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Letters received by the East India company from its servants in the East (Volume 2) online

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beginning ; therefl are most refer y< m t< i the report of Mr. Edwards
from fter his speech with the king, being at present bound

thither. Tl wishing ;i happy success to this and ;ill other

your adventures, I remember my humble service I
Worship, Mr. Deputy and all the Committees. I i
\\ : I ip' firmly affectiona]

Nil h. D< wnton.

Aboard the New Year's ("iift in the Road
of Swally, the joth of Novi mber [614.

If it please God to send Richai well home, and that

he give you a pood account of his employment, as I make no
douht but he will, then I d^irc your Worships to use him

-< v ;* :-."..•


HE report of Brinzec, Nahuda of a junk from Larree

describing the Province of " Zinde," subject to the

Mogul ; the value of English commodities at that

market ; and of exports thence fit for England ; with

the coins in circulation at Negrotat (Tatta), the capital, and

Bunder Larree (Lahori Bandar) the Port.

[Nov. 20, 1614.]

[Now missing. The particulars given arc taken fron the
1 83 1 catalogue. ~]



ARTICULARS desired by Mocrob Chan to be pro-
vided in England and sent by the next ships for
Surat, for the Great Mogore, 1614.

The copy of a note given in by Mocrob Chan of
such things as he desireth to be furnished of by the next ships
that come out of England.

a. Two complete armours wrought, but light, and easy to


b. Crooked swords, broad ; hard to be gotten, for they try

them with their knee and, if they stand, in no request.

c. Knives of the best, large, long and thin to bow almost

round and come straight again of themselves.

d. Satin of red, yellow, green, tawny.

e. Velvet of the best, of red, yellow, black, green.
/. All manner of toys that may content the king.

g. Broadcloth of the finest that will not stain, of yellow, red

and green.
h. All manner of toys for women.
i. Pictures in cloth, not in wood.
k. Perfumed leather.
I. Cloth of Arras, wrought with pictures.
m. The greatest looking-glasses that may be got.

( Any figures of beasts, birds or other similes made of
n ' \ glass, of hard plaster, of silver, brass, wood, iron,

I stone, or ivory.
p. Perfumed sweet-bags, embroidered with gold.
q. Rich cabinets with a glass, embroidered.
y. Rich shag of red colour.
s. Mastiffs, greyhounds, spaniels and little dogs, three of

t. Large Muscovia hides.
V. Vellum and parchment good store.

d Satin some small quantity, for I think they will give little
more than it cost in England ; of that least gummed.


e. Velvet we brought by Sir Henry Middleton mad.- but little

fit and is DO man's money but the 1

the I
/. Things will ask s^nic labour to find.
. I i idcloths. His m ry fine cloths ai

colours ; and the red he DO t.

j. Pictures on cloth I London, not ti the

I ■ Dch, whi. h warp, rend, and break.

/. Cloth of ' «tly ; t I think

make shew alty in th<- getting thereof, nnL

little, but tapestry instead then
v.. Figun ■ t •!. m stone or pi I i I have

me from Frainckford (Frankfort). I think at

S. DogS hard tO b<

/. They thought much to give the price they cost in England.
v. Parchment you may fit them with store, for I think it be
but to write books on.

:. Downton.



Captain Nich. Downton to Sir Tho. Smith.
Surat, November 20th, 1614.

IONOURABLE Sir, if it be conceived that covetous-
ness drew me again into this troublesome, pining and
weary business, I answer no, but the conceit I had of
your love, with the love of divers others which I
esteemed by your means, drew me (though my body unrecovered)
with greedy desire to frame my mind to your wills, neglecting my
own ends, applying myself wholly to yours, rather wishing you
should find my zeal to you by proof than by bragging promises ;
which affection might be perceived in that (notwithstanding
your small gratuity in regard of my expense the former voyage,


