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need to fear to be troubled any more with rascals as heretofore.
The principal [of these?] men is one Mr. Wm. Edwards, in whom
they have great affiance and have appoin [ted him] as chief in all
these parts to oversee their business, being a man of good suffi-
ciency to dis] charge it, yet it is here concluded that he shall
come up to Agra [to be resid] ent there, and Mr. Aldvvorthe to
remain here in Surat as before. This Mr. Edwards aforesaid
brings with him a letter with other great presents from our King's
Majesty's own hand for the Mogul and not from the merchants
as heretofore, and therefore to be respected thereafter. The
presents are these, a vest royal for the king himself with the pic-
tures of our king and queen ; also he brings one picture that we
think will content him above all, which is the picture of Tam-
berlaine, from whence he derives himself, besides many other fit
things else to give as he shall see cause. He means not to show
these things to Mocrob Chan nor any other great man, as Paul
Canning did, but will keep them close until he come to the king
himself. All which you may signify to the Great Mogul that you
may procure his [firman?] to be sent down to Mocrob Chan for
the kind using our people now they are come [ ] to

have free trade with all the king's subjects, banyans and else with-
out interruption which [ ] we find here denied, for as
it seemeth to us Mocrob Chan and Coja Nazan through their
[ ] covetousness hope to deal with us for all, intending
to have our commodities at a low rate, and to give us theirs at a
high rate, by imprisoning our shroffs and others that offer to go
to our ships. Now for that their intent is to lade what store we
can get of round indigo of Agra, we could wish that Signor
Nicholas remain there for the accomplishing of that business,
being he is already entered thereunto, and per the first we mean to
pass him up such monies as shall be fitting and withal he may
take the residue of those goods sent up by Jadow, provided
always that what he sends down must be here of necessity by the
middle of January next, for that the ships cannot longer stay, and
therefore let Signor Nicholas write us down expressly whether we



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 139

may trust upon it per that time or not. We mean to pass you
up some 20,000 mamoodies forthwith that, if you cannot accom-
plish it in indigo, yet it may remain there for Mr. Edwards the
lieger, and so we pray you to write him earnestly to be careful
herein, which may turn to his own reputation. The General of
this fleet is Captain Nicholas Downton, a man famous and well
respected by the Company. He knoweth Nicholas and remem-
bers his love unto him. Likewise Mr. Edward Dodsworth, one
of the chief men, kin to Sir Thomas Smith, commends his love
unto you as unknown, and hath a letter and a token for you from
Mr. David Watkins, which shall be sent you by the lieger. Thus
in haste we thought lit to advertise you, intending within [three]
or four days to write you again. So in the meantime we com-
mend you to God and rest

Tho. Aldworthe.




171

William Eaton to Richard Cocks in Firando.

Ossakey (Osaka) in Japan the 27th of October 1614.

OST loving and kind friend Mr. Cocks, I commend me
unto you etc. I wrote you at large two days past by
John Phebe of all matters, as also how that I had
received your letter by Signor Andrea Bulgoryn ; so
as at present I have no great matter to write you of, but only
here is great enquiry now for gunpowder and would sell at a good
price. I wish I had all you have at Firando here etc. To-
morrow morning I do purpose, if I have not my fit of the ague, to
go, God willing, for Sackeye to see if I can put off my lead, the
which I hope to do. If in case I can sell it away, I will advise
you by the first, to the intent you may send me the rest that is at
Firando so soon as you can etc. The rest of your timber and
boards I will send by the first conveyance I can, as also the
other things you write for and what besides you gave me a



140 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

remembrance to buy for you ; and thus for present, being not well,
I end, praying to the Almighty God for your good health and pros-
perity, the which in His mercy long to continue, if it be His good
will and pleasure etc.

Your loving friend to command,

Wm. Eaton.

I pray you to commend me to Captain Adams, Mr. Wickham
and the rest. I wish I had such another furred cap as my mate
gave you, for that I am now so extreme cold on my head, besides
all the parts of my body is in such a case that all the clothes I
can put on will not keep me warm etc.





172

Nicholas Withington to Thomas Aldworthe, agent in Surat.

Agra, the 29th October 1614.

