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complaints of the whole company of his misbehaviour could not
once be heard of the Captain. He complains much of your Wor-
ships' unkindness, in that he alone (as he says) with his ship did
take the carrack the First Voyage, and if he had not been she
had not been taken but escaped, which he justifies with others in
all places where he hath come to the Dutch and others, and there-
fore, as he said at Jacatra to Captain Christian and upon the



126 EAST INDIA COMTAATS RECORDS

deck aboard, he would fetch it up all this voyage etc., therein
much touching your Worships' honourable and liberal minds, and
Sir James Lancaster's person etc. Also by his open hatred to
the merchants he gave such way unto a company of drunken
rascals in the ship and ashore that they eared not what they did
against a merchant, knowing to have a smile of him for [affronts ?]
and thanks for every tale, so far that we were afeared to pass
from the table where we eat to the garden where we stopped for
fear of them, and yet no remedy, though complaints for it. One
night he quarrelling beat Mr. Gourney and abused too basely;
the crew also present, seizing the swords and pikes, came and
pursued us. Having opportunity, one Hopkins launched a pike
at Mr. Larkin under his arm ; another struck three or four times
at Mr. Farie, he crying out and fleeing, the Captain looking on
and calling them afterwards " Good fellows ; it was well done,"
and they that had resolved below against us and would have
turned Mr. Gourney and the merchants out of your Worships'
house, so that no order or command was kept. Another night
one of the crew coming upon Mr. Gourney, having, as William
Wilson doth witness, attended his time, demands money of him
for breaking his trumpet. Mr. Gourney afore he approaching him
suspiciously, cries out, and help coming, commanded him to be
bound ; he fleeing they followed and Mr. Wotton wrung a bare
knife out of his hand, all bended, perforce cutting his fingers with
forcing it from him ; so binding him, Mr. Dennis presently after
loosed him. After that being in the yard, words growing, Hop-
kins upbraided him for taking Gourney's part and binding him at
his command, so far that that night by a stab given with a knife
in the left arm murder proceeded, in the middle of your Worships'
yard. Mr. Wotton at first having called the Captain, blooding
his bed, and he answered, but did not rise till the murther was
past. The whole company will better witness of that night's
work than I can. To conclude : because I stand against him in
his trade, plainly telling him of the damages thereby, he offers all
discourtesy he can (before Dutch and others) either that words
or authority will affect, threatening as to Mr. Gourney to carry
me home, little regarding the business or how we furnished
ashore etc.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 127

Here was landed 40^ bales goods amounting to some 4,400
pagodas at 7 pagodas the seer (is 10 rials) as per invoice sent in
the James, underwritten by me. The market at present is so bad
that only where [ ] necessity forces them to wear they

buy, as white beathillies, salampouries whited ; for the trade
abroad is all dead, through the troubles and wars all over these
parts. The junks sent to Jamby and Singagerie are stayed at
Jor (Johor) by the Portingals coming to Pam, not daring to come
forth and the junks and Nahudas that this year would have gone
for Burneo, Moluco, Macasser, Bantam etc. are all stayed, the
queen suffering no junk nor man or person to depart, reserving
all for the Achinders who are certainly expected with the first of
the spring in February to be here, being already arrived at Jor,
with great forces ; yet some think he will attempt M alaca itself.
The Dutch expect a yacht from Japan with which, if the Achin-
ders come, they determine to transport their treasure and goods,
and your Worships' goods, with God's help, shall not be behind,
but for the chief both of English and Dutch must remain in the
town with the queen, which we cannot refuse with honour of our
nation though we lose our lives, which if it please God to happen,
shall be, with his help, with resolution, for my country's honour
being therein resolved.

The Salampouries whited coming to proof are many of [ ]
full of holes with wearing which is not [hing ?] but the knavery
of the washer that whites them, who to get affanan hires them
out a month [ ] to wear, whereby being foul he beats them

to pieces to make them clean, and with folding them finely up
deceives thereby the merchant not mistrusting, and causes a very
bad [name] of the cloth in the sale, that no man will buy without
opening and looking upon every cloth, to our hindrance. I write
it, having given advice thereof to Bantam, that the factors going
to Coast seek to prevent it. Also the beathillies which are whited
amongst them of 33 or 34 covids we find many short of 20 haste,
improper and no length for this place, which come in account
with the others. The red yarn, also by the roguery and covetous-
ness of the dyers, instead of camca viz put other chaya half so
cheap, which only doth give a fair gloss at first, which with con-
tinuance and heat in the ship decays and becomes black, dirty



