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E. O. (Erastus Otis) Haven.

The young man advised, or, Illustrations and confirmations of some of the chief historical facts of the Bible online

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LIT3RARY

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.

GIF^T OK

Mrs. SARAH P. WALSWORTH.

Received October, 1894.
Accessions M>J- Class No.







THE



YOUNG MAI ADYISED:



OB,



ILLUSTRATIONS AND CONFIRMATION* OF SOME OF THE
CHIEF HISTORICAL FACTS OF THE BIBLE.



BY E. O. HAVEN, D. D.,

PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AND ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE UNIVERSITY



OF MICHIGAN.



tJlTIVBESITT




PUBLISHED BY CARLTOJST & PHILLIPS,

200 MULBERRY-STREET.
1855.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865,

BY CARLTON & PHIELIPS,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District
of New-York.



[UFI7BKSITT]




EVERY age demands its own books every age
of the world, every age of an individual man.
This book was written for the present age of the
world, and for the young. There are old treat-
ises on the Bible without number, of every class,
profound and light, dull and even witty; but
very many of them, from the style both of lan-
guage and of thought, are not exactly fitted' to
the present time, and therefore are found chiefly,
periodically dusted, in the libraries of antiquari-
ans and of theologians, who, for personal con-
viction, do not need them.

There is an age of curiosity in man, an age of
independence and buoyancy, when, in the case
of the religiously-educated, traditional faith is
weakened, even the good example of a pious
parent is feeble, and childhood's habits of devo-



4 PBEFAOB.

tion loosen their grasp ; and in the case of those
who unfortunately have not received an early
religious training, there is an increased disincli-
nation to admit the restraints of a sound faith in
the Bible.

Now if, just at that time, a youth is plied with
all the dangerous arts of scepticism, if he finds
in books and newspapers, and hears in lectures
and conversation, a thousand aslant and insinu-
ating sneers against the creed of the Christian,
he occupies perhaps the most perilous position
in the whole of life's pathway: he is near a
crisis a few months may decide his temporal
and eternal destiny.

Happy is he, if then some kind and judicious
and strong friend stands ready to offer the coun-
sels of maturity, sweetened and tempered by
sympathy ! Happy he, if a book falls in his way
that shall give a right direction to the thoughts
of his heart !

Now precisely such is the condition, such the
demands of the young in these our times. It is
for such that this book is now committed to the
press.

Will any young reader, who, perchance, has
read thus far, not yet throw aside the volume,
but " see the preface through ?"



PREFACE. 5

The book consists of successive chapters, in
which the greatest leading facts of the Bible are
presented and confirmed by other evidence,
historical and philosophical, with a design to
show the superhuman, the divine origin of what
we call "The Word of God." Not all the facts
are thus treated, otherwise this book would have
been a huge quarto, or folio, or series of folios,
and of course had proportionately few readers ;
for, with few exceptions, it is a fact that the
larger the book the fewer the readers. The writer
has tried to practice the art of stopping when he
has finished, and of leaving something to be said,
and more to be thought, by posterity. One of
his greatest difficulties has been, to make the
book small enough.

The reader will find here no unfair and inten-
tionally sophistical method of reasoning. It is
an old maxim, "All is fair in war ;" and many
Christian authors even seem to write on the
principle that " the end justifies the means," and
do not hesitate to advance what is feeble and
irrelevant and false to sustain a true position.
If some writers do not act on this principle, they
certainly are incapable of distinguishing between
what is feeble and what is strong; what is true
as evidence, and what is false.



6 PEEFACE.

In this book you will find nothing which the
author does not himself believe ; and every fact
stated, and every quotation made, and every au-
thority referred to, is, according to the author's
best information, strictly correct.

The chapter upon Creation does not afford a
fair specimen of the book, because, except in
reference to the mere act of creation, the subject
does not admit of the kind of evidence which it
is the object of the book to adduce.

With this salutation, the book is before you.
If you choose to admit it to your home, your
parlour, or study, or work-shop, or family circle,
remember it comes not as a principal, but an
agent; its sole business is to recommend an-
other, even the Book of books. Perhaps it has
blunt honesty, and energy, and persuasiveness
enough about it, if you treat it respectfully,
to increase your reverence for its Master, the
Bible; if so, certainly the author will have
nothing to regret, and the reader no complaint
to make.



CHAPTER I.

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD AS DESCRIBED BY MOSES.

