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divers articles that concern Paul Canning and the needfulness of
residency in Agra, with the circumstances thereon depending, go
hereinclosed, underwritten by the parties present, with some
further considerations annexed thereunto as appeareth.

On the 8th November we put ashore ioo broad cloths and
12 chests of rials with the two chests of looking-glasses; but in
customing the same we have had much toil, by reason of the
foresaid inconstant condition of Mocrob Chan, his carriage and
entertainment in our affairs being very base and vile, whereof the
people of the country speak much, desiring some opportunity to
remove him out of these parts, whereof they have good hope.

Divers places on this coast is besieged by the Mogore, viz. :
Chaule, Damon, Bassine ; the Governor of Surat under Mocrob
Chan, whose name is Hoginozan, is gone to Damone with an army
to supply the siege there, and others. Great means is made by
the Portingals for a reconciliation, offering restitution of the afore-
said ship and goods, but no acceptance will be had. The Mogore
his answer is : he will have all his country under his own subjec-
tion, and will be no more subject to them as heretofore. No
Portingals are suffered to remain here or elsewhere within the
command of the Mogore, except two Jesuits, who are here
imprisoned.

The Portingals, by the report of Mr. Aldworthe and others,
upon the taking of the foresaid ship, offered to restore the same,
if the Mogore would deliver the English that were here into their
hands, which the Mogore refused to do.

Upon our coming ashore here, we have particularly run with
Mr. Aldworthe into the state of this country, for the divers com-
modities fit to be reladen for England, and understand by him
that great plenty of all such sorts are here to be had ; but, com-
puting the charge of relading, we find our stock to be very short
for the lading of one of your ships with such commodities as you
desire and are here to be had. Wherefore we shall be constrained
to lade some store of cotton yarn more than else we should have
done. The particulars of goods to be reladen by our consultation
will herein appear.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS



IS'



December the 20th [1614] , in Amadavar.

Since the writing of the above, we have been by the aforesaid
Mocrob Chan delayed in the town of Suratt very long, and as we
suspect through some vile designs of his, which is thought, being
discovered to the Mogore, will hazard the loss of his head, for that
he hath many great enemies near the king, with whom some
respondency must be held in that point ; for so long as he doth re-
main Governor in Suratt, we are not like to have any fair enter-
tainment in our trade. He, being a great friend to the Portingals,
worketh underhand to bring them in again, which the king will
by no means hear of. We came into Suratt the 8th November
and were detained till the 30th ditto, not being permitted either to
proceed to the court with the king's presents or to return to our
ships ; and one principal cause was that he might not have a sight
of the king's presents, whereof Mr. Aldworthe had written to the
court, and that they were sent by such a man as would not show
them to any until they came before the king, which he saith he
would take in very good part, for he is very toyish and desirous
of novelties and esteems not of things of this kind, whereof himself
hath not the first sight. Yet the said Mocrob Chan hath forcibly
seen them, and written thereof to the king, which thing being
seconded by the discontents we have received from him since our
coming ashore, will work him much disgrace with the king, which
being so, will give a great furtherance to our proceedings in all
these parts. The presents having been seen of Mocrob Chan and
known of the king what they are, they must of necessity be
delivered all at once, or within some few days respite allowed by
the king, for his condition in these things will admit no delays.

Since our arrival in this place, and proceeding in our employ-
ments, we find indigo to be at such reasonable rates and our
quicksilver, lead, elephants' teeth and vermilion to give such
reasonable profit, beyond our computation in our consultations,
for relading that I hope we shall be able to relade the Hector
and Solomon, or at the least the Hector ; the certainty whereof
I cannot advise, for that I am presently to set forward for Adgi-
meare, where the king's court is kept, whereunto I am appointed,
as in our consultations will appear, and under what title and
circumstances, with the reasons.



152 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

If sufficient indigo be here to be bought, as I hope there will,
then it is resolved to lade few calicoes or other commodities, for
that the indigo of Cirques (Sarkhej), which usually hath been sold
at 18 rupees the maund, is now bought for 12 rupees little more or
less, which I suppose will be more profitable than any other
commodity that can be laden from these parts.