i T IS'DIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

and whitish withal, as with us in the Globe and this in the

James proves. With tin- beathillies it is thi , and sol

noted also of the factors. I have sent of divei

made here to Bantam t<> Captain Jourdain with the prices and

sorts for musters to make trial, whereby he may advise us if

benefit be thereby to be had at? the Moluscus etc. A

are brass and copper cops, bowl suchlike according to the

manner of the country, wherein also at Bantam and Molucus I

think great profit is to be gotten, but having neither order

therein nor means at pit ent i innot adventure therein. From

hence als-> is great profit to !><■ done for Japan in raw sill

de reye etc., whereby 1 >< >t li to increase the capital and provide

money; silk was Bold here this year for 1S4 and 186 rials the

p.. nl the best Lankin white silk, and it is worth at Japan by

Mr. Adams 1 letters 300 ducats, which General Sai
certify, having been there. The return is to be made in five
months. The Dutch bought here some 100 peculs, which 1
part they s.iit in the Zelandea for Japan, which departed the
27th June past, which with a yacht went with hope and purpose
to meet the carrack hound from Macaur (Macao) this
thither richly laden, yet they have above 60,000 rials in spices in
house, besides 50 or 60 bales of cloth proper for the place,
whereof they have not sold this eight months, as they say, so
much as will clear their expenses. Patanie therefore in my
opinion I hold not worthy the keeping only upon sale of cloth
as we have hitherto done; for considering the great quant
brought unto their doors, by the Portingals and Moors from
Queda, Trange (?) and Jonckseylon, and by the Dutch and us by
sea, they at first not being accustomed thereto, the abundance of
all sorts made here according to their desires every thread and
cheap withal, not being able to vent so much cloth that the profit
may defray the great charge. But if there were withal every
year a stock of 60 or 100,000 rials in cash to employ in silks for
England, Japan, and in some stuffs etc. for Molucus the charge
would seem easy and not be felt. We play with our cloth, watch-
ing good markets, which now is our main chance, and either
must we sell at low rates and yet not venting, or be disappointed
of our intents for further employment.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 129

I am in this and other letters something bold and plain
because if I could I would omit nothing that is good in these
parts as yet unknown to your Worships. If through weakness I
touch one thing twice, I crave pardon, imputing it to my good
heart and honest mind to your Worships.

The charges here is great, by reason of trimming the ship and
presents given at Soungore, besides providing her here with oil,
resin, nails, eating fresh beef all the while, besides rack and oil
and all provision in abundance and plenty, being the Captain's
pleasure and will to have it. The copy of the charges I have
sent your Worships by him.

They sold out of the James unto the Dutch 30 hhds. salt beef
and pork at 22 rials the hhd. pretending it to help towards the
charges the ship hath been at.

I have given goodman Thoharton (?) by the Captain's order
a piece of cloth for shirts which with making of them cost 14
copangs which is charges to the ship's account, and referred to
your Worships. I have given here unto Mathew Saywell and
William Paulie, two of the Globe's company, an attestation how
that Captain Essington did promise before Mr. Floris and me to
give them notes of their wages, but by delays putting them off,
never giving them any note at all etc.

The Captain, working upon your Worships' favour here,
through presents given, did Sombaye to have 35 pecul benjamin,
balance and custom free, being angry with me, saying I hindered
him. Lakmana and Orancaya Paduca Sirnaca asking me about it,
I answered if they pleased to give it the Captain, I was content,
but would not accept it as done in lieu of any present given by
the godown, but as a particular friendship unto the Captain,
neither to think that it should hinder another time when I should
ask for your Worships. " That' s another matter," say they, " we
thought he had requested it in the behalf of the trade and your
Worships," etc. The 6th going in to finish accounts of the cus-
toms and carrying a fair long piece for Lakmana promised by us,
upon the denial of his goods custom free etc. he would not give
it, so returned us liars, in respect of his own profit etc. For want
of paper all our books are kept in China paper, having not so
much other as to write a letter to your Worships ; therefore I
Y 1268. K



130 EAST I.VDIA COMPANY'S KECORDS

entreat your Worships to remember us with books, paper and ink
of which we have great need, the cockroaches eating the China
paper and so dangerous and naught. So my bounden duty
finished, submitting myself at your Worships' honourable cen-
sure and disposing, rest ever

Your Worships' servant to dispose,

_ . , , _ - Adam Denton.