Much Dogmatism displayed upon this Subject Has there been a
Creation Opinion of the Greeks Of the Earlier Philosophers

Impossible to prove either the Negative or Affirmative Com-
mon Arguments on both Sides Abundant Evidence that Man
was created Proof of his Late Origin The Order of Creation
In this Book we receive no Theory Views of Modern Geologists

Views of their Opposers The Mosaic Account Artless, and
Truthful, and Credible Its Reception must depend upon the
other Scriptures Page 13

CHAPTER II.

THE DELUGE.

Probable Population of the World at this Time Fancy Pictures
No Evidence that Antediluvian Families were larger than Post-
diluvian Reasons to believe that the Population was small
The Extent of the Deluge Fancy Pictures again God never
exhibits Superfluous Power Strictly Universal Deluge not
necessary Scripture Statements Why Animals were taken
into the Ark Local Deluges not uncommon, but why this mi-
raculous Evidence of this great Event apart from the Bible
Assyrians Persians Hindoos Chinese Egyptians Greeks

South Sea Islanders North American Indians Heathen Wor-
ship bears Commemorations of it The Ark Triads of Gods re-
ferring to Sons of Noah Evidence of Bible cumulative
Curious Evidence that Man originated where the Ark is said to
have rested No Objection to strict Universality of Deluge, if
any choosit 31



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER HI.

EAELT TRADITIONS CONFIRMATORY OF THE FIRST CHAP-
TERS OF GENESIS.

Traditions founded upon Truth Assyrians Sanchoniathon Be-
rosus Jatnblichus Views of Early Egyptians Institutes of
Menu Other Traditions Page 54



CHAPTER IV.
THE TOWER OF BABEL, AND THE CONFUSION OF TONGUES.

Indistinctness of Ancient History The most Valuable Facts only
related in the Earliest History Building of Babel the only Event
recorded for a Thousand Years Were all Men engaged in it.
Why it was a Crime How it was defeated Confirmatory Evi-
dence of the Fact Ancient Writers The Temple Birs Nimroud
still standing Explanation of Confusion of Tongues 61

CHAPTER V.

. THE COMMON ORIGIN OF MAN.

The Doctrine of the Bible Foundation of Opposition to it Con-
firmations Some Variety presupposed Actual Differences su-
perficial, not radical In Essential Features all Races identical
Present Variety may be accounted for Instances of Late
Varieties Different Species cannot permanently unite Argu-
ments drawn from Mind Government Agriculture Lan-
guage Religion Practical Bearings of the Subject 70

CHAPTER VI.

THE CALL OF ABRAHAM.

Condition of the World without Revelation Instincts demand it
Failure of Infidel Schemes to benefit Man First Universal Re-
formersVoltaire's Picture of the World The Watch without
a Mainspring Antecedent Probability of the Bible How it
should be examined Man incompetent to criticise it Designs



CONTENTS. 9

of God developed by Time Nothing Trivial in the Bible
Occasion of the Call of Abraham His Character Traditional
Evidence Page 97



CHAPTER VII.

THE DESTRUCTION OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH.

Character of the Inhabitants Their Doom Date of this Event
Geological Confirmations Probable Nature of the Phenomenon
Exploration by Captain Lynch His Testimony Lot's Wife
"Why are not Similar Judgments now inflicted. Divine Provi-
dence involves a Great Plan Must be studied Lessons from
this Event Christianity demands Action 112



CHAPTER VIII.

BIBLICAL REFERENCES TO EGYPT CONFIRMED BY MODERN
RESEARCHES.

Egypt : Situation, and Early Civilization Obliteration of its History
Monuments and Pictorial Descriptions recovered References
to it in the Bible Harmony of tiie two Historical Coinci-
dences Customs referred to in the Bible elucidated Condition
of Women Baskets of the Baker Magicians Shaving
Linen Garment and Necklace Ownership of Land Embalm-
ing Bricks with Straw Departure of the Israelites Various
Coincidences Historical Basis of the Bible 132



CHAPTER IX.

EARLY SCRIPTURE PROPHECIES, AND THEIR FULFILMENT.

Prophecy must be Superhuman Origin of Prophecy False
Prophets naturally arise The Israelitish Prophets widely
known Testimony of Cicero Evidence of Early Prophecies
not mentioned in the Bible General Expectation of the Messiah
Remarkable Heathen Prophecy Character of Heathen Oracles
Persecution of Jewish Prophets Prophecy concerning the
Arabs Testimony of Gibbon Of Sir William Jones Concern-
ing the Twelve Tribes in Order 145



10 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER X.

THE MIRACLES OF THE EXODUS.

