Seed to Plant
Whole vs. Cut Seed Time of Planting Depth of Planting Hill vs.
Drill Planting Level vs. Ridge Cultivation Tools for Cultivation
Harvesting the Crop Storage Changes in Storage Shrinking in
Storage Cold Storage Diseases and Insects Controlling Tuber
Diseases Controlling Vine Diseases Insects and Insecticides 'Im-
provement and Breeding Origin of New Varieties Potatoes from
Seeds Sports or Mutations Systematic Selections.

CHAPTER XXXII

SWEET POTATOES 288

The Roots Origin and History Types and Varieties Market
Types Where Grown Climate Soil Manure and Fertilizers
Applying Fertilizers Preparation of Land Ridging and Level Cul-
ture Propagation of Plants Preparation of the Hot-bed Number
of Plants Pulling the Plants for Planting Setting the Plants Dis-
tance Apart Cultivation Harvesting Tools Storing Construc-
tion of Pits Diseases and Insects.

CHAPTER XXXIII

CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FORAGE CROPS 301

Classification Acreage Where Grown Dominant Types Tim-
othy and Red Clover Region Cow Pea Region Bermuda and
Johnson Grass Alfalfa Region Grain Hay Wild Hay Blue-grass
White Clover Increasing Production Yield and Prices of Hay.

CHAPTER XXXIV

CHARACTERISTICS OF ECONOMIC GRASSES AND LEGUMES 307

Number of Cultivated Grasses Some Important Requirements
Cheap Seed Palatable, Productive, Persistent Origin of Forage
Grasses The Improvement of Grasses Characteristics of Grasses
Grass Roots Bunch and Sod Grasses Base of Stems Prostrate
Stolons Rhizomes Adaptation of Types Palatability of Grasses
Adaptation to Wet or Dry Land Adaptation to Acid or Limestone
Soils Life Period of Forage Plants Permanent Grasses.

CHAPTER XXXV

GRASS MIXTURES SEEDS AND SEEDING . , 317

For Pastures and Lawns Meadow Mixtures nSoil Not Uniform
Pasture Mixtures Supplementary Pastures Temporary Pastures
Permanent Pastures Other Grasses Natural PasturesGrass Seeds
Inert Matter Sold by Weight Dead Seeds Immature Seeds



xii CONTENTS

Hard Seeds Weed Seeds Germination Tests Actual Value of Seed
Adulteration of Seeds Buying Grass Seed Where Seeds are
Grown Sowing Grass Crops Nurse Crops Sowing Grass Crops
Alone Sowing in Cultivated Crops Time of Sowing Amount of
Seed to Sow.

CHAPTER XXXVI

CARE OF GRASS 338

Fertilizers for Grass Kinds and Amounts of Fertilizers Methods
of Application Manure for Grass Land Reasons for Fertilization
Kind of Meadows to Fertilize Weeds in Meadows.

CHAPTER XXXVII

THE PRINCIPAL CULTIVATED GRASSES 343

Timothy Origin and History Climatic Adaptations Its Advan-
tages Seed and Seeding Lime and Fertilizers Cutting for Hay
Composition and Feeding Value Yield and Life History Diseases
and Insects Redtop Origin and History Climatic Adaptations
Life History For Pasture and Meadow Seed and Seeding Bent
Grasses Orchard-grass Origin and History Climatic and Soil
Adaptations Advantages and Disadvantages Seed and Seeding
Mixtures of Orchard-grass The Blue-grasses Kentucky Blue-
grass Origin and History Soil and Climatic Adaptations
Its Characteristics^-Seeds and Seeding Time of Seeding Seed
Production Canadian Blue-grass Origin and History Seed and
Seeding.

CHAPTER XXXVIII

THE SECONDARY GRASSES 358

Brome-grass Characteristics Seed and Seeding Tall Meadow
Oat-grass Origin and History Climatic Adaptations Character-
istics Seed and Seeding Meadow Fescue Origin and History
Adaptations Seed and Seeding Characteristics Rye-grasses Per-
ennial Rye-grass Origin and History Adaptations and Character-
istics Seed and Seeding Italian Rye-grass Origin and History
Adaptation and Characteristics Seed and Seeding Bermuda
Grass Description Climate and Soils Culture and Yield Mix-
tures for Bermuda Grass Johnson Grass Culture Soudan Grass.

CHAPTER XXXIX

MILLETS 369

Distribution Kinds^Culture Rate of Sowing Feeding Value
Japanese Barnyard Millet Broom-corn Millet Pearl Millet.