Patanie the 5th October anno 1614.

I have sent by Mr. Tho. Wotton surgeon a bolt black satin,
a piece charv. | taffeta, and six small bezoar stones, which

I humbly entreat your Worships to see delivered unto my very
good friend Mr. George Foxcroft, gent., in Ironmonger Lane,
with this letter inclosed to him, or he being dead, to my uncle,
the worshipful Mr. Tho. Denton of Warne Hall, Esquire, in the
county of Cumberland.

Your Worships' servant to dispose,

Adam Denton.

168

REMEMBRANCE of our conferences or councils held
after our coming into the road of Swally the 15th of
October 1614.

The 15th day of October after noon being arrived
at South Swally, there came down two men making a waft unto
us, unto whom I sent my pinnace, which brought them aboard,
being servants of Coja Nazan, sent down to enquire of what
nation we were. By them I sent a letter to Mr. Aldworthe and
also alongst with them I sent Baily Ball, one of my factors, desir-
ing Mr. Aldworthe to repair aboard my ship as soon as con-
veniently he may. The 16th day, Sunday morning, at ten o'clock
Mr. Aldworthe came aboard me, but being the Lord's day we passed
the same without effecting any business, only enquiring after
their entertainment, and state of the Company's business there.
A Council held the iyth of October, consisting of such persons as

are underwritten.
The 17th day morning, being no more factors here but only
Mr. Aldworthe and Mr. Biddulph (who was absent), I called a council




EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 131

according to the Company's commission, and first required Mr. Ald-
worthe's answer to the six brief interrogatory articles included in
the second article of the said Commission, which here I have set
down with the answers annexed to every article as follows :

1. How Paul Canning hath carried himself and the business
at Agra at the Court which was committed unto him. In what
favour he is with the Emperor and Council, and whether he be at
Suratte or remain in Agra still.

Answer. — Imprimis that Paul Canning departed Suratte in
January anno 1612, and was at his first coming to the Court
well respected by the Emperor, until such time as the Jesuits
made known he was a merchant and not sent immediately
from the king, but afterwards neglected as himself com-
plained, and in his carriage there Mr. Aldworthe saith that
for anything he knoweth it was sufficient and well.

2. Whether you think him as fit to reside there, if need be, as any
of our other people at Surat, or any other now going in these ships.

Answer. — By the death of Paul Canning this article is
answered.

3. Whether it be needful to maintain one always as lieger in
Agra, both in respect of holding correspondency with the Em-
peror and his nobles, and preventing of such mischiefs as may be
practised against us and our goods by any that malice our trade
there, as also for the sale of such commodities there as we bring
out of England, and buying such other commodities as serve to
be returned for England, or transported to any other part of the
Indies in our trade.

Answer. — It is thought necessary and by the king required
that one of our nation do reside at the Court and therefore
fitting that he be a man of good respect for preventing and
righting of any wrongs that may be offered and may stand in
good stead both for buying and selling of commodities there.

4. Whether it will not be more convenient for us, more to the
honour of our nation and to bring us into the love of the people,
and to their better content, that we keep our mart place of buying
and selling in Suratte, or some other town near the sea that may
be most convenient and safe for us, and thither to invite the
people of that nation to trade with us both for the sale of the

K 2



i 3 a BAST INDIA I * PANTS RECORDS

commodities tint we carry thither, aa also foi bringing down to
us such commodities aa may be fit foi aa to buy, either for our
own country or any other place, in I ring charges and

avoiding of adventures in bringing the commodities down in that
large and dang< rous i ountry.

Answer, To hold our marl in one place ia not 10 net
Bary, but to keep two factories, the one at Suratte and the
othei at \;i.i. and for .ill of India commodities we

shall occasion to buy, in time of y< u to repaii foi them to
the places where the) are made, esteeming there to be no
t danger in the transportation thereof through the
country; and for inviting the people with their
repair down to Suratte, not having been formerlj
tomed, he cannol advise whethei ever to be effected.

5. Whether we may procure ind ad calicoes of all

and other commoditiea to be brought unto aa to Suratte or any
other convenient place upon the wat< r, d< heap with .1 little

more or less (the * harg< - and adventure conaidered) .it the h
of the country people aa we ouraelvea may buy them .it Biana,
or other places where the) are made, and may find sale for
our commoditiea at Suratte without tranaportation of them higher
up to other places of that country, whereby we may resolve the
rather to keep cur residence .it Suratfc ibove mentioned.