Great Plan of Jehovah in the Old Testament Folly of the Notion
that Man was originally a Savage His True Condition Tend-
ency to Deterioration Religious by Nature Evils of Idolatry

Necessity of Miracles Miracles of the Exodus necessary
Of no Benefit to the Egyptians Why and how did the Magicians
succeed. The Miracles in Order Traditions ............ Page 172

CHAPTER XI.
BEAUTY AND SCOPE OF THE LAWS OF MOSES.

The Israelites a Nation of Pupils, and afterward Teachers Their
First Lesson is Holiness Communicated by Symbol Washings

Clean and Unclean Beasts The Decalogue Whence learned

Sacrifices Types The Theocracy Originality and Object
of their Laws Some Specific Enactments Summary of the
Chapter ....................................................................... 193



THE GREAT COMMISSION AND HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES.

The Divine Command to destroy the Canaanites Reasons for it

The Destruction not designed to be Universal Miracles
Standing still of Sun and Moon Prodigies of Elijah and Elisha

Why so much of the Bible is Historical Number and Har-
mony of the Writers Apparent Contradictions Language mod-
ified by History Doctrines and History indissolubly connected
Personal Application ................................................... 208



CHAPTER

THE PROPHECIES OF MOSES.

Character of these Prophecies Universal Attention was to be
given to the Israelites Testimony of Volney Character of the
People who should conquer them Particulars of coming Sieges-



CONTENTS. 11

Destruction of Jerusalem, as related by Josephus Captives to
be carried into Egypt by Ships The Land smitten with Barren-
ness Its Ancient Fertility To be scattered among all Nations
Reflections Page 225



CHAPTER XIV.

BABYLON AND NINEVEH.

Situation of Babylon Its Magnificence Birs Nimroud Other
Ruins Nebuchadnezzar Condition when Jeremiah lived
His Predictions Particularity of them Fulfilment Isaiah's
Predictions Compared with Damascus Nineveh Layard's
Discoveries Hezekiah Solomon Divine Providence 243



CHAPTER XV.

SPECIFIC PKEDICTIONS FULFILLED IN JESUS CHRIST.

Christ the great Subject of the Bible Reasons for mingling
the Prophecies relating to Christ with other Instruction The
Forerunner Time of his coming Place of his coming Man-
ner of his Birth His Humanity and Divinity His Death Mi-
nuteness of these Predictions Sir William Jones's Testimony
Recapitulation of Previous Chapters Value of the Old Testa-
ment 258



CHAPTER XVI.

PERSONAL CHARACTER OF CHRIST.

The Jews subsequent to Malachi John the Baptist History of
Jesus fully related and attested The Evangelists Their Un-
affected Simplicity They never praise Christ Apparent Con-
tradictions Relate what appears Unfavourable They are Mild
and . Dispassionate The Gospels unparalleled Christ was
Faultless, though tried He exhibited every Virtue His one
great Object to bless the World Effect of obeying him His
Death voluntary His Life considered alone an Insoluble Mys-
tery Folly of considering any Subject alone The Bible as a
Whole.... 274



12 CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XVII.

THE OPENNESS OP THE FACTS OF CHEISTIANITY ILLUS-
TRATED BY THE LIFE OF. ST. PAUL.

Paul before Festus and Agrippa The Koran, Shasters, and the
Mormon Book Contrast between them and the Bible Only
Reward of the Writers No Pretensions to Secrecy Lyttleton's
Life of Paul Comparison of the Apostle with Lafayette
Paul's Conversion Did he seek Fame. Did he seek Posthu-
mous Glory. Was he a Hypocrite. Was he insane. A Com-
mon Charge The Facts This no Isolated Instance Trophies
of Christianity Its Triumph certain Page 289



CHAPTER XVIII.

GRAND PRACTICAL BENEFITS OF THE BIBLE.

Two Ways of examining a Subject, theoretical and practical The
Problem submitted to an Angel Fact below Theory, yet valua-
ble Influence of the Bible on Morality On Social Habits and
Enjoyments On Government and Laws These Influences
silent The Garden without Sunlight The Bible chiefly valua-
ble as teaching us how and whom to worship The inevitable-
ness of Idolatry without the Bible, and why. The great Topic
a Mediator, and the great Want of Man a Mediator Chief Ad-
vantages of the Bible unseen and indescribable Advantages of
a Written over a Traditional Revelation ,.. 310



UFI7BESITT




THE

YOTJNG MAN ADVISED.



CHAPTEK L

THE CEEATION OP THE WORLD AS DESCRIBED BY MOSES.

