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search for ultirnate truth, he starts from the visible Church
of Christ on earth, and " even as the philosophers seek
God in the visible works of nature, so we in the visible
Church find the invisible Church and its supreme head,
Jesus Christ ". From his study of the visible Church
and its institutions he at length reaches the point where
he is able to lay down precisely his definition of that
Church. "The Church militant here on earth is one,
under one head, as the likeness and as the image of the
Church triumphant in heaven under the rule of Jesus
Christ, and although there is but one fold and one shep-
herd, yet, although Christ in heaven is the true and sole
head of the Church, He hath left St. Peter as His repre-
sentative upon earth saying, ' Thou art Peter, and upon
this rock I will build My Church, and I will give unto thee
the keys of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on
earth shall be bound in heaven. . . .' Nor can these
words apply to St. Peter alone, for inasmuch as God
hath promised that His Church shall endure to the end
of the world, so they must be held to apply to St. Peter
and his successors. Wherefore it is manifest that all
the faithful should be united under the Pope, as the
supreme head of the Roman Church, the mother of all
other Churches, and that whosoever departs from the
unity and doctrines of the Roman Church unquestion-
ably departs from Christ."

In the face of such a pronouncement it is futile to



294 GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA

claim Savonarola as having the smallest conscious sym-
pathy with the views afterwards entertained by the Pro-
testant reformers.

But in his struggle with Alexander VI he was un-
consciously aiding the cause of the Protestant Reforma-
tion. It is true that he was careful to discriminate
between the man, Roderigo Borgia, who itriposed upon
him unlawful commands, and the Pope who could not
as Pope ordain anything contrary to Christian doc-
trine. It is also true that Savonarola was not straining
his Catholicism by such a discrimination, but was well
within his right as a Catholic in asserting that every
command of a Pope must be potentially contained within
the original structure of Catholic doctrine derived from
Christ and from Scripture ; but the points in dispute be-
tween Alexander and Savonarola appeared to the average
man to come within the cognizance of the Papal authority,
and hence the impression was created, even among the
P'riar's most earnest supporters, that he was presuming
to set up the right of private judgment against the
authority of the Head of the Church. Thus Savonarola's
contumacy tended to familiarize men's minds with the idea
of private judgment as having rights against authority
— the very idea which the reformers a little later so
triuiTiphantly asserted.

But apart from this there is not a vestige of foundation
for the opinion that Savonarola was a herald of the Re-
formation. The Catholic Church received him in his
youth ; the great Catholic Order of the Preachers claimed
him as its devoted servant from manhood to the day of
his death ; the doctrine which he consistently taught was
the doctrine which has remained substantially the same
for nearly twenty centuries, and in the faith of that
doctrine he died. His excommunication from the Church



SAVONAROLA AND THE RENAISSANCE 295

militant resulted from a combination of forces which
were almost wholly political, forces with which the ques-
tion of doctrinal orthodoxy had nothing whatever to do,
Savonarola's life and teaching and his miserable end
form an eloquent commentary upon the corruptions with
which the Church in his day was defiled. But to protest
against its corruptions was not to be a rebel against the
Church ; history can only mark the ironic incongruity
of a period which saw Girolamo Savonarola burned as
a heretic and Roderigo Borgia enthroned upon St. Peter's
Chair.



INDEX



Abelard, 3.

Accoppiatori, the, 126, 127, 171.

Alberghettino, the, 278.

Albizzi, II.

Alexander VI, Pope (Roderigo
Borgia, and see Briefs), 14, 19 ;
accession of, 80 ; grants inde-
pendence to S. Marco, 97, 99 ;
relations with Savonarola, 160,
and ch. viii, passim ; heads the
Holy League, 162 ; political
opposition of Savonarola to,
163 ; urges Florence to join the
League, 165 ; reunites S. Marco
to Lombard Congregation, 168 ;
inhibits Savonarola 168, 170,
171 ; urged by Signoria to with-
draw inhibition, 178 ; did he
comply? 179-81, 188; alleged
offer to Savonarola of Car-
dinal's hat, 188 ; reduces S.
Marco to a dependent position,
194, 195 ; complaints against
Florence, 211 ; issues Brief
of Excommunication, 211-213 ;
attitude of Florence towards,
215, 217 ; death of his son, 221 ;
hesitating policy of, 223, 224;
defied by Savonarola, 233 et
seq. ; threatens the Signoria,
240 ; threats of a General
Council, 248-50 ; attitude to-
wards ordeal, 260 ; incongruous
position of, 295.