Things best for presents generally with all the people of these
countries are novelties and things of little worth, and are
esteemed for their rarity and not for their value. Wherefore if it
please you to send by your next ships for the Mogore, an English
coach and coachman, to bring their horses to that labour, it
would be very acceptable with the king ; and to send some curled
water spaniel of the greatest size, with a bloodhound or two,
they would be very welcome, for they will hardly be persuaded
that they can be taught to fetch or find things lost. The mastiffs
that came along in these ships are all dead except one, whereof
we are very chary, for that I understand it will be very acceptable
with the king.

All the small commodities which were sent in these ships, as
looking-glasses, comb cases, knives, pictures, fowling pieces, Mus-
covy hides and such like, serve only for presents, but will not
sell at any price. Pewter is here worth 8d. the pound and copper
to be bought is worth loci, per lb. and raw Persian silk not to be
had in these parts, nor are at any time, for it is here worth as
much as in England. Gumlac is not now to be had, but, being
bespoken at some reasonable warning, may be had some reason-
able quantity. We have brought along with us from Suratt to
this place 36,000 rials of eight, though with some charge and
hazard by reason of the multiplicity of robbers in great troops,
yet unto good profit, for it gives them picas (pice) upon every
rial auanto, above the value at Suratt, the plain cross being
worth two rupees and ten pice but the new cross is five pice less,
and abatance in both for what they lack of weight, for they
weigh all.

The rest of the former voyage in these parts under the charge
of Mr. Tho. Aldworthe will be about 3,000/. sterling, as Mr. Ald-
worthe saith. The accounts are not yet agreed, nor could well
be, for the daily trouble and employment given us by Mocrob



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 153

Chan, but the rest goeth along in these ships, employed in indigo
and white baftas. In your succeeding trade in these parts, it
will require that a reasonable stock be left here for the daily buy-
ing of indigo, which are to be had at all times of the year in the
hands of the country people, whereby much good may be done,
for that divers of the country people are constrained to sell to
engrossers at very low prices for want of money to supply the
needful, and this being the chief place for Cerques indigo, a
factor would be settled here.

Mr. Richard Steel, an Englishman, coming through Persia
in pursuit of certain monies in the hands of Jo. Midnall of the
account of Mr. Leat and Company, which Midnall fled out of
Turkey into these parts, thereby to abuse his employers, came
about seven months since to Suratt and discovered unto Mr. Ald-
worthe part of what he had gathered in his travels through
Pearsia, concerning the hope and likelihood of trade there by the
way of the Red Sea and near unto Ormus, at a place called
Jasques, which is an open road, but the wind blows at north
seven months in the year, which is from the beginning of Sep-
tember to the end of March. It lieth from Ormus 60 courses,
each course a mile and a half, and from Synda 200 courses, and
from Jasques to Sphan (Ispahan), which is the emperor's court,
450 courses ; but the description thereof our General will more
particularly advise of, for that since my coming ashore he hath
questioned some of the pilots of those parts.

This Richard Steel hath been detained here by Mr. Ald-
worthe ever since his first coming hither, under pretence of
employing him in the discovery of the said trade of Pearsia, fur-
ther to strengthen himself in the understanding and knowledge
of those countries, and the several commodities vendible and to
be bought there, which it seems he hath very willingly and cheer-
fully attended, and hereupon a consultation was had by such of
the merchants factors, whose names are to the said consultation
(the copy whereof I send here inclosed), wherein was determined
and agreed that for better satisfaction of your Worships and more
full discovery of the hoped trade, the said Richard Steel and
John Crouther, one of your Worships' servants, should proceed
therein, viz. the said John Crouther to go along with Richard