THE first subject presented in the Bible is one
of the most incomprehensible, and consequently
it is one upon which much has been written,
and much dogmatism exhibited ; for on no sub-
jects are men so presumptuous, and intolerant
toward difference of opinion, as upon those
which cannot be brought to the test of actual
experience. Humility and a confession of hu-
man ignorance are certainly graceful when con-
sidering the subject of creation.

Has there ever been a creation ? This is the
first question answered in the Bible. Without
a revelation it would be impossible for man to
prove either the negative or affirmative; yet



14 THE YOUNG MAN ADVISED.

I believe that the great preponderance of evi-
dence, aside from revelation, is in favour of the
affirmative ; and as it is the object of this book
to exhibit the confirmatory evidence of the facts
related in the Bible, this chapter will present
the confirmations, first, of the fact of creation,
and then of its order, as described in the first
chapter of Genesis.

By the term creation is meant the actual
making of a substance that did not exist in any
form before. This idea is commonly expressed
by the words created out of nothing. The
power of creation must have existed in the
Creator; whether or not the substance of the
thing created was in any sense existent in him,
the Bible does not answer, and it may not be
wise for us to urge.

"Was there ever a creation? The Greek
philosophers replied, generally, No. Their
views, discordant as they were upon other par-
ticulars, were unanimous upon this. They uni-
versally received the thought expressed by the
Latin maxim, "ex nihilo nihil fit,"* as an
axiom. While, however, their views harmo-
nized upon this general principle, their opinions

Out of nothing, nothing comes ; or no thing can be made
out of nothing.



CREATION OF THE WORLD. 15

upon the organization of the world were very
various. Some fancied that the world, as a
system, in its present state, had no beginning ;
but nearly all believed that, though the sub-
stance of matter was eternal, the world, as such,
had a beginning. The same view has been
entertained by some professed Christians.

The various fancies of the ancient philoso-
phers of Greece upon the origin of things, all
were based upon the assumption of the eternity
of some substance, apart from the Deity. Thus
Thales considered water the primordial element ;
Anaximenes, the air ; Pythagoras, fire and har-
mony ; Empedocles, earth, air, fire, and water ;
and the later philosophers, both Greek and
Koman, did little else than refine upon these
conceptions. Earlier writers had far more
Scriptural views, as we shall soon show.

The conflicting opinions of philosophers upon
this point demonstrate one fact, namely, that
the human reason is incompetent to decide the
question. If answered at all, it must be by
revelation. It certainly would be absurd to
argue that creation is impossible to God. The
old maxim, " Out of nothing nothing comes," is
a pure assumption; and instead of being a
primary truth, is merely a result of defective,



16 THE YOUNG MAN ADVISED.

inductive reasoning. Philosophers have never
seen matter created, therefore they conclude it
cannot be done, a most hasty conclusion, since
it would not be demanded but once, and must
be entirely beyond the grasp of human observa-
tion.

On the other hand, some have attempted to
show, from reason, that matter cannot be eternal.
The most favourite arguments upon this side of
the question have been as follows :

The present material universe is unstable, and
bears within itself unless it be continually sup-
ported by a power from without the elements
of destruction. Thus it has been attempted to
show that the resistance of the medium of light
alone, to the planets, must inevitably destroy
the solar system.* Now, whatever must be
destroyed cannot be eternal.

The fallacy in this argument is, that it does
not reach the question. If it proves anything,
it is simply that the solar system is not eternal,
but has no bearing upon the existence of the
matter out of which the planets are made.

It has been urged, also, that present mate-
rial existences are compound ; but compounds
presuppose the creation of elements. Sharon

Edinburgh Review, October, 1831.



CREATION OF THE WORLD. 17

Turner gives a homely illustration of this view :*
"The school-boy perceives at once that his plum-
cake cannot have been eternal. The plums, the
flour, the butter, the eggs, and the sugar, of
which it is composed, must have been in some
other places and states before they were brought
together to make the substance which gratifies
him." We grant this, but it does not prove the
creation of the materials of which the cake was
made.

All physical and metaphysical arguments to
prove either a creation or the eternity of matter
are failures. There is no other safe ground to
take than this human reason can throw no light
upon the question of creation. It is utterly and
forever beyond the reach of a finite mind.

We must examine the Bible to ascertain
whether its other teachings, within the reach of
human reason, are confirmed; and whether it
bears satisfactory evidence of being the word of
God. If so, what it teaches upon the subject of
creation we are to receive with docility, thank-
ful that God has answered a problem that our
reason could not solve.

But there is satisfactory evidence that man
was created. Indeed he must have been created.

