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E. J. (Edmund James) Banfield.

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THE CONFESSIONS



OF A




711*







THE

CONFESSIONS OF A BEACHCOMBER





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THK FISH SPKARKR.




THE CONFESSIONS
OF A BEACHCOMBER

SCENES AND INCIDENTS IN THE CAREER OF

AN UNPROFESSIONAL BEACHCOMBER

IN TROPICAL QUEENSLAND



BY

E. J. BANFIELD



WITH A MAP AND 53 ILLUSTRATIONS



"If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he
hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears." THOREAU.

"Trust in yourself and what the world calls your illusions." LONGFELLOW.




T. FISHER UNWIN

LONDON LEIPSIC

ADELPHI TERRACE INSELSTRASSE 20

1908



[All Rights Resci-ved}



TO THE

HONOURABLE ROBERT PHILP, M.L.A.

" Exact in his life,
Extensive in his charity,
Exemplary in everything he does,"

THIS BOOK

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY ONE WHO
OWES TO HIM MUCH OF HIS LOVE FOR TROPICAL QUEENSLAND.



CONTENTS

PART I

PAGE

INTRODUCTION ...... 3

CHAPTER I
THE BEACHCOMBER'S DOMAIN .... 7

OFFICIAL LANDING . . . . .10

OUR ISLAND ...... 14

EARLY HISTORY . . . . . .24

SATELLITES AND NEIGHBOURS . . . .30

PLANS AND PERFORMANCES . . . .41

CHAPTER II

BEACHCOMBING . . . . . -53

TROPICAL INDUSTRIES . . . . .66

SOME DIFFERENCES . . . . .76

ISLAND FAUNA ...... 87

CHAPTER III

BIRDS AND THEIR RIGHTS . . . 92

A CENSUS . . . . . .94

THE DAYBREAK FUGUE . . . . .99

THE MEGAPODE . . . . . .100

SWAMP PHEASANT , . . .103

" GO-BIDGER-ROO " *j.* . . . . IO5

BULLY, SWAGGERER, SWASHBUCKLER . . . 105

EYES AFLAME . . * . . . . 107

THE NESTFUL TREE . . . . .109

" STATELY FACE AND MAGNANIMOUS MINDE " . no

WHITE NUTMEG PIGEON . . . . .114

FRUIT EATERS . . . . . .120

AUSTRALIA'S HUMMING BIRD . . . .121

"MOOR-GOODY" ..... 123

THE FLAME-TREE'S VISITORS . . . .123

RED LETTER BIRDS . . . . .124

CASUAL AND UNPRECISE . - . . . . 127

CHAPTER IV

GARDEN OF CORAL . . . . .129

QUEER FISH . . 140

THE WARTY GHOUL . . . . .143



viii CONTENTS

PAGE

" BURRA-REE " ... . . . 145

FOUR THOUSAND LIKE ONE . . . .146

THE BAILER SHELL . . . . .148

A RIVAL TO THE OYSTER . . . . .149

SHARKS AND SKIPPERS . . . . .151

GORGEOUS AND CURIOUS . . . . .154

TURTLE GENERALLY . . . . 157

THE MERMAID OF TO-DAY . . . .162

BECHE-DE-MER . . . . . .167

CHAPTER V

THE TYRANNY OF CLOTHES . . . .171

SINGLE-HANDEDNESS . . . . .173

A BUTTERFLY REVERIE . . . . .177

THE SERPENT BEGUILED . . . . .180

ADVENTURE WITH A CROCODILE . . . .183

THE ARAB'S PRECEPT . . . . .186

CHAPTER VI

IN PRAISE OF THE PAP AW . . . .190

THE CONQUERING TREE . . . .197

THE UMBRELLA-TREE ..... 205
THE GENUINE UPAS-TREE .... 206

THE CREEPING PALM ..... 209
MAUVE, GREEN AND GREY . . . .212

STEALTHY MURDERERS . . . . .214

TREE GROG . . . . . .216

CHAPTER VII

"THE LORD AND MASTER OF FLIES" . . . 219

A TRAGEDY IN YELLOW . . . . ,221

COLOUR EFFECTS . . . . .221

MUSICAL FROGS ...... 222

ACTS WELL ITS PART . . . . .223

GREEN ANT CORDIAL ..... 227

WOOING WITH WINGS . . . .231

THE GREED OF THE SNAKE . . . .233

A SWALLOWING FEAT ..... 234