imputing it to none of the worthiest, but most inconsiderate sort)
I did of purpose, to show how much I was yours, commit my
monthly salary to be set down at your own pleasure, at such a
rate for which, but to show my love and to hold my word, I
would not then have been so hired, nothing doubting that my
tractable and easy yielding would have incurred your more base
conceit of me, who without offence to my friends dare say that in
commonwealth business my deserts have not been inferior to any
man's which in this kind you have formerly employed ; neither
doubted I that the king's commission should have been otherwise
than Sir Henry Middleton's was, for while I live I would not
therein have been partner with any, which being so unfitly yoked
hath brought me much disturbance. I have a place in show, but
by your commission I have not power to determine of any
material thing but by the counsel of such as may partake or band
against me ; which if it were well for you, there would be less dis-
like in me. I do not move this in hope of remedy from you, but
as a caveat for the future good of your business and quiet of such
as you may hereafter in principal place employ. The sharing of
the authority of a commander among divers doth much increase
pride, cause divisions, and greatly hinder the common business.
Many are ready to tax a commander with weakness, when it is
their own deeds at home in clipping the wings of his authority, in
raising great spirits and green heads to partake in government.
If my haste and often provoked occasions were not qualified by a
conscionable care of the common good, I could quickly fall into
rigorous courses, thereby to stay the insulting carriage of the
proudest ; but then I must expect to follow the breakneck of fit
government in the generality, for these unsteady-minded and
giddy-headed people, if they once perceive divisions amongst the
principals, whereby authority is weakened, will soon run into
sides or factions as their humours lead them ; or else, if trusting
to their own strength, will not care for either. I have not failed
by all upright means possible in hope to stop the mouths of all ill-
willers to this journey, and to remove the scandal laid upon
former voyages, so carried the business that I make least doubt of
the love of the common people, yet so little trust thereto that I
have always thought most discretion by patience to pass over the


things which often grieved me. Though I expect thi-
will fully wear me out, yet my loi irernmenl i- such, and to

foreign journeys which most need« th the same, whereby I wish to
deliver my poor opinion, referring the determination to your
better understandings and judgments; which is that in these
journeys you let the government rest principally upon one man,
whose discretion and honesty you have assurance "f. by which he
may do most right to you, right to himself and to all well-
deserving men who by their honest behaviour and discreet
carriage deserve th.- same, by which mean-; they will he drawn to
your best service, being tractable to the content of their com-
minder, which will also restrain pride, stop combining into
factions and other careless negligences, whereof all are not I
and make them strive by industry and diligence to deserve well,
and to In- let know that their employment shall he accordifl

their desert, by the judgment of their commander, though in
private you may ordain otherwise; for when they bring all their

grace from home and know how they are appointed in the com-
mission, knowing that it shall not he altered, grow negligent and
careless of any command. It will be good that such factors as
you employ that divers of them may write well, which good
property is wanting among most of them you now employed ; and
as your factors have been fed at full cannot endure so straight a
diet as the poor seamen must, and also if they should have more
allowance out of the hold than the rest it will cause much grief
and dislike in the common people, who are kept in best order
seeing provisions justly divided, wherefore it may please you to
give your factors some allowance for private provisions. Henry
Smith and Roger Prowd have continued all this voyage in health
and are now bound up to Agra with Mr. Edwards ; so also is
Mr. Rogers. I would have had them stay at Suratt with Mr.
Dodsworth till their bodies were seasoned with the air and with
the feeding of the country, but they desired it and Mr. Edwards
threatened to have them thither when I was gone, which then I
thought better they should go now than at any other time in less
company, when less care might be had on them, and Will.
Nelson goeth up therefore to attend on them. We have been
long pestered here with delays and unkind crosses bv Mocrob


Chan, but I hope that Mr. Edwards will so behave himself with
the king by presents that for future times he may alter it ; but for
the present I pray God send us a good despatch. I fear it will
be long ere we shall have means to despatch a ship homeward,
and so she will fall on our coast in an unseasonable time. We
find not above 3,000/. stock remaining of the Tenth Voyage and
much of that is about Agra, so that thereby we know not the
certainty thereof. Presents here will go deep and charges in
transportation will be great. In many particulars Mr. Edwards
may better inform you from Agra than I can here, since we have
scarce yet made a beginning to our business. So with my most
respective and good wishes and my earnest prayers directed to
heaven for the continuance of your health and safety, I rest

Yours in all humility,

[Nich. Downton] .


A copy of 181, with the exception of the postscript, which is as

follows :

|.S. — If it please God this Persian business fall out to
your content, and that you think fit to adventure
thither, I think it not amiss to set you down as the
pilots have informed me of Jasques, which is a town
standing near the edge of a straight sea coast, where a ship may
ride in 8 fathoms water, saker-shot from the shore, and in
6 fathoms you may be near. Jasques is six gemes from Ormus
southwards ; every geme is 60 cosses, makes 30 leagues.
Jasques is no high land, yet there are some mountains near the
port. Jasques lieth from Muschet (Muskat) east. From Jasques
to Sinda is 200 cosses or 100 leagues. At Jasques commonly
they have north winds, which bloweth trade out of the Persian
Gulf. Mischet is on the Arabian coast, and is a little port
of Portugals.