9 Sacred History of the World.
2



18 THE YOUNG MAN ADVISED.

The idea of an infinite series of generations with-
out a beginning is a simple absurdity. It is
like an attempt to support a chain by itself,
fastened only at one end. Of an infinite series
of links, the last link ~but one certainly had a
beginning. The next, or the first, must either
have a beginning or not. If it has, the question
is answered there was a creation. If the last
link had no beginning, then it is infinitely long
longer than all the rest beside, which is an
absurdity. There must have been a first man, or
a first generation of men. Either they had a
beginning, or they were eternal, and conse-
quently not men. The terms eternal creation
and eternal generation are unintelligible and
absurd. The originator of human existence was
God.

There is abundant evidence that the race of
men has not existed more than the period al-
lotted to them in the Bible, not far from six
thousand years. The evidence of this is as satis-
factory as of the facts, that the Declaration of the
Independence of the United States was adopted
July 4th, 1776 ; that Alfred was king of England
in the ninth century of our Lord ; that Socrates
taught philosophy in ancient Greece ; that Baby-
lon was a populous city three thousand years



CREATION OF THE WORLD. 19

ago; and that Egypt was a flourishing nation
two thousand years before Christ.

Indeed, the evidence of all these assertions is
precisely of the same nature, historical testi*
mony confirmed by existing facts, and not to be
denied without absurdities ; showing in him who
persists in a denial a weakness of reason and
in competency of judgment, which must be pro-
nounced either stupidity or insanity.*

There is no authentic history of man, extend-
ing more than about three thousand years before
Christ, except what is found in the Bible ; and
the scanty records of that early age show that
then the human family was young and few, all
of which confirms the Scriptural account of the
creation. Indeed, that the human family had a
beginning, and that, too, when and where the
Bible places it, we believe confirmed by as satis-
factory historical evidence as any reasonable
person could demand. This point will recur in
an examination of the doctrine of the Deluge.

We would here remark, that in these pages the chronology
of the Septuagiut is received as the most reasonable and cor-
rect. Satisfactory reasons for this may be found in Smith's
Patriarchal Age, and in the works of all historians who have
accurately investigated the early history of Assyria, India,
Egypt, and China. This system of chronology alone intro-
duces harmony, where, according to Usher's computations,
all is confusion, and discord, and even absurdity.



20 THE YOUNG MAN ADVISED.

But while it may be considered a moral
demonstration that the race of man began its
existence at the date designated by the Bible,
yet no Scriptural subject has been more severely
criticised and warmly opposed than the order
of creation, as described in the first chapter of
Genesis. Volumes have been written upon it;
philology, natural science, metaphysics, and the
imagination have been tasked to their utmost
capability to solve the riddle, and to show just
how the world was created, and just how the
order, as described in Genesis, can be made to
correspond with the traces of its own creation,
supposed to exist in the earth itself and its
inhabitants.

Now, manifestly, it would not accord with
the plan of this book to adopt any one of the
numerous recondite theories which Biblical
geologists have invented to solve this mystery.
"We do not propose to write a commentary on
the whole Bible, but only to select those grand
incidents recorded in the sacred Scriptures
which cure strikingly confirmed by parallel his-
tory and by philosophy, and to present those
confirmations. If there be mysteries yet un-
solved, or facts related which never can be
verified except by the general truthfulness of



CREATION OF THE WORLD. 21

the whole, we ought to be willing to acknowl-
edge it. We therefore boldly assume this posi-
tion in the outset, that if the first chapter of
Genesis is an insoluble enigma, if indeed the ap
pearances of the earth's texture cannot be made
by human ingenuity to harmonize with it, or
that to harmonize with the appearances ; still, so
strikingly is the Bible m general confirmed 'by
history, by testimony, by its adaptation to man,
and by its effects, that it demands the assent of
every rational man, and must and will have it
in spite, of that and even other enigmas.

Men seem to forget that the creation of the
world has occurred but once j that it cannot be
tested by human observation ; that we have but
one account of it purporting to be revealed from
heaven, and that exceedingly brief, written in a
language long since given up as a spoken lan-
guage ; and that all men ought to be willing to
acknowledge their great liability to error, when
they attempt to fill out from human fancy the
brief outline thus presented. That outline is,
however,' amply sufficient to accomplish the pur-
pose for which it was given, to show that the
LORD GOD created the universe, and is the SU-
PREME ONE worthy of the homage of all man-
kind.



22 THE YOUNG MAN ADVISED.

Indeed, we would not write a line upon this


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Online LibraryE. O. (Erastus Otis) HavenThe young man advised, or, Illustrations and confirmations of some of the chief historical facts of the Bible → online text (page 1 of 17)