PART II

STONE AGE FOLKS

CHAPTER I

PASSING AWAY . . . , . .237



CONTENTS ix

PAGE

TURTLE AND SUCKERS ..... 239

A"KUMMAORIE" ..... 246

WEATHER DISTURBERS ... . 247

A DINNER-PARTY ..... 250

BLACK ART .... . 253

A POISONOUS FOOD ..... 259

MESSAGE STICKS . . . . . .261

HOOKS OF PEARL ..... 266

" WILD " DYNAMITE ..... 269

A CAVERN AND ITS LEGEND . . . .271

A SOULFUL DANCE ..... 273

A SONG WITHOUT WORDS .... 275

ORIGIN OF THE SOUTHERN CROSS . . 276

CROCODILE CATCHING . . . 277

SUICIDE BY CROCODILE ..... 278

DISAPPEARANCE OF BLACKS .... 279

CHAPTER II

GEORGE: A MIXED CHARACTER . . . .281

YAB-OO-RAGOO : OTHERWISE "MICKIE" . . . 287

TOM: His WIVES: His BATTLES . . .291

"LITTLE JINNY": IN LIFE AND IN DEATH . . 298

THE LANGUAGE TEST ..... 303
LAST OF THE LINE ..... 303

CHAPTER III
ATTRIBUTES AND ANECDOTES .... 305

COMMON AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS . . . 306

THE " DEBIL-DEBIL " ..... 307

CLOTHING SUPERFLUOUS ..... 308

BROTHER AND SISTER ..... 309

THE RAINBOW .... . 309

SWIMMING FEATS . . 309

SMOKE SIGNALS . .311

THUNDER FACTORY " . . .311

THE ORACLE . 312

A REAL LETTER . . .312

A BLACK DEGENERATE . . . . -313

JUMPED AT A CONCLUSION . . . .314

PRIDE OF RACE . . . . . .314

" YANKEE CHARLEY " . . . . .316

MYALL'S BAKING . .316

EVERYTHING FOR A NAME . . . .317

THE KNIGHTLY GROWTH . . . . .318



x CONTENTS

PAGE

HONOUR AND GLORY . . . . .318

FIRE JUMP UP . . . . . 319

SLOP TEETH ...... 319

A FASCINATED BOY . . . . -319

AWKWARD CROSS-EXAMINATION . . . 320

THE ONLY ROCK ..... 320

SAW THE JOKE . . . .321

ZEBRA'S VANITY . .321

LAURA'S TRAITS . . . 322

ROYAL BLANKETS ..... 322

His DAILY BREAD . . . . -323

HUMAN NATURE ...... 324

AN APT RETORT 325

MISSIS'S TROUSERS ..... 325

DULL-WITTED . .325

STRATEGY ... .326

LITERAL TRUTH . . . . . .326

MAGIC THAT DID NOT WORK .... 326

ANTI-CLIMAX . .327

LITTLE FELLA CREEK SAILOR . . .327

A FATEFUL BARGAIN . . . . .327

EXCUSABLE BIAS . . . . .328

THE TRIAL SCENE . . . . .328

A REFLECTION ON THE HORSE . . . 329

TRIUMPH OF MATTER OVER MIND .... 329

THE RUSE THAT FAILED . 330

THE BIG WORD ...... 330

MICKIE'S VERSION . . . 331

HONOURABLE JOHNNY . . . . 33 1

THE TRANSFORMATION . . . . 331

MONEY-MAKING TRICK . . . . 331

HONOURABLE CHASTISEMENT . . . 332

" AND You Too "... 332

PARADISE . . . -333

CHAPTER IV
AND THIS OUR LIFE ..... 334



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PART I

FISH SPEAKER .... Frontispiece
REVISED CHART . . . .To face page 3

CORNER OF BRAMMO BAY ... 7

TROPIC SEA ..... ,,14

THE CASTAWAY . . . . ,,24

WHERE TERNS LAY . . . . 33

TERNS' EGGS . . . . . ' ,,40

BEDARRA AND THE ISLES . . . 53

BANANA THE SCAPE . . . . ,,66

BANANA THE BUNCH ... ,,70

STANDARD EGGS .... ,,99

NEIGHBOURING CORAL GARDEN . . ,,129

CORAL REEF FISH (i) . . . ,,134

(2) ... 136

WARTY GHOUL . . . . ,,143

ALCYONARIA AND OYSTERS . . . ,,150

NASEUS BREVIROSTRIS . . . ,,154

APPLE OF DISCORD CORAL ON PUMICE . ,,156

SKULL OF PARROT-FISH . . . ,,158

DUGONG ..... ,, 162

" YORKY " AT HOME . . . . ,, 173

PAP AW FEMALE AND MALE . . . ,,190

WALKING FISH . . . . ' ,,197

PHASMA FEMALE AND MALE . . 223