IR, my duty remembered etc. My last unto you per
Fette Mamood of the 20th August, per whom I sent
you musters of anil, semianos and powder sugars,
also advised you of the prices of English commodities
here, with other things, which at that present I thought requisite.
Since when I have been busied in recovering the anil, which hath
proved more troublesome than I expected, yet now, I thank God,
have all save 8 maunds, the debtors whereof (through the late
damage they and divers others received by the extraordinary ra;n
that fell) not able to pay me, I laid hold of their surety, who hath
given me a true bond to pay me my money again a month hence,
of which I make no doubt.

I have 30 fardels, in each 4^- maunds, anil Geree, and I may
boldly say, as good as any to be got, and were ready to be sent
the first of this month, yet stayed for Mr. Keridge his advice



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 141

therein, for I had great hope of our ships coming, which made
me make what speed I possibly could, but he advised little hope
of ships this year, therefore needless to make so much haste
thereof down. So the 10th ditto I brought all with me to Agra,
purposing to go to Agimeere (Ajmir) but two days after received
letters from Mr. Keridge, wherein he wrote me you required my
stay here in expectation of the cloth etc., for the coming of which
I am glad, and wish it were here at present, for I make no doubt
of the vent thereof. What will not away for ready money will
away in truck. My only doubt is the goodness thereof is such
that it may be a discredit to the future sale of that commodity ;
but we will make the best excuses we may thereof.

Three days past I received yours of the 30th July which is all
I ever received from you since my departure from Suratt, but con-
cerning the books and papers you write of, they were all burnt,
per the Frenchman, as soon as Midnall was dead, of which I
advised Mr. Keridge in mine of the 25th June, and amongst the
rest his journal, which his man told me was a long paper book he
used daily to write in ; and for that business (for anything I can
perceive per Mr. Keridge) there is small hope of present good
event, without you may procure letters to better purpose than
those already sent.

Sir Robert Sherley departed hence some five weeks past. He
looked to have been entertained by the Chiefs, as other Ambassa-
dors, but no such order from the king, neither did Coja Jehan or
Aganoro once visit or send to visit him. He stayed here only
10 days providing necessaries for his journey, and so departed,
carrying the Frenchman's elephant with him, and swore to me,
he would make him juggle for another. Jadow presented him
with a matter of 100 rupees, and afterwards asked money for his
present, but Sir Robert's cashier not being in the way, Jadow
entreated for his present again, which was given him. The Jesuits
came daily to his house and there said mass, their church being
still locked up. "What passed with him in Agimere I make no
doubt but you have particularly heard. He seemeth to be no
great friend to the Company, yet makes show to do something
concerning our trade in Persia ; but there may doubt be made of
his entertainment there, considering how barely he returneth.



142 /' INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

At my last coming hither I found Jadow in prison for offering
to cozen Coja Jehan with a false ring, selling it him for 2,500
rupees. It was expected daily he should h ive Lost his head, and
had I not come in good time it had gone hard with him. Before
he reported the ring was sent him per the English from Surat to
be sold, and so shameless he was that he entreated me to aver so
much, but I made him recant his former confession, and after-
wards he said he bought it of a banyan in the Laskar for 300
rupees (foolishly condemning himself). This made Coja Jehan so
mad to be cozened so much that I thought verily he would then
have cut his throat, but in regard he was broker to the English, he
only sent him back again to prison, yet would not hear me speak
for him, though ever heretofore he hath used me very kindly and
still helped me in what I desired of him, about my anil business.
But shame to be importunate with him in this cozening matter,
notwithstanding (at Jadow's piteous plight and misery he lived in,
having been 20 days in prison, not suffering him to shift his
apparel nor wash himself, allowing him little to eat) I went twice
more to Coja Jehan and with much ado yet at the last agreed
with him that Jadow should give a present of 250 rupees for his
cozenage to the king, and be released, for which sum I have
passed my word to pay in four days; so I am promised he shall be
released to-morrow, but I doubt it will cost him a greater
sum besides the loss of his ring. His shroff hath paid me the
250 rupees, so I will do what I may for his present release (though
he little deserve it at my hands) and send him to Mr. Keridge, for
he hath often bragged to me he could recover the goods in one
hour, such is his power with Asaph Chan ; but I could never get
him to depart hence nor Mr. Keridge, though ten times writ to
him to come. The reason of his stay was for the sale of his ring,
which now he confesseth and repenteth. I am certainly informed
this ring belonged to Augustine, which may well be, and given
Jadow on the same condition as his 100 rupees were. If all
knaves had the like luck, there would be less cozening.