AlHance, the French, with Florence,
112, 122, 123, 151, 152, 156,
162, 163, 165, 167, 188, 189,
192,214, 215, 233.

Angelico, Fra, decorates S. Marco,
40, 41, 176, 291.



Antella, Lamberto della, 226.
Anziani, the, of Lucca, Savona-
rola's relations with, 145, 148,

Arrigucci, Filippo, 205.

Armstrong, E., cited, 13"^, 186, 245.

Arrabbiati, the, 136, 158.

Arroii, the, 223.

Avignon, Papal exile at, 17.

Balia, 126, 137.

" Bands, the Blessed," organization
and reform of children, 173 et
seq., 201, 277.

Barone, Francesco di, 275.

Becchi, Ricciardo, special Florentine
envoy to Rome, 178, 179, 180,
224.

Benedetto, Fra, biographer of Sa-
vonarola, author of " Cedrus
Libani," 30, 39, 265.

Bentivoglio, of Bologna, 172.

Benivieni, Girolamo, 205 note.

Bernardino da Feltro, S., 72.

Bernardo del Nero. See Nero.

Bianchi, the, 136, 153.

Bibbiena, loi.

Bigi, the 136, 142, 153.

Boccaccio, 2 ; edition of, burned, 201,
289.

Bologna, Savonarola enters Domini-
can Convent at, 30; life at, 36,
37 ; preaches at, 97, 172.

Botticelli, 96, 176.

Bracci, Florentine envoy at Rome,
230.

BraccioUni, G. Francesco di, 166.

Brescia, 45 ; Savonarola preaches
at, 50 ; sack of, 50, 51 ; Savon-
arola at, 54.



297



298



GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA



Briefs, Papal, of July, 1495, 167; of
September, inhibiting Savon-
arola, 165, 198; of October, 170,
171 and note, 173 ; of Novem-
ber, 1496, 194 et seq., 210 ; of
May, 1497, 211-3; effects of,
217 ; published, 218 ; of Febru-
ary, 1498, 240, 241, 242, 244 ; of
March, 243,245; of April, 270.

Buonaccorsi, Elena, Savonarola's
mother, 27.

Burlamacchi, biographer of Sa-
vonarola, cited, 39, 54, 55 note,
252.

Butchers, Savonarola's influence on
trade of, 117.

Cambi, Giovanni, 226.
Camerino Giovanni da, 212, 218.
Canacci Giovanni, 257.
Capaccio, Bishop of, 179, 224.
Capponi, Piero, 114, 120, 193.
Caraffa, Cardinal, 99, 100, 178, 179,

180, 195, 197.
Carnival, reform of, 176, ig8, 201,

203, 243.
Caterina, Sta, convent of; at Pisa,

lOI.

Ceccone, Ser. See Barone.

" Cedrtis Libani," cited. 39, 209 note,
265, 267, 281.

Charles VIII, King of France, in-
vades Italy, 106 and ch. v,
passim; Italian itinerary, 112
note ; Savonarola's relations
with, 151, and ch. vii, passim,
189 ; withdraws from Naples,
155 ; review of his invasion, 161,
162; forged letters to, 190; re-
newed activity of, 232.

Cinozzi, biographer of Savonarola,
cited, 44, 45, 56, 69 note, 70, 71,
74, 77, 106, 120, 146, 176, 185
note, 256.

Commines, Ph. de, cited, 112 note,
119.

Compagnacci, the, 203, 206, 207,
261, 269.

" Compendium Revclationum,^^ Sa-
vonarola's treatise, 35, 36 ; origin
of prophecies, 49, 58 ; on his re-
turn to Florence, 54 ; on date of



first regular preaching in S.
Marco, 56 note, 82, 83 ; analysis
of, 88, 8g-93 ; report of speech to
Charles VIII, 118, iig, 153;
circumstances of publication of,
167.

Confessions, Savonarola's alleged,
274-7.

Constitution, of Florence, 126,
127; the New Constitution of
1494-5, 135, 139-44. 148. 165.