PART II

STONE AGE MAN . . . 237

STONE AGE WOMAN . . . 240

FAN-PALM-LEAF DWELLING . ., . 245



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

BLACK ART AN ANTIQUE . . .To face page 253

SCRUB FOWL . . . ,,253

A STUDY . . . ,,255

SILHOUETTE AND BOOMERANGS . ,,255

A FRAGMENT . . . ,,257

HEADLESS LIZARD . . 257

SHARK, ECHIDNAS, TURTLE . 257

THROWING SPEAR WITH WOMMERA . . 258

SHELL PLANE IN USE ... 259

MESSAGE STICKS . . . . ,,261

PROUD MOTHER .... 262

HOOKS OF PEARL .... 266

SHELL KNIVES, QUARTZ IMPLEMENTS, CORAL FILES 268

FALLING STAR CAVE (Exterior) . . ,,271

(Interior) . . 272

YAM DIGGER ..... 283

TOM . . . . . . ,,291

NELLY ...... 297

BLACK PALM HARPOON POINT . . 300

DISTRICT PICANINNIES ... 303

MOTHER AND SON .... 306

HOMEWARD BOUND .... 309

HAPPY YOUTH . . . . ,,311

NULLA-NULLAS AND BOOMERANGS . . ,,312

DILLY BAGS . . . . . 316

STONE AXES ..... 320

WE ARE SHY ..... 325



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THE CONFESSIONS OF
A BEACHCOMBER

INTRODUCTION

DOES the fact that a weak mortal sought an unprofaned
sanctuary an island removed from the haunts of men and
there dwelt in tranquillity, happiness and security, represent
any just occasion for the relation of his experiences ex-
periences necessarily out of the common ? To this proposi-
tion it will be for these pages to find answer.

Few men of their own free will seek seclusion, for
does not man belong to the social vertebrates, and do not
the instincts of the many rule ? And when an individual is
fain to acknowledge himself a variant from the type, and
his characteristics or idiosyncrasies (as you will) to be so
marked as to impel him to deem them sound and reason-
able ; when, after sedate and temperate ponderings upon
all the aspects of voluntary exile as affecting his lifetime
partner as well as himself, he deliberately puts himself out
of communion with his fellows, does the experiment con-
stitute him a messenger? Can there be aught of enter-
tainment or instruction in the message he may fancy
himself called upon to deliver? or, is the fancy merely
another phase of the tyranny of temperament ?

We cannot always trust in ourselves and in the boldest
of our illusions. There must be trial. Then, if success
be achieved and the illusion becomes real and transcen-
dental, and other things and conditions merely " innutritious
phantoms," were it not wise, indeed essential, to tell of it

3



4 CONFESSIONS OF A BEACHCOMBER

all, so that mayhap the illusions of others may be put to
the test ?

Not that it is good or becoming that many should
attempt the part of the Beachcomber. All cannot play
it who would. Few can be indifferent to that which men
commonly prize. All are not free to test touchy problems
with the acid of experience. Besides, there are not enough
thoughtful islands to go round. Only for the few are there
ideal or even convenient scenes for those who, while per-
ceiving some of the charms of solitude, are at the same
time compelled by circumstances ever and anon to ad-
minister to their favourite theories resounding smacks,
making them jump to the practical necessities of the case.