Some five months past here died a Portingal and now lately
per the king's order his goods are seized upon to the value of
47,000 rupees. The other Portingalls that were resident here,
some five days past departed secretly away towards iBrampore?]



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 143

with 80 camels laden with anil, semianos, and other merchandise.
So that at present there is no Portingal remaining here, but one
Jesuit an Italian and three days past here arrived an Italian
which came from Tutta (Tatta). His merchandise, all looking
glasses and Almain knives, he is commanded to carry to Agimeere
to the king.

So not remembering further at present I take etc.

Your loving friend,

Nich. Withington.





173

William Eaton to Richard Cocks at Firando.
Osakeye in Japan the 30th of October 1614.

IR, my humble duty unto you remembered etc. My
last letter unto you was by this same conveyance,
wherein I wrote you that here was great enquiry after
gunpowder and is still very much sought after ; so as
if you have not sold it before this come to your hands it would
not be amiss if you think it good to send it away for Sackeye with
all expedition, as also what lead you have there remaining and
likewise one stammel cloth, which goods I doubt not but I shall
sell them away. As yet I am offered for my lead but 55 mass
the pecul, but will not so sell it, hoping for a better price.
Powder is worth at present 26 taels the pecul, but I make account
it will be better sold hereafter. I have not now time to write you
as I would, in that I am now come from Sackeye and the barque
was going away in as I came. I am now abiding at Sackeye in
the house of Zezay Seemon in the street called Zeyea. And thus
for present being in great haste I end, praying to the Almighty
God for your good health and prosperity etc.

Your loving friend to command,

Wm. Eaton.




144 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

John Jourdain and George Ball to the East India Company.

Sent by a Dutch pinnace ; received out of Holland in May, 1615.

Bantam the 31st October, laus Deo, anno. 1614.

]IGHT Worshipful, Our most hearty salutations in all
duty remembered etc. May it please you to under-
stand the Concord arrived here the 8th of the last
month, and, praise be to God, in safety; and we being
now by your letters possessed of your minds with purpose with all
speed and diligence according to our several talents to join in exe-
cution of the same ; the Almighty lend us His blessing. But since
the news here published of ... . refusal to contribute to the charge
of the Hollanders and forts in these parts, the only difference as
it is said, hindering the combination of the two companies, that
of the English and the Hollanders, they have taken a most strange
course of that trade, but whether of compulsion or malice or both
we are not able to judge. Bantam is stored by them for future
years with the most vendiblest commodities .... at very base
rates, selling that for four for which we refused ten, being withal so
great hazard for payment as none but they would have adventured.
If the Hollanders proceed in other their factories with the already
begun project we shall be forced to follow a pernicious if not a
most malicious example, perhaps both, for the Hollanders do
already threaten to attack us if we do but so much as peep into
those countries that of .... we desire to be armed for the trial,
having already omitted too much opportunity. The inhabitants
of Amboyna (?) and those parts as too much and too long oppressed
by the Hollanders desires at present nothing more than a change,
but more especially that of ... . and if now we perform not
with them they are like to fail in their hopes and we in ourexpecta-
tion. We have a pinnace almost in readiness to solicit A mboyna (?)
and the adjacent towns ; we wish the Concord had herein been at
our appointments, not having any certainty when to be provided.

1 This letter is partly in cipher. Those portions which have been deciphered are
printed in italics, while blanks have been left for a few words or phrases (mostly repre-
sented in the cipher by arbitrary signs) the meaning of which could not be discovered.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 145

Here is of late arrived the new General of the Hollanders with
three tall ships. He came coasting it along the Indies, sending one
ship into the Red Sea to perform what as yet we know not, but
hope hereafter to understand. We have letters from Peter Floris
giving us to understand that the ship is sheathed and he ready in
August last to set sail, had he had water to have got over the bar,
for which he is forced to attend a spring tide ; hoped to sail in
September last, and, making account thereupon, we hope to see
them here within these 20 days. The lading she hath is cali-
coes (?) and cotton yarn; the rest she takes in here in pepper (?)
about some four thousand sacks. We have no news of the
Osiander, James, and Darling, but expect them daily to be here,
the first from Priaman, the second and third from Potania and
Siam. There will be laden this vintage by the Hollanders above
sixty thousand sacks, and of pepper (?) a matter of 400 tons, be-
sides calicoes (?) and other goods ; and great cause there is they
lay it on as needing new supplies to maintain A mboyna (?) and other
the adjacent parts. The last year might have been more favourable
unto them and if this year prove no worse their fortune may con-
tent them. And so for this time being compelled to abbreviate,
with my hearty prayers to Almighty God to endue your Worships
with increase of honours, long life and felicity, we most humbly

take our leave. Vale.