Answer. For transportation of our goods by water I 1
Suratte will be very dangerous l>\ n taon oi the recourse the
Portugal frigates have into their rivers; therefore by land will
be more se< ure, aa hath formerly been accuatomed.

6. What charges Paul Canning hath expended for himself and

his tWO men allowed him, ami how far BUCh expenaea may be

abridged if there ahould be a neceaaity of keeping one thi

Answer.— Paul Canning's expenses hath been \hlauk\; bnt
to maintain one there cannot expend less than jiki/, p< 1 y< n.

Nicholaa I kw ot< >n.
Will, Edwards.
Tho. Aldworthe.
Tho. Elkington.
Edward 1 todaworth.
Thomaa Mil ford.



BAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 133

A Council held the iHlh October, consisting of such persons as

are underwritten.
The 18th day morning we proceeded farther to advise concern-
ing our present business here to be effected ; and first, that whereas
we formerly received advice from Mr. Aldworthe of the necessity
of one to reside in Agra and he to be a man of good fashion and
em, therefore by the general consent of those present choice
was made of Mr. William Edwards, as one most fittest and agree-
able to the Company's commission for so weighty a business.

Also question being made whether it were fit the aforesaid
Mr. Edwards should proceed under the title and profession of a
merchant, according to the strictness of the Company's commis-
sion, Mr. Aldworthe's opinion was that whosoever should go up
to the king under the title of a merchant should not be respected,
as by experience in the entertainment of Paul Canning, for that
merchants generally are not regarded by the king.

Also we consulted concerning our privileges formerly granted,
wherein they are too weak and had need to be enlarged, and,
out of divers which I had formerly gathered together, selected out
and agreed upon 15 articles to be obtained from the Great Mogul.

Nicho. Downton.
Will. Edwards.
'I bo, Aldworthe.
Thomas Elkington.
Edward Dodsworth.
Thomas M it ford.
A Council held the yd of November consisting of such persons as
are underwritten.
The third of November we again held a council concerning
our business here to be effected, having been delayed from time to
time by Mocrob Chan, to effect some private ends of his own,
until the second of November; but in conclusion, finding he
durst not deny the king's firman granted, although we received
no great encouragement from him, yet it was thought fit rather
to land the goods than to forego a trade so well accepted and
thought of in England, for that the discourtesy offered unto us by
him proceeded by his weakness, we not yielding to his unreason-
able demands.



« 34



EAST IXDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS



A question was moved to me how long I may conveniently
stay for the dispeeding of one ship for England, in regard of the
business to be effected within the time limited, to which I
answered, and it was by all thought fit, not to stay longer than
the fine of January, doubting of an unseasonable time for the
returning of a ship for England.



Factors appointed for Surat
and other places adjoining.
Mr. Thomas Aldworthe.
Mr. Nich. Emsworth.
Edward Dodsvvorth.
William Biddulph.
Timothy Mallory.
Thomas Barker.
I ily Ball.
Henry Elmore.
Rich. Sadler.
Rich. Pitt.
Factors appointed for several employments at present.

To remain at Surat



Factors appointed for Agra.

Mr. William Edwards.
Thomas Keridge.
Thomas Mitford.
John Browne.
Robert Younge.
Nich. Ufflct.
Nich. Withington.
Fra. Fettiplace.



For Amadavar.

Mr. Aldworthe.
Edw. Dodsworth.
Rich. Battye.
Edward Holmden.
Badly Ball.
Hen. Elmore.

For Cambaya.
Humfrey Elkington.
Rich. Pitt.
Christofer Farewell.



For Baroch.

J no. Oxwick.
Esay Butt.

For Berodcra.
John Sandcrofte.
J no. Crowther.



until the rest return.
Mr. Nich. Emsworth.
Mr. Tho. Elkington.
Tho. Barker.
Ralph Preston.
Timothy Mallory.
Rich. Sadler.
Wm. Biddulph.
Jno. Tucker.
Timothy Wood.
Samuel Juxon.
Will. Vernon.

Nicho. Downton.
Will. Edwards.
Tho. Aldworthe.
Tho. Elkington.
Edw. Dodsworth.
Tho. Mitford.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS



'35



A Council held the \th of November, consisting of such persons as
are underwritten.