Here then I come to a point at which frankness is
necessary. In these pages there will be an endeavour to
refrain from egotism, and yet how may one who lives a
lonesome life on an island and who presumes to write its
history evade that duty ? My chief desire is to set down in
plain language the sobrieties of everyday occurrences the
unpretentious homilies of an unpretentious man one whose
mental bent enabled him to take but a superficial view of
most of the large, heavy and important aspects of life, but
who has found light in things and subjects homely, slight
and casual ; who perhaps has queer views on the pursuit of
happiness, and who above all has an inordinate passion for
freedom and fresh air.

Moreover, these chronicles really have to do with the
lives of two people not youthful enthusiasts, but beings who
had arrived at an age when many of the minor romances
are of the past. Whosoever looks for the relation of sen-
sational adventures, exciting situations, or even humorous
predicaments, will assuredly be disappointed. Possibly
there may be something to interest those who wish to learn
a few of the details of the foundation of a home in tropical
Australia ; and to understand the conditions of life here,
not as they affect the man of independence who seeks to
enlarge his fortune, nor the settler who in the sweat of his
face has to eat bread, but as they affect one to whom has



INTRODUCTION 5

been given neither poverty nor riches, and who has proved
(to his own satisfaction at least) the wisdom of the sage
who wrote " If you wish to increase a man's happiness
seek not to increase his possessions, but to decrease his
desires." Success will have been achieved if these pages
reveal candour and truthfulness, and if thereby proof is
given that in North Queensland one " can draw nearer to
nature, and though the advantages of civilisation remain
unforfeited, to the happy condition of the simple, uncompli-
cated man."

In furtherance of the desire that light may shine upon
certain phases of the character of the Australian aboriginal,
space is allotted in this book to selected anecdotes. Some
are original ; a few have been previously honoured by print.
Others have wandered, unlettered vagrants, so far and wide
as to have lost all record of legitimacy. To these house-
less strangers I gladly offer hospitality, and acknowledge
with thankfulness their cheerful presence. -

Grateful acknowledgments are due to Mr F. Manson
Bailey, F.L.S., the official botanist of Queensland, for the
scientific nomenclature of trees and plants referred to in a
general way.

E. J. BANFIELD.

BRAMMO BAY, DUNK ISLAND,
November 1906.



CHAPTER I
THE BEACHCOMBER'S DOMAIN

Two and a half miles off the north-eastern coast of
Australia midway, roughly speaking, between the southern
and the northern limits of the Great Barrier Reef, that
low rampart of coral which is one of the wonders of the
world is an island bearing the old English name of Dunk.

Other islands and islets are in close proximity, a
dozen or so within a radius of as many miles, but this
Dunk Island is the chief of its group, the largest in area,
the highest in altitude, the nearest the mainland, the fairest,
the best. It possesses a well-sheltered haven (herein to be
known as Brammo Bay), and three perennially running
creeks mark a further splendid distinction. It has a super-
ficial area of over three square miles. Its topography is
diversified hill and valley, forest and jungle, grassy combes
and bare rocky shoulders, gloomy pockets and hollows,
cliffs and precipices, bold promontories and bluffs, sandy
beaches, quiet coves and mangrove flats. A long V-shaped
valley opens to the south-east between steep spurs of a
double-peaked range. Four satellites stand in attendance,
enhancing charms superior to their own.

This island is our home. He who would see the most
picturesque portions of the whole of the 2000 miles
of the east coast of Australia must pass within a few yards
of our domain.

In years gone by, Dunk Island, " Coonanglebah " of the
blacks, had an evil repute. Fertile and fruitful, set in the
shining sea abounding with dugong, turtle and all manner
of fish ; girt with rocks rough-cast with oysters ; teeming
with bird life, and but little more than half an hour's canoe
trip from the mainland, the dusky denizens were fat, proud,

7



8 CONFESSIONS OF A BEACHCOMBER

high-spirited, resentful and treacherous, far from friendly
or polite to strangers. One sea-captain was maimed for
life in our quiet little bay during a misunderstanding with
a hasty black possessed of a new bright tomahawk, a rare
prize in those days. This was the most trivial of the many
incidents by which the natives expressed their character.
Inhospitable acts were common when the white folks first be-
gan to pay the island visits, for they found the blacks hostile
and daring. Why invoke those long-silent spectres, white
as well as black, when all active boorishness is of the past ?
Civilisation has almost fulfilled its inexorable law ; but four
out of a considerable population remain, and they remember
naught of the bad old times when the humanising processes,
or rather the results of them, began to be felt. They must
have been a fine race, fine for Australian aboriginals at
least, judging by the stamp of two of those who survive ;
and perhaps that is why they resented interference, and
consequently soon began to give way before the irresis-
tible pressure of the whites. Possibly, had they been
more docile and placid, the remnants would have been
more numerous though less flattering representatives of
the race. You shall judge of the type by what is related
of some of the habits and customs of the semi-civilised
survivors.