154 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

Steel as far as Sphane, which is the principal place aimed at,
and thence to return for these parts with a relation of wh.it dis-
covery they shall have made, under both tin ir hands, and the
said Steel to proceed for England by the way of Alleppo, like-
wise to certify unto your Worships both what they both shall
have done and also himself in particular after his departure from
Sphan, whereby, if a liking shall be had thereof, you may with
more certainty proceed in the same ; and for the needful to defray
the expense it is ordered they shall carry along with them by bills
of exchange or in specie 600 rials of eight, which we esteem may
be the charge of the whole journey little more or less, whereof
the said Mr. Steel will give your Worships a reason upon his
arrival in England. He is, both by the report of Mr. Aldworthe
and by the little experience of him in myself, honest and fair
conditioned, and I mistake him much if he prove not so. He is
very desirous to do your Worships' service, and although some
opportunity offered him preferment with the Dutch at Moslipatan
(Masulipatam) yet he refused the same, to attend on his hopes in
your business, the which he hath done these 7 months past upon
his own charge without any allowance from hence. Wherefore if
your Worships shall out of your liberal dispositions consider him
for his good intents and expense, I suppose it will not be ill
bestowed. His desire is that, as he hopes to be the first that shall
discover this hoped trade, so he may have such employment
therein as his endeavours and your good opinions shall make him
worthy of, wherein I think your Worships shall think and find
him very fit.

Whereas I understand that Mr. Aldworthe in his advice for
England hath encouraged the sending of 1,000 broadcloths for
this place by the first, I wish that either his letter may have mis-
carried or that you shall have suspended upon further reasons
than his little time could then areme(?) for such advice, for more
experience hath since showed him the error (which any man
might easily have run into, the reasons truly considered) for one
quarter of that quantity is more than all these parts will vent, for
little use is here made thereof except covering of saddles. So as
if you shall have sent by this next fleet according to the foresaid
advice, they must of necessity remain here until your further order.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 155

For the river of Synda I have informed myself what is needful,
and understand that no vent for cloth is to be expected there, nor
hope of returns worthy the sending thither.

Whereas it pleased our worthy Governor, his deputy and com-
mittees, in their commission to deliver their opinions whom they
thought fit of their servants factors for residence at Agra, or the
court of the Great Mogore, if of necessity there must be one
residing there, the council of merchants appointed for determining
the same, respecting the said commission, have proceeded in their
choice accordingly and appointed me unto the same employment,
as in our consultation with the circumstances will appear, and I
like an unskilful pilot in the wayfaring mysteries of this court's
conditions, have been glad to embrace the direction of better
experience, and herein, as in whatsoever else, I desire to be
engaged unto your Worships' temperate censures in case of
calumny or misreports, which are incident unto foreign employ-
ments.

The Portingals it seems, being weary of their wars with the
Mogore, use their best diligence to reconcile the difference both
by sinister and violent means, first closing with the banyans of
Cambaia, who before our coming offered, in the behalf of the
Portingals, to make restitution of whatsoever was taken in the
foresaid ship of the Mogore's, but the king would by no means
hear thereof, forewarning all men any more to solicit that cause.
The next means, the Portingal fathers have writ for Spayne for
toleration unto the English for trade. And lastly their frigates
run to and fro upon the coast burning and destroying all they can,
and lately they have prevailed upon part of Baroch and burnt
divers of the houses in the suburbs, and divers ships and boats
there and left it. They have also burnt the greatest part of
Goga, with three of their ships riding at anchor, with divers petty
places on the coast ; all which the king is very impatient for and
fortifies in all parts on the sea coast. Three galleons are lately
arrived at Goa, about the 20th of October last, who upon their
arrival as we are advised made way to come to our ships, but we
have little fear of them that they will be seen of our ships, for
their last conflict is not yet forgotten but is very famous in all
these parts.



156 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

Our good friend Mr. Nich. Emsworth deceased the [blank]
and the same day died Timothy Wood, both of the bloody flux.
Divers others of our friends here have been touched, but, praised
be God, we are all at present in good health.

My stay in this city hath been somewhat the longer, to put
and see some forwardness in our business of indigoes, whereof we
have bought unto this time about 500 churls and I doubt not
that the Hector and Solomon will return from hence laden for
England whither God send them in salvo. So with my humble
service I commend you to God's protection, who direct all your
actions.

Your Worships' in all humble service,

Will. Edwards.





178

Copy of Tho. Keridge his letter to Mr. Aldworthe and Wm.
Biddulph, sent from Surat by Mr. Tho. Elkington to Nich.
Downton in Swally road.