The fourth day of November proceeding in Council about our
forementioned business, we thought fit to send Mr. Steel to
Mocrob Chan with some small toys and in conference with him
to feel his inclination towards us concerning our entertainment,
and thereupon privately to send us word, and we accordingly to
proceed for the landing of our goods. Also it was agreed what
sorts of calicoes and quantities with their prices it was thought
fit to send for England, which, in regard of the smallness of our
stock, it was determined of these particulars underwritten,
although it be not the full proportion according to the Company's
direction, yet through expectation of some good quantity of
indigo and better hope of profit thereby, this quantity was
ordained to be bought.



4,000 baftas of 3s. per piece -
2,000 baftas of 4s. per piece -
2,000 Semians of 6s. per piece
2,000 Semians of 8s. per piece-
1,000 coloured at i8i. per piece
1,000 chintz at 2s. 6d. per piece
250 Shashes at 5s. per piece -
100 ditto at 8s. per piece
75 ditto at 10s. per piece -
50 ditto at 15s. per piece -
25 ditto at 20s. per piece -



£
600

400

600

800

75

125

62
40
37
37
25



10s.



I OS.
IOS.



12,500



2,802 10



Nicho. Downton.
Will. Edwards.
Tho. Aldworthe.
Tho. Elkington.
Edw. Dodsworth.
Tho. Miti'ord.



136 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

l6g

A consultation of merchants on board the New Year's Gift,
the 20th October 1614 in Surat.

An estimation of such goods as are thought fit to be reladen
for England.

Gumlack tons 25 - - - - - 800

Indigo cirquez (Sharkej) tons 70 - - 10,000

Green ginger tons 3 100

Opium tons 2 100

In carpets - - - 500

In cotton yarn 500

Calicoes all sorts tons 15 - - - 2,802

14,802



A consultation of merchants whose names are hereunder written,
held the 28th of November 1614 in Snrat.

Whereas in the former consultations aboard the Gift the
charge of residency at Agra is esteemed 300/. per annum, being
so thought by Mr. Aldworthe, from Paul Canning's copy of his
letters to the right worshipful the East India Company, of the
25th of April 1613, the said copy of Paul Canning's letter being
reviewed by us whose names are hereunder written, it doth
appear therein the said valuation of expense to be four, five or
six hundred pounds per annum for one to live closely and with
credit, whereupon a further consultation of us the said merchants
hath been had, and the case being debated between us, we find
by the report and opinions of Mr. Tho. Aldworthe, Mr. Wm.
Biddulph and Mr. Rich. Steel, a merchant lately come from the
court of the Mogore, that if any man should proceed in the fore-
said employment of a resident with the king, under the title and
profession of a merchant, it were better that he went not at all,
and so the voyage to be overthrown.

And the party appointed unto the same charge, Mr. Wm.
Edwards, being desirous to carry it with the liking and consent
of all the said merchants, either according to the strict capitula-
tion in that point of the commission or with such liberty as the



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 137

necessity of the cause and time requireth, it is therefore thought
fit by us the said merchants, for the reasons abovesaid, that the
said Mr. Wm. Edwards do proceed in the said employment with
and under the title of a messenger sent by our king to the Great
Mogore.

Tho. Aldworthe.

Tho. Elkington.

Edw. Dodsworth.

Tho. Mitford.

Wm. Biddulph.

Rich. Steel.





170

Tho. Aldworthe to Tho. Keridge at Agra.
Laus Deo in Surat, the 22nd of October, 1614.

OVING friend Mr. Thomas Keridge, our kind commen-
dations remembered etc. The 5th of this instant we
wrote you per our pattamar and sent you Mocrob
Chan's letter unto Asaph Chan and Abulasan for the
delivery of Midnall's goods into your hands, upon the receipt of
which letters we doubt not but there will be an end of that busi-
ness now, for that it hath pleased God to send hither in safety
four gallant ships from the worshipful Company with 400 gallant
men in them, which is no small joy unto us, as yourself may con-
ceive. You shall now perceive that through our General's good
directions his letters were only sent home but ours retained by
which means the worshipful Company had no intelligence from
any of us what was done here, neither what was to be done at
home, the General disgracing all of us here in his letter and
attributed all good services to himself; whereas you know the
contrary, that if his pride had not been resisted he had taken
[the] Shabunder's ship and so overthrown all trade here. Not-
withstanding we hear by these [torn] are come that the worship-
ful Company in their wisdoms forbear to censure ill of us until



I3 8 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

they [have] heard from us ; yet in the meantime they have sent
some 15 merchants to remain [here?] and above, being all men
of civil conversation and good fashion, insomuch as we [have no]



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