Council, the Grand, of Florence, 134
and note, 146, 151; assumes
plenary authority, 171 ; Savona-
rola on, 172, 173-84 ; age limit
revised, 203 ; B. del Nero
appeals to, 226-7.

Council of Eighty, 143 and note, 146.

Councils, General, of the Church,
17, 164, 187; Savonarola relies
on, 240, 248, 249, 250 272.

— of Constance, 18.

— of Pisa, 17.

" Conclusions," Savonarola's, 48,

255, 258, 259.
Creighton, " History of Papacy,"

cited, 50, 62, 64, 108, 252.
" Cyrus, the new," and see Charles

VIII, 106, 107, III, 129.

Dante, 2.

D'Aubigny, 121, 232.

" De ruincl Ecclesice," Savonarola's
treatise, 34, 35.

" De niind Mtindi," Savonarola's
treatise, 28, 29.

" Del dispregio del mondo," Savona-
rola's treatise, 33.

Despots, Italian, character of, 7.

Domenico da Pescia, Fra, 72, 77,
144 ; replaces Savonarola in
Duomo, 171, 229, 238,244; and
the ordeal, 253, 254, 255, 257,
262, 263; arrest of, 267 ; con-
fession of, 276, 277 ; execution
of, 279-81.

Domenico da Ponzo, Fra, 145, 146,

Duomo, the, of Florence, 58, and see
Savonarola.

" Dyalogiis de vcritate prophetica"
Savonarola's treatise, 35 note ;
character of, 88.



INDEX



299



Entragues, French commander in

Pisa, 177.
Estes, Dukes of Ferrara, 27, 224.
" Execrabilis," Papal Bull of Pius

II, 249, 272.

Ferdinand, the Catholic, King of
Spain, joins Holy League, 162.

Ferrante, King of Naples, 13 ;
death of, 109.

Ferrara, 27 ; Savonarola preaches
at, 37, 38-

Ficino, Marsilio, 26, 44, 47, 284, 285.

Filipepi, biographer of Savonarola,
44, 69, 74, 75, 107, 121, 175, 192.

Florence, /ass Jw, review of state of,
9 et seq. ; taste in preachers,
43, 44; refuses to join Holy
League, 162 ; policy of, 214,
215, 216.

France, French. See Charles VIII,
and Alliance.

Franciscans, the, rivalry with Do-
minicans, 145, 252 ; challenge
to an ordeal, 255 et seq. ; posi-
tion towards the ordeal, 259.

Gandia, D. of, 221.

Gemignano, San, Savonarola be-
gins prophecy at, 48.

Genoa, Savonarola at, 50, 54 ; Maxi-
milian at, 191.

Gherardi, 46.

Giotto, 4.

" Gladius Domini,''^ Savonarola's
sermon, 83, 84, 106, 116, 144
note.

Guicciardini, " History of Florence,''''
cited, 69, 70, 72, 134, 228 note,

233-
— Piero, 227.
Gurk, Cardinal of, 190.

Impruneta, Sta Maria, 192.
Indictment of .Savonarola, terms

and nature of, 269-72.
Innocent VIII, elected Pope, 51 ;

character of, 63, 64.
Italy, distractions of, 23 ; character

and ideals of, 24, 25.
Isabella, of Naples, no.
Izaac, Heinrich, 176.



Jews, 147 ; Savonarola on the, 148.

Landing, Cristofero, 47.
Landucci, chemist and diarist, 154,

155. 175. 189. 277-

League, the Holy, 162, 163, 165,
166, 172, igi, 214, 215, 232.

Leghorn, invested by the Emperor,
191 ; relieved, 192 ; proposed
French expedition to, 232.

" Lombard Congregation," Savona-
rola's scheme of separation
from, 97-100.

Lorenzo, San, Savonarola Lent
preacher at, 1482, 38.

Lorenzo dei Medici, 6 ; sketch of,
12 ; supposed invitation of
Savonarola to Florence, 45, 46,
54, 55 ; character of, 64 et seq. ;
relations to Savonarola ch.
III. 64-79 '' alleged attempt to
suppress Savonarola, 70-3 ; the
death-bed story, 76-9 and note ;
foreign policy, 80, 81 ; Carnival
songs, 176; territorial acquisi-
tions of, 177.