Dunk Island is well within the tropical zone, its true bear-
ings being 146 deg. 11 min. 20 sec. E. long., and 17 deg. 55
min. 25 sec. S. lat. It is but 30 miles south of the port of
Geraldton, the wettest place in Australia, as well as the centre
of the chief sugar-producing district of the State of Queens-
land. There the rainfall averages about 140 inches per
annum. Geraldton has in its immediate background two of
the highest mountains in Australia (5,400 feet), and on these
the monsoons buffet and break their moisture-laden clouds,
affording the district much meteorological fame. Again,
20 miles to the south lies Hinchinbrook Island, 28 miles
long, 12 miles broad, and mountainous from end to end :
there also the rain-clouds revel. The long and picturesque
channel which divides Hinchinbrook from the mainland, and



THE BEACHCOMBER'S DOMAIN 9

the complicated ranges of mountains away to the west,
participate in phenomenal rain.

Opposite Dunk Island the coastal range recedes and is
of much lower elevation, and to these facts perhaps is to be
attributed our modified rainfall compared with the plethora
of the immediate North ; but we get our share, and when
people deplore the droughts which devastate Australia, let
it be remembered that Australia is huge, and the most
rigorous of Australian droughts merely partial. This
country has never known drought. During the partial
drought which ended with 1905, and which occasioned
great losses throughout the pastoral tracts of Queensland,
grass and herbage here were perennially green and
succulent the creeks never ceased running.

Within the tropics heat is inevitable, but our island
enjoys several climatic advantages. The temperature is
equable. Blow the wind whithersoever it listeth, and it
comes to us cooled by contact with the sea. Here may
we drink oft and deep at the never-failing font of pure,
soft, beneficent air. We have all the advantages which
residence at the happy mean from the Equator bestows,
and few of the drawbacks. By its fruits ye shall know the
fertility of the soil.

Birds are numerous, from the " scrub fowl " which dwells
in the dim jungle and constructs of decaying leaves and
wood and light loam the most trustworthy of incubators,
and wastes no valuable time in the dead-and-alive duty of
sitting, to the tiny sun-bird of yellow and purple, which
flits all day among scarlet hibiscus blooms, sips nectar from
the flame-tree, and rifles the dull red studs of the umbrella-
tree of their sweetness.

The stalled ox is not here, nor the fatted calf, nor any of
the mere advantages of the table ; but there is the varied
harvest of the sea, and all the freshness of an isle clean and
green. The heat, the clatter, the stuffy odours, the toilsome-
ness, the fatigue of town life are abandoned ; the careless
quiet, the calm, the refreshment of the whole air, the tonic
of the wide sea are gained. From the moment the sun



io CONFESSIONS OF A BEACHCOMBER

illumines our hills and isles with glowing yellow until it
drops in fiery splendour suddenly out of sight, leaving a
band of gleaming red above the purple western range, and
a rippling red path across to Australia, the whole realm of
nature seems ours to command.



OFFICIAL LANDING

Dunk Island was not selected haphazard as an abiding
place. By camping-out expeditions and the cautious
gleaning of facts from those who had the repute of knowing
the country, useful information had been acquired unob-
trusively. We were determined to have the best obtainable
isle. More than one locality was favourably considered ere
good fortune decided to send us hither to spy out the land.
A camp-out on the shore of then unnamed Brammo Bay
a holiday-making party and the result of the first day's
exploration decided a revolutionary change in the lives of
two seriously-minded persons. A year after, a lease of the
best portion of the island having been obtained in the
meanwhile, we came for good.

Wholly uninhabited, entirely free from traces of the
mauling paws of humanity, lovely in its mantle of varied
foliage, what better sphere for the exercise of benign auto-
cracy could be desired ? Here was virgin country, 20
miles from the nearest port sad and neglected Cardwell
cut off from the mainland by more than 2 miles of
estranging ocean, and yet lying in the track of small
coastal steamers here all our pet theories might serenely
develop.