Agimeare (Ajmere), the 15th November 1614.

ORSHIPFUL Sir and loving Friend, The 4th present
by your pattamar I wrote you an answer of yours of
the 5th of October, whereunto I refer you. Since
have urged unto the king for restitution of Midnall's
goods, showing him Mocrob Chan's letter to that purpose, which
he hath given order shall be delivered unto me, and Aseph Chan
hath affirmed it under his seal ; but must use the same course
therein as in getting Mr. Canning's goods, so it will be some time
ere obtained. The goods are disposed for the king's use, but
monies will be paid as they have rated them, which I have
formerly written you is the custom. And now have received
yours of the 22nd October, 22 days after the date thereof, whereby
I perceive the arrival of the English ships, which doubtless is a
great comfort unto us all ; and blessed be God for the safe arrival.



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 157

Here was news of them eight days before mine came ; and this
people rejoiceth thereat, for that they hope it will be a means to
bring the Portingals to a better conclusion with them than else,
which the king longs for and is wearied with Mocrob Chan's
profitless being there. I marvel not so much at our General for
attributing all good services to be done by himself in settling of the
factory as at that he should use means for the defaming [detaining ?]
of our letters to the worshipful Company. I estrange thereat and
cannot conceive with honesty it should be contrived or answered,
neither by him nor the messenger. For his disgrace of all of us
in his letters, for my own part I allege no desert, yet took pains
by his commandments as other men ; but this is most manifest :
had not Mr. Aldworthe directly refused to follow his will, we had
left this place and trade, as letters extant may prove ; whereon
grew that dissension betwixt them ; whether did well I refer me
to those who must censure either. I rejoice to hear of the civil
conversation of those appointed by the worshipful Company to
reside here, but more especially for Mr. Wm. Edwards the ap-
pointed lieger being a man so sufficient as you advise, which will
be needful here amongst this inconstant people, the king carried
away as a child pleased with toys from the adverse and from us,
wherewith I doubt not Mr. Edwards cometh better furnished than
any heretofore hath been, by which means his respect will be
continued the greater; and it is requisite that honour be done'
him below by the English, whereof the king will have notice and
regard him accordingly. Concerning the present he bringeth I
think the king will like well thereof and esteem it the more, if it
be not seen by any until it come to his view. The particulars I
inform not, though some inquisitive to know, for that the things
unthought on or once expected will most content him. Concern-
ing the king's letters to Mocrob Chan for the kind usage of our
people, free trade and so forth, by means of Aseph Chan I urged
unto the king and he granted his firman should be written unto
him ; which obtained I will send it by your pattamar and some
other, for the safe conveyance. As for Mocrob [Chan] , all busi-
ness concerning us and our trade is referred unto him, and as he
adviseth so things here will pass, and what he granteth there will
be confirmed here. Therefore all good means must be used to



i 5 8 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

give him content and to frustrate his expectation [of] dealing for
your goods. If the Company resolve to Leave so great a stock
here, I think you shall do best to be slow in sales until the ships'
departure and buy your commodities for ready money, which will
advance your sales. The country is void of our commodities and
here scarcity of cloth, where greatest quantity will vent, where-
with the lieger coming well furnished will soon have vent for the
same.

For round indigo of Agra bought by Signor Nicholas is in a
readiness to come down, and upon news of the ships, before the
receipt of your letters, I wrote him and wished him underhand
to vent there in expecting you would advise to that purpose, and
that [on] receipt of your letter sent him the copy thereof, so as
you sent the 20,000 mamoodies it will be invested and sent you
down by the time prescribed. There is great quantity of old and
new in Agra and no buyer, and cheaper now than before it was
ready ; and for the speedier conveying of it I have advised him to
send it hither, and so by the way of Amadavas, which is much
the nearer, and if need require I will procure the king's letter for
safe conducting of it ; though I think there is no danger in such
commodities, and people daily pass secure.