Lucas, Father, biographer of Sa-
vonarola, quoted, 33, 34, 54,

157-

Lucca, Convent of S. Romano at,
loi ; Savonarola and, 143, 144,
145 ; Pietra Santa sold to, 177.

Ludovico Sforza. See Sforza.

Luther, 249, 278, 292.

Machiavelli, Niccolo, cited, 142,
228.

Manfredi, Ferrarese envoy to Flor-
ence, 232, 233.

Mariano, Fra, 44, 73, 74, 75, iig,
200, 218.

Marco, San, Savonarola's convent,
36, 38 ; restored by Cosimo de'
Medici, 40; Lorenzo's remains
received at, 79 note ; separated
from the Lombard Congrega-
tion, 97-100 ; reunited, 168 ; in-
corporated into Tusco- Roman
Congregation, 195; protests
against incorporation, 197,
219, 220; supports Savonarola
against Pope, 221; Savonarola



300



GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA



retires to, 243 ; attack on,
265-7 ; deserts Savonarola 277,
278.
Maximilian, Emperor, joins Holy
League, 162 ; heads an army in
its interest, 191 ; invests Leg-
horn, 191 ; retires from Italy,

193-
Mazzinghi, Domenico, 250.
Medici, Cosimo, ii, 40, 41.

— Giuliano, 12, 13.

— Leonardo, 234.

— Lorenzo. See Lorenzo.

— Piero di Cosimo, 11, 12.

— Piero di Lorenzo, 113, 114, 118,

120, 125, 156, 172, 205 and note,

226.
Michelangelo, 2, 96.
Michelozzi, architect of S. Marco, 40.
Middle Ages, 2.
Milan, review of State of, 8 et seq. ;

French claims on, 8 ; joins

Holy League, 162.
Miracle, demand for, 198, 199, 254.
Mirandola, Pico della, 26, 45, 287.

— Pico della (the younger) quoted,
■49. 53. 54, 236.

Monte di Pieta, established by
Savonarola, 147, 148, 192.

Naples, review of State of, 21 ;
French claims to, 22, no; in-
vasion of, by Charles VIII, 108
et seq.

Nardi, chronicle of, quoted, 121, 179,
201.

Neo-PIatonism, 284, 285.

Neri, the, 153.

Nero, Bernardo del, 142 ; elected
Gonfalonier, 198, 199, 203, 204 ;
policy of, 204, 205 ; accused of
high treason, 226, 227, 273.

'■'O RATIO pro Ecclesia" Savona-
rola's poem, quoted, 51.

Ordeal, the, responsibility for sug-
gesting, 253, 254 ; definite pro-
posals for, 255, 256, 257 ;
debates of Pratica on, 257, 258 ;
arrangements for, 261.

Orsini, Virginio, attempts to restore
Piero dei Medici, 172.



Pacieri I, 204.

Papacy, review of, 14 et seq. ; enters
Holy League, 162 ; seculariza-
tion of, 164. (See Alexander
VI and Popes.)

Parlamento, 125, 135-7, 184.

Pastor Dr., cited, 179, 180, 245.

Pazzi conspiracy, 12, 13.

Perugia, Cardinal of, 224.

Pescia, Domenico da. See Do-
menico.

Petitions, to Pope on behalf of Sa-
vonarola, 221, 222, 271.

Petrarch, 2.

Piagnoni, the, 136 ; disastrous go-
vernment of 177 ; revived credit
of, 193, 202, 203.

Pietra Santa, 177.

Pisa, Savonarola at, 97 ; Convent of
S. Caterina at, lor, 102 ; revolt
of, 119 et seq.; the war with,
125, 152, 156, 160, 165, 166,
177, 189 ; Maximilian at, 191 ;
progress of war, 204, 216.

Pistoia, 187.

Pittorio, Ludovico, 224.

Plato, 2, 26, 285.

Plethon, Gemisthos, 26, 285.

Poggibonsi, 157, 158, 177.

Poliziano, Angelo, 44 ; present at
Lorenzo's death, 77; philo-
sophy of, 284.

Popes, Alexander VI. See Alexander.

— Boniface VIII, 16, 17.

— Clement V, 17.

— Innocent VIII, 15.

— Nicolas V, 18.
— • Pius II, 15, 249.

— Sixtus IV, 14.

Popoleschi, Piero, Gonfalonier, 244.