Your Worships' servants,

John Jourdain.
Geo. Ball.



175

A note of the ports in Perscia, observed from Sir Robert Sherley.
In Agemere, October [1614] .

ASQUES is a point of the mainland of Perscia at the

entrance of the gulf and is 30 leagues without Ormus.

It is full of rocks, but guided by a pilot of that coast

you may anchor secure within a musket shot of the

shore in 5 fathoms water, and shooting off a piece of ordnance,

you may be supplied with a pilot from the shore. It is not

Y 1268. l




, 4 6 EAST fXDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

fortified, yet hath it a fit place for that purpose. There is only a
fisher town, and 3 leagues off it lieth the king's viceroy of that
province. The road is a neck of land in fashion of a half moon.

Damone (Bandar Abbas ?) is the second port within Jasques,
and is the best and strongest in the king of Perscia's dominions.
It lieth 3 leagues off Ormus right opposite thereunto, where rideth
all manner of ships, without fear or danger except it be off at sea.
Batan (Bostanah ?) lieth 35 leagues within Ormus, a very good
road. It hath a small island lying in the mouth thereof, by which
it is defended from the wind which cometh off the sea, and is not
much unlike the bay of Saldanya at Cape Esperance, save that it
is not so big. It is not fortified, but hath a small city where
is great trade of the pearl which is brought from Bareyne
(Bahrein).

Bareyne is an island upon the coast of Arrabya, 40 leagues off
the coast of Perscia. It yields no profit for commodity, except
only the fishing of pearls, which are esteemed to be the richest
and best in the world. This island the king of Perscia took from
the Portingals and keepeth a garrison of 800 horse thereon. This
place is environed with shoals in such sort that small fustoes very
often run aground and is not navigable with vessels of burden.

Rashell (Reshire) lieth 80 leagues from Ormus within the gulf
of Perscia. It it well fortified and hath 5 fathoms water on the
one side and 7 fathoms on the other side thereof. The king
keepeth there continually 100 fustoes and galleys with them to cut
off all passengers that offer to go from Ormus to Balsora, which is
the Turk's dominion, and no Portingal vessel approach in sight
but they chase them, and some 8 years since they took a Portingal
ship of 1,400 tons for breach of the premises. Ormus in ac-
knowledgment of gratuity to the king of Perscia for sustaining
them with water and provisions payeth yearly tribute 24,000 larins
per annum for that it is in his power to cut off their water at
pleasure, which the last year he did, the Portingals failing in pay-
ment of their tribute, whereupon they presently gave satisfaction.
This Rashell is a fine town, and hath a navigable river for boats
of burden in 8 days to go up to Sherase (Shiraz) which is the second
city in Perscia and ten days journey with camels from Espahaune
(Ispahan), the king's chief seat.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 147

Note that all parts of the king of Perscia's dominions are free

rom dache or customs, but there is a certain toll taken of every

beast's lading of goods which goeth out of the kingdom of Perscia,

which the king commandeth for the payment of soldiers, to keep

the country free from thieves or robbers. 1

Per me

Tho. Keridge.





176

Tecou, 7th November 1614.

TRUE copy of all the writings sent home to the
Honble. Company per me Wm. Nicholls.

Item, One whole journal of all accounts passed in
Atchein (Acheen).

More, One Journal of business passed in Tecou in anno 1614.

One letter directed to the honourable Company.

One note of pepper taken from the Dragon's company in
Atchein.

One invoice of goods laden from Atchein in the Dragon and
Expedition.

One invoice from Bantam in the ship Rose.

A [?] of the king of Atchein's letter sent to His Majesty in
England.

A note of household expenses and charges at Tecou in par-
ticular.