CHAPTER XL

LEGUMES 375

Principal Cultivated Legumes Comparison with Grasses-yCompo-
sition of Legumes and Grasses Effect on Fertility of the Soil Time
of Harvesting How Legumes Take Nitrogen from the Air Forms
for Different Legumes How to Inoculate Need of Inoculation
Soils for Legumes Lime Requirements of Legumes.

CHAPTER XLI

ALFALFA 384

Origin and History Climatic Requirements Classification Blue-
flowered Alfalfa Variegated Alfalfas Yellow-flowered Alfalfa
Alfalfa Roots Development of Shoots Life Period of Alfalfa
Pollination Soils for Alfalfa Lime Manure and Fertilizers



CONTENTS xiii

Methods of Seeding Amount of Seed Inoculation for Alfalfa
Time of Sowing Harvesting Alfalfa The Seed Crop Growing
Alfalfa in Rows Cultivation of Alfalfa Pasturing Alfalfa Dis-
eases and Insect Enemies.

CHAPTER XLII

THE CLOVERS 398

Red Clover Origin and History Soils for Red Clover Agricultural
Varieties Sowing Clover Rate of Sowing Fertilizers for Clover
Clover in Rotation Roots of Clover Stems and Leaves Harvest-
ing Red Clover Brown Hay Ensilage Pollination and Seed
Production The Seed Crop Harvesting Color of Seed Diseases
Inoculation for Clover Alsike Clover Characters Climate and
Soil Adaptations Culture White Clover Description Adapta-
tions Mixtures Sweet Clover Description Seed and Seeding
Adaptation Utilizing the Crop Inoculation Crimson Clover
Description Adaptation Seed and Seeding Utilizing the Crop
Burr Clover Japan Clover Description Adaptations Culture
Utilization Velvet Beans Florida Beggar Weed.

CHAPTER XLIII

Cow PEAS, SOY BEANS, FIELD PEAS, VETCHES, PEANUTS 420

Cow Peas Origin and History Classification Best Known Varie-
ties Adaptations Culture Time of Sowing Harvesting Insects
and Diseases; Soy Beans Origin and History Varieties Adapta-
tions Description Culture for Seed Production Growing Soy
Beans for Forage Mixed with Corn Inoculation Utilizing the
Crop Field Peas Adaptations Culture Mixtures Utilization
Pea Weevil VetchesCommon Vetch Adaptations Culture
Harvesting Pasture Hairy Vetch Adaptations Culture Har-
vesting Other Vetches Vetch-like Plants Peanut Origin and
History Where Grown Description Classification of Varieties
Composition Climatic Requirements Soils Fertilizers and Ma-
nures Preparation of the Land Distance to Plant Time of Plant-
ing Method of Cultivation Harvesting T* me ^ -Digging
Methods of Digging Curing the Peanuts Picking and Storing
Preparation for Market Uses of the Peanut Peanuts as a Stock
Feed Insects and Diseases.

CHAPTER XLIV

ROOT CROPS 450

Importance Beets Root, Stem and Crown Shape of Mangels
Structure Composition Preparation of Land Manure and Fertil-
izers Seeding Thinning Cultivation Harvesting Yields
Feeding Value TurnipsComparison of Beets and Turnips Cul-
ture Rape Carrots .

CHAPTER XLV

TOBACCO PRODUCTION. 458

Importance in America Where Grown Description Composition
Types and Varieties Soils and Effects of Soil on Type Effect of
Crop on Soil Fertilizers for Special Results For the Various
Tobacco Regions Forms of Potash to- Use Source of Nitrogen
Of Phosphoric Acid Stalks and Stems Breeding and Selecting
Tobacco The Plant Bed Sowing the Seed Preparing the Field
Distances of Planting Transplanting to the Field Seasons for
Setting in Different Regions Care of the Growing Crop Cultiva-



jdv CONTENTS

tion Topping Suckering Priming Tobacco Rotations in Different
Regions Growing Tobacco Under Artificial Shade Harvesting
Curing Air Curing Open Fire Curing Flue-curing Stripping,
Sorting and Tying Storing Marketing Yields and Prices Insect
Enemies Tobacco Horn Worm Cutworms Wireworms Bud-
worms The Splitworm Tobacco Thrips Fungous Diseases Bed-
rot or Damping Off Root Rot or Black Root Brown and White
Rusts Mosaic Disease or Calico Shed Burn or Pole Rot Stem
Rot Wet Butts or Fat Stem Black Rot in Sweating White Vein
Disease Molds or Rusts.