Pratica of November, 1494, 114-6;
of July, 1497, 222 ; on B. del
Nero, 227 ; of March, April,
1498, 244, 245 et seq. ; on the
ordeal, 257; on the trial, 275.

Prato, loi, 187, 252, 253.

Pucci, Giannozzo, 226.

Puglia, Fra Francesco da, 253, 254,
255, 257-

QuiNQUAgESiMA. sermon, 235, 237,
243-



INDEX



301



Rapallo, battle of, no, 112 note.
Reformation, the, 4 ; Savonarola's

position towards, 292-5.
Renaissance, the, character of, 1,2

et seq., ch. xiii, passim.
Revival of Learning, 284 et seq,
Ridolfi, Battista, 248.
— Niccolo, 227.
Romolino, Francesco, 275.
Rondinelli, Fra Giuliano, 257.
Roscoe, life of Lorenzo de' Medici,

67.
Rovere, Cardinal della, 250.

Salviati, Giuliano, Gonfalonier,

233-

— Marcuccio, 263.
Sarzana, 114, 177.
Savonarola, Alberto, 229.

— Beatrice, 52.

— Chiara, 52.

— Girolamo, Fra, place in the Re-

naissance, ch. I, pdssim, and ch.
XIII ; parentage and education,
27; his ^' De Rtimd Miindi"
28, 29 ; escapes from home, 29 ;
letter of farewell, 31, 32 ; enters
Dominican convent, 30 ; early
writings, 33-5 ; his dramatic
sense, 36 ; appearance, 38, 39 ;
received into S. Marco, 38-42 ;
Lent preacher at S. Lorenzo,
38, 43-5 ; attends Dominican
chapter at Reggio, 45, 46;
visits S. Gemignano, 48, 49 ;
sources of prophecies examined,
49 ; preacher at Brescia, 50 ;
" Oratio pro Ecclesia," 51 ; vari-
ous missions, 54 ; Lorenzo de'
Medici and Savonarola's return
to Florence, 54, 55 ; lectures on
Apocalypse, 55 ; regular preach-
ing in S. Marco begins, 56, 57 ;
removes to Duomo, 58 ; char-
acter of his sermons, 59-62 ;
relations to Lorenzo, 64 et seq. ;
at Lorenzo's deathbed, 76-9
and note; Lent course in S.
Lorenzo, 84 ; prominence in
Florence, 85 ; claims to pro-
phetic powers examined, 89-92 ;
character of his sermons, 93-5 ;



as moral reformer, 95, 96 ; se-
cures independence of S.
Marco, 97-100 ; Vicar-General
of Tusco-Roman Congregation,
102 ; inveighs against cere-
monies, 102-4 i adopts a
political role, 105 ; attitude to-
wards Charles VIII, 106-124 ;
sermons on the Deluge, iio-
112 and notes; ambassador to
Charles, 114; sermon on Peni-
tence, 114-7; induces Charles
to leave Florence, 121, 122 ;
advocates new Constitution,
128-34 ; inveighs against Par-
lamenfo, 136, 137 ; his political
theory, 138, 139 ; moulds the
new Constitution, 140-3, 147,
148 ; relations with Charles
VIII, 151-9; Lent sermons
on Job, 152-5 ; letter to
Charles, 155, 156 ; supports a
French alliance, 156 ; visits
Charles at Poggibonsi, 157 ;
thwarts Papal policy of the
Holy League, 162-7 ; invited
to Rome, but declines, 167 ;
Papal Brief against, and reply,
168-70 ; desists from preach-
ing, 171 ; devotes himself to
moral reform, 173-6 ; invited to
resume preaching, 178 ; was he
contumacious ? 179-81 ; ser-
mons on Amos and Zachariah,
181-7 ; on Ruth and Micah,
188 ; disclaims responsibility for
French alliance, 188, 189 ; the
forged letters to Charles VIII,
190 ; revived credit from relief of
Leghorn, 192, 193 ; Papal Brief
of November, 1496, 194, 195 ;
obedience or submission ? 196 ;
Sermons on Ezekiel, 197, 198,
218 ; meets demand for a mir-
acle, 198, 199 ; attacked by Fra
Mariano and reply, 200, 201 :
celebrates carnival, 1497, 201 ;
organized opposition to, 203 ;
prophesies failure of Piero de'
Medici's attempt, 205 and note ;
Ascension Day sermon, 1497,
207 et seq. ; outrages of the