The last will and testament of Robert Carter.

One inventory of goods left at Atchein.

Mr. Jackson's account that died in Atchein.

Balance of account between Mr. Fursland and Wm. Nicholls.
Witness our hands

Thomas Brockedon.
Thomas Mill.

1 This last paragraph is added from a more perfect copy enclosed in O. C. 270.

L 2




i 4 S' EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS



177

William Edwards to the East India Company.
By the Hope. Received 2nd December, 1615.

J3N0URABLE and Right Worshipful, my humble duty
and service remembered.

My last unto you was at Saldania, of the 28th June
1614, wherein I advised of our proceedings unto that
time, which was with prosperous success, where we arrived the
15th June and delivered ashore that ungrateful Coria, who, after
his first departure from the ship, never appeared in sight of any
of our fleet. Our refreshing from the shore was very little, but
from the river we had plenty of fish, whereby our men were much
refreshed. In the same place we found, as the custom is, advice
of divers of your ships that had lately touched there, both outward
and homeward, viz. : The Dragon, arriving there the 20th Feb-
ruary, 1613, departed thence the 6th March next homeward. The
Expedition, arriving the 21st ditto March, departed the prime
April next. The Concord, arriving the gth May last, departed
28th ditto outwards.

The 2nd July we departed from Saldania with your four ships,
and all our Company in health except 6 men which died thither-
ward (whereof 3 by sickness and 3 by accident), and proceeded for
St. Augustine, upon St. Laurence Island, where we arrived the
6th of August, and departed the 13th ditto from thence to Socator
(Socotra) where we arrived the 9th September, and bought of
Mulliamer Benzaid, the king of the island, 27 kintals of aloes at
30 rials of eight per kintal, who entertained us with all love and
courtesy, and showed us divers letters of Sir Henry Middleton and
Captain Saris.

From thence we departed the 14th ditto and proceeded for
India, and in our way we met with a junk belonging to Surat of
100 tons with 100 men in her, who being distressed by want of
water, and fearful of being taken by the Portingals, we supplied
her wants, and towed her at the Hector's stern, as being the best



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 149

ship of sail, which we delivered safe in her port, the which the
people of these parts take in very thankful part, and begets us
much love here, where we arrived on the coast near unto Dabull
the prime of October, and plying along the shore with variable
winds, there came aboard our General a frigate from the Captain
of the Castle of Gingeere Rashpoorie (Danda Rajpur ?) who in-
formed us of the wars that is between the Mogul and the Portin-
gals, which proceeded of the Portingals taking of one of the
Mogore's ships richly laden, and tendered unto us whatsoever
that place afforded for refreshing of our people, and earnestly
desiring us to put into that place with our ships ; unto whom our
General sent a present of two sword blades, and some few knives,
with a letter to Mr. Aldworthe to be conveyed by land to Suratt.
And passing along, the next day there came aboard our General
two Portingal frigates, armed with store of men, of purpose, as it
appeared, to view our ships, who also told us of the wars before,
with some compliments of courtesy, and so departed.

The 15th ditto we arrived at South Swally, or near where we
now ride. The next day Mr. Aldworthe came aboard our General,
who gave great encouragement for our welcome and trade in these
parts, although since our coming hither, through the imbecility
and weak judgment of Mocrob Chan, Viceroy of Suratt, whose
disposition savours more of child than man, being very vain and
toyish in all his proceedings, we have had many delays in the dis-
charge of our goods unto our great loss of time ; yet the general
encouragement we have by the town, of all the better sort of
people, and appearance of fear in the Viceroy that our uncour-
teous entertainment should come to the ears of the Mogore, gives
great hope of better in this place hereafter. The principal pre-
tence of his delaying us consisted of these two demands : First,
that we would go with our ships, and ride at the river's mouth of
Suratt, and fight with the Portingals if they should come thither ;
the next, that our General would give under his hand, to defend
the city of Suratt if the Portingal should seek to invade the same ;
both which our General refused, as being forbidden by our king's
commission, and in these and such like much time was spent.
But in fine, seeing he could not enforce what he attempted, he
gave us free leave to land our goods and proceed in our trade.



, 5 o EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

The consultation of the council of merchants appointed for the
entrance of this trade, and the answers of Mr. Aldworthe unto the



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