But it was an inauspicious landing. With September
begin the north-east winds, and we had an average experi-
ence that afternoon. Was it not a farce a great deal
more than a farce : a saucy, flippant imposition on the
tender mercies of Providence for an individual who could
not endure a few hours of tossing on the bosom of the
ocean without becoming deadly sick, to imagine that he



OFFICIAL LANDING n

possessed the hardihood to establish a home even in this
lovely wilderness ? We had tents and equipment and a
boat of our own, a workman to help us at the start, and two
faithful black servants.

The year before, we had made the acquaintance of one
of the few survivors of the native population of the island
stalwart Tom. Although our project and preparations had
been kept fairly secret, he had overheard a casual reference
to them ; had made a canoe, and paddling from island to
island with his gin, an infant and mother-in-law, had pre-
ceded our advent by a week. His duties began with the
discharging of the first boatload of portable property. He
comes and goes now after the lapse of years.

They spread out tents and rugs for the weak mortal
who had greatly dared, but who, thus early, was ready to
faint from weariness and sickness. They made comforting
and soothing drinks, and spoke of cheery things in cheery
tones ; but the sick man refused to be comforted. He
wished himself back, a participator in the conflicts of
civilisation, and was fain to cover his face there was no
wall to which to turn and fancy that the most dismal
sound in the universe was the surly monotone the north-
easter harped on the beach. We reposed that night among
the camp equipment, the sick man caring for naught in his
physical collapse and disconsolation.

But the first morning of the new life ! A perfect com-
bination of invigorating elements. The cloudless sky, the
clear air, the shining sea, the green folded slopes of Tarn
o' Shanter Point opposite, the cleanliness of the sand, the
sweet odours from the eucalypts and the dew-laden grass,
the luminous purple of the islands to the south-east ; the
range of mountains to the west and north-west, and our
own fair tract awaiting and inviting, and all the mystery
of petted illusions about to be solved ! Physic was never
so eagerly swallowed nor wrought a speedier or surer
cure.

Feebleness and dismay vanished with the first plunge
into the still sleepy sea, and alertness and vigour returned,



12 CONFESSIONS OF A BEACHCOMBER

as the incense of the first morning's sacrifice went straight
as a column to the sky.

Over half a century before, Edmund B. Kennedy, the
explorer, landed on the opposite shore, on his ill-fated
expedition up Cape York, to find the country inland from
Tarn o' Shanter Point altogether different from any pre-
viously-examined part of Australia. We gave no thought
to the gallant explorer, near as we were to the scenes of
his desperate struggle in the entanglements of the jungle.

The island was all before us, where to choose our place
of rest, and the bustle of the transport of goods and chattels
to the site in the thick forest invisible from the sea began
at once. Before sunset, tents were pitched among the trees,
and a few yards of bush surrounding then cleared, and we
were at home.

Prior to departing from civilisation we had arranged for
the construction of a hut of cedar, so contrived with nicely
adjusting parts and bolts, and all its members numbered, that
a mere amateur could put it together. If at the end of six
months' trial the life was found to be unendurable, or
serious objection not dreamt of in our salad philosophy
became apparent, then our dwelling could be packed up
again. All would not be lost.

The clearing of a sufficient space for the accommodation
of the hut was no light task for unaccustomed hands, for
the bloodwood trees were mighty and tough, and the
dubious work of burning up the trunks and branches while
yet green, in our eagerness for free air and tidiness, was
undertaken. It was also accomplished.

For several weeks there was little done save to build a
kitchen and shed and widen the clearing in the forest.
Inspection of the details of our domain was reserved as a
sort of reward for present task and toil. According to the
formula neatly printed in official journals, the building of a
slab hut is absurdly easy quite a pastime for the settler
eager to get a roof of bark or thatch over his head. The
frame, of course, goes up without assistance, and then the
principal item is the slabs for walls. When you have fallen



OFFICIAL LANDING 13

your tree and sawn off a block of the required length, you
have only to split off the slab. Ah ! but suppose the



Online LibraryE. J. (Edmund James) BanfieldThe confessions of a beachcomber; scenes and incidents in the career of an unprofessional beachcomber in tropical Queensland → online text (page 1 of 28)