302



GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA



Compagnacci, 207, 209 ; ceases
to preach, 210 ; excommuni-
cated, 21 1-3 ; dual position
towards Pope, 216 ; effects of
excommunication, 217 ; his de-
fiance, 218; letter to Pope,
219; general vindication of his
position, 219, 220, 224, 225 ;
case of B. del Nero's appeal,
225-8 ; fights the plague, 229 ;
alleged letter of submission to
Pope, 230, 231, 232 ; celebrates
High Mass in Duomo, 233 ;
Septuagesima sermon, 233 ;
Lent sermons on Exodus and
Psalms, 235-9, 246, 247 ; letter
to Pope, 245 ; last sermon, 18
March, 1498, 248, 249 ; propo-
sitions for a General Council,
250 ; attitude towards the or-
deal, 261, 262 ; action at the
ordeal, 262-4 ; attacked in
S. Marco, 265-7 ; arrest of,
267 ; trial of, 270-7 ; prison
meditations, 278, 279 ; execu-
tion of, 279-81 ; influence of
revival of learning on, 286-8 ;
attitude towards Art, 288-gi ;
purchases Medici library, 288-
91 ; position to Luther's refor-
mation, 292-5.

— Michele, 27.

— Niccolo, 27.

Schism, the Great, 17,
Septuagesima, Savonarola's sermon,

233-5, 242.
Sexagesima sermon, 235, 242.
Sforza, Francesco, 8, 9.

— Galeazzo Maria, 109.

— Giovanni Galeazzo, 109.

— Ludovico, 6, 9, 162, 179, 191,

250; invites French into Italy,
no.
Signoria, the, of Florence, action
towards the excommunication,
222, 223, 224; towards B. del
Nero's appeal, 227 ; supports
Savonarola's disobedience, 234,
241 ; takes definite action, 244 ;
attitude towards the ordeal,
256 ; conflicting decrees of 266 ;



arrests Savonarola, 267 ; ap-
points a Commission for his
trial, 268, 269; apparent incon-
sistency of, 270.

Silvestro, Fra, 77, 229, 267 ; con-
fession of, 276, 277 ; execution
of, 279, 281.

Sixtus IV, Pope, death of, 51, 63;
character of, 62-4.

Soderini, Paolo, proposes the Grand
Council, 128, 135.

Somenzi, Milanese envoy at Flor-
ence, dispatches cited, 179, 180,
187 ; presents forged letters to
Signoria, 190 ; 192, 207 note
245, 262.

Spini, Doffo, 203, 261, 269.

Spirito, Santo, 218.

Strozzi, Carlo, 227.

— Laodamia, 27.

Superstition, prevalence of, 47.

Tizio, II. Sienese chronicler, fore-
tells appearance of a prophet, 47.

Tornabuoni, Lorenzo, 226.

Torriano, Giovacchino, General of
Dominican Order, 197, 273, 275.

" Tractate on the Regiment and
Government of Florence," 68.

Tranchedino, Milanese envoy at
Bologna, cited, 180.

Trial of Savonarola, 270-7.

" Trimnphus Crucis," Savonarola's
treatise, quoted, 32, 229, 293.

Turks, threatened invasion of Italy
by, 13 ; conversion of, pro-
phesied, 93.

Tusco-Roman Congregation, of
Dominican convents, loi, 102,
194, 195, 212, 219.

UoHi, Fra Mariano, 264.

Vaison, Bishop of, 280.

Valori, Francesco, Gonfalonier, 193,
198, 200, 202, 204 ; Savona-
rola's relations with, 206, 271 ;
action towards B, del Nero's
appeal, 227, 228 ; death of, 266.

" Vanities," the, 174, 176, 201, 202,

243-
Venice, review of State of, 19 et seq. ;
policy towards French invasion,



INDEX



303



no ; Constitution of, 127, 133 ;
joins Holy League, 162 ; block-
ades Leghorn, 191.
Vespucci, Guidantonio, opposes
Grand Council, 128.



Vigevano, 191.

Villari, Prof., cited, 40, 46, 69 note,

97, 144, 147, 179. 201, 245,

260.
Visconti, the, in Milan, 8.



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