APPENDICES

I. LEGAL WEIGHTS PER BUSHEL OF SEEDS 482

II. MARKET GRADES OP HAY AND STRAW 484

III. GRADES OF GRAIN 486

INDEX. . 495



ILLUSTRATIONS



no. PAGE
Wheat, the Staff of Life, as Grown in the Great Plains of Nebraska
Frontispiece

1. Diagram Illustrating the Relative Proportion of Dry Matter and

Water in a Green Plant 6

2. Root-hairs 8

3. Diagram Illustrating the Assimilation of Food Materials by a Plant . . 10

4. Germination in Corn 15

5. Wheat Grain in Three Stages of Germination, on the First, Second and

Third Days after Being Placed in Germinator 16

6. Germinator Made by Inverting a Glass Tumbler on a Glass Plate;

Also One Made with Two Plates and Blotting Paper 18

7. A Box Germinator 19

8. Germinating Oats and Barley 21

9. Early Development of Wheat Plant 22

10. Comparative Study of Spikelets 24

11. Diagram of a Wheat Flower 25

12. Ovary of Wheat Grain 25

13. Diagram of a Corn Kernel to Show the Four Principal Parts 26

14. Plowing Under Rye for Green Manure 33

15. Distribution of Corn Production in the United States 42

16. Coyote Corn, a Form Found Growing Wild in Mexico 44

17. Six Principal Types of Corn 45

18. Kernels of Principal Types of Corn 46

19. Ear of Corn in Full Silk, and Ready to be Fertilized 50

20. Method of Preparing a Laboratory Exercise, and also Showing in

Detail the Male and Female Flowers of Corn 51

21. Corn Plant Prepared for Artificial Crossing 52

22. Effect of Crossing and Self -Fertilization on Vigor of Plants 53

23. Stalk of Prolific Corn, Leaves Removed to Show Ears 59

24. Difference in Types of Corn 60

25. Two Types of Learning Corn Developed by Six Years' Selection at the

Illinois Experiment Station 61

26. A Box Tester for Seed Corn 63

27. Wheat Plant Illustrating the Principle That Permanent Roots Always

Develop at About the Same Depth, Whether the Seed Is Planted

Deep or Shallow 70

28. Two-row Cultivator, for Listed Corn, at Work 75

29. Drawing Showing the Distribution of Corn Roots in the Soil 78

30. Harvesting Corn by Hand 81

31. Harvesting Corn with a Corn Binder 82

32. An Ideal Ear of Dent Corn of Fancy Type 96

33. Shape of Ear 97

34. Tips of Ears 100

35. Butts of Ears 100

36. Shape of Kernels 100

37. Shallow, Medium and Deep Kernels. Large Shank, Medium, and

Too Small 101

38. A Well-selected Exhibit of Fancy Ears 101

39. Production of Wheat in the World 105

xv



ILLUSTRATIONS

40. Spring Wheat Production 106

41. Winter Wheat Production 107

42. Bread Wheats 110

43. Durum Wheat Group 112

44. Spelt Wheat Group 113

45. The Principal Wheat Regions, According to Type of Wheat Grown. . 114

46. Distribution of Durum Wheat 115

47. Types of Wheat Grains 117

48. Grains of Spelt Wheat Group 118

49. An Example of Selection 118

50. Drilling Wheat with a Double Disc Drill 128

51. Distribution of Oat Production 142

52. Distribution of Oat Production in the United States 143

53. Loose Type of Side Panicle, Sparrow bill 144

54. Compact Side Oats, and Open Type of Semiside Oats. Varieties,

Clydsdale and Black Finnish ' 145

55. Types of Oat Grain 146

56. Three Types of Early Oats, of Open Panicle Type 147

57. Large White Oats, Open Panicle, Variety Big Four, and Chinese Hul-

less Oats 149

58. Oats Harvest in Nebraska 168

59. G9od Shocks of Oats, Well Capped 169

60. Distribution of Barley Production in the World 175

61. Distribution of Barley-Production in United States 176

62. Heads of Six-row, Four-row, and Two-row Barley 177

63. Difference Between Zeocriton Type and Distichum Type, Both Six-row

and Two-row 178

64. Comparison of Two-row and Six-row Barley Grains 179

65. Kernels of Hulless Barley 179

66. The Hooded or Trifurcate Type and Awned Barley 180

67. Types of Six-row Barley 182



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