The broker Jadow four days since is come unto me and
denieth the receipts of the Frenchman ; saith he will justify
himself of his enlargement. I doubt not Nich. Withington hath
written, whereunto I refer me. The Dutch letter I herewith send
you, hoping you will now get them interpreted below, for the
Dutchman is not returned from the Prince's Leskar. My letters
for England I sent you to be conveyed for Mosolopatan, which I
hope you have received, whereof I pray you advise me. You
have been sparing of news within your promised letters I now
hourly expect. I pray you commend my duty to the General,
Captain Downton, and to Mr. Edwards, unto whom, though
unknown, yet by your foot-post I will write unto him. I perceive
my old acquaintance Mr. Watkins hath been more mindful of me
than I have had opportunity to remember him. I wish you had
sent his letter, that I might have answered it by the ships. To
Mr. Dodsworth I pray you to commend my love until the next,
when in a few lines I purpose to gratulate his courtesy. And




EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 159

thus with my prayers and best wishes for the whole fleet in
general, not forgetting my duty to yourself and kind commenda-
tions to Mr. Biddulph, I rest

Your loving friend to be commanded

Tho. Keridge.

If you have occasion to send a foot-post, employ this bearer,
who is the speediest in Surat and enjoins you 2 days for the
journey; otherwise they attend for other letters after their
dispeeding.






179

The copy of the opinion of all the factors concerning
the behaviour of Richard Cobb.

16th November, 1614.

T is not unknown unto you all in general that Richard
Cobb is a man which is ordinarily given to drink,
at which time he is subject to talk much and reveal
the secrets of the worshipful Company to any that

at such time is familiar with him ; and therefore not fit to be of

a council.

2. When he is a little in drink, as also in his best wits, is apt
to brawl with any man upon the least occasion with such bitter,
vile, and base terms, provoking anger, that a patient man is not
able to suffer it.

3. Further, he is a man given to sloth and idleness, not en-
deavouring himself to do any service which concerns the worship-
ful Company's business, scorning to be commanded, thinking
himself to be in rank of the best, and therefore not under
command.

4. Also he will upon the least occasion given scandalize any
man without respect of place or person, as well in public as
private, and at all times when he meets with his companions.




160 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

5. For which cause, and many other disorders, he was left
behind the James when she went for Potanye (Patani), having
made great strife between the captain and cape merchant.

6. And having divers times misbehaved himself since his being
here in Bantam, to the great disgrace of our nation and the rank
of civil merchants, and now last of all, the nth of November,
1614, having been abroad and taken some drink more than
ordinary, began to rail at some of the merchants, breaking into
their chambers perforce to brawl with them, for which cause I
took him into my chamber, thinking to pacify him by fair means,
entreating him to go to bed, which with much ado he promised
and so departed ; but within two hours he went out of his
chamber and sought to break open the merchants' doors, they
being abed, railing on them with such an outcry and noise that
all our neighbours might hear it, and especially the Hollanders
who dwell near us; whereupon awaking, I went forth to pacify
him, but the more I entreated the more he railed ; and seeing no
remedy I called for the bilboes and put in one of his legs, and
within a quarter of an hour I sent the steward to let him out if
he were quiet ; which he refused, saying that he would be cleared
by justice. Therefore I have thought good to set down in writing
these his ordinary pranks, with others which I omit, desiring you
and every of you in particular to set down in writing your opinions,
without envy to him or favour to me, whether he deserves the
place of a merchant or not, all these things being considered,
which you know to be true.

[John Jourdain.]
Bantam the 14th of November, 1614.

The opinion of George Ball upon the abuses and defaults
approved against Richard Cobb, one of the merchants of the
Ninth Voyage is that he is not sufficient to negotiate as a
merchant in affairs of weight and trust, as are the employments
of the Company in these parts, he wanting both wit and ex-
perience to counsel, secrecy to conceal, and will and ability to
perform. But since it is his desire (as finding himself in the
judgment of himself much wronged, to be subject unto the
correction of authority) to go for his native country, I do freely,



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 161

as finding no reason for his stoppage, give my consent to his
passage, knowing with others that the Company's affairs hath no
need of him nor his like, howsoever others.

Whereas it hath been required by John Jourdain, Captain of



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