Y 1268. N



Thomas Keridge to Captain Downton.

Received by the Hope.

Agmier, November 22nd, 1614.

IORSHIPFUL Sir, by Mr. Aldworthe's of the 22nd of
October I had intelligence of the arrival of your ships
at the bar of Suratte in safely, which as it is the joy-
fullest tidings we here resident could hope for, so it
bringeth the greater comfort in that the time of our expectation
was now fully expired ; blessed be God for so high a favour.
Mr. Aldworthe advised me of our king's letter and present, sent
by Mr. Edwards, the appointed lieger, for the Great Mogul, and
of his purposes in not showing the same until it came unto the
king's hands, whereof he willed me to certify the king, as also to
procure his letter to Mocrob Chan for the kind usage of our
people, and to permit them free trade, which he seemed to doubt
of by Mocrob Chan's imprisoning of some people that came
aboard the ships, wherewith, the latter excepted, I acquainted
Asaph Chan, the king's brother-in-law, requiring his furtherance
in my suit to the king, who answered he held it not fitting I
should speak of free trade, for that Mocrob Chan had order to
buy goods for the king, and that our business were altogether
referred to him, wherefore he could not urge it ; but I alleging
reasons to move him thereunto he promised to do it, and the same
day by him I erzed unto the king, who granted his letter ; which
procuring to be effected, and searching for the contents thereof,
I understood there was a letter written for the sending up of the
lieger with the present unseen, but nothing concerning our trade ;
whereupon I repaired again to Asaph Chan, desiring the letter
might be written as I required, who expostulated the business
with me and told me we should make Mocrob Chan our enemy
thereby ; which when I cleared, he in conclusion said the king
had thus ordained, and that until Mocrob Chan's crzedach or letter
came to that purpose it would not be granted, for that yet he
had not written to the king concerning us ; whereupon I ac-
quainted Coge Abullosan herewith, a man of as great place,


though not so highly in favour, by whom I erzed unto the king
again, who answered Asaph Chan had already order, and de-
manded him for the letter, which he had ready in his hands and
delivered it unto me, and though I replied in the king's hearing
that the principal of our request was omitted, yet they urged the
ceremonies accustomed and dismissed me, which letter herewith
you shall receive. Concerning Mocrob Chan, you shall perceive
that he and all seaport governors whatsoever have express order
given them to buy the chiefest of all the commodities for the
king, but more especially for jewels and all sorts of strange
things, wherewith he is extraordinary delighted, which will cause
Mocrob Chan to prohibit all men dealing with you until his turn
be served and he hath had sight and knowledge of all things ;
and after, I think, he will not so much disparage himself as to
urge you to an inconvenient sale. I doubt not but Mr. Ald-
worthe hath fully acquainted you with the estate of our business
here, which hitherto hath been fickle and uncertain. Mr. Can-
ning at his coming to the court was referred to Mocrob Chan to
determine of and to answer all things concerning us and our
trade, and at my coming hither I was referred also unto him
and always with promises delayed (nothing at all effected) ;
neither could answer to our king's letter be obtained, though
I got it translated into the Persian and delivered it unto the king.
The reasons in their councils was they could not hold friend-
ship with the Portugal and permit us trade, though themselves
willing thereunto. Yet the merchants of Surat wrote earnestly
to the nobility in the behalf of the English, and being Mocrob
Chan is best acquainted with the affairs of those parts, it was
referred unto him, being then appointed for Surat, at his coming
thither to determine of those things. But in the interim the
Portugal took their ships, as you have heard, whereupon the
king gave forth firmans denying them trade in his dominions,
debarring them provisions etc ; and withal delivered another
firman authorizing Mocrob Chan to give place to the English to
fortify in, always provided it might redound to the profit of the
king, which I presume was rather given in policy to bring the
Portugal to a better conclusion in the restoration of their goods
than in favour unto us as they pretend, whereof you will now

N 2


have trial. The articles of General Tho. Best concluded at his
being there were firmed by the Governors of Amadavar and
Suratte, and since both of them are deceased ; besides the sup-
posed governor of Amadavar was only a deputy and not so great
in respect with the king as we accounted. Wherefore hither-
unto none here will take notice ; and whatsoever you intend to
require of the king demand it first there of Mocrob Chan, for
matters of consequence will not be obtained without his advice,
and far more facile to obtain anything now while your ships are
there than hereafter when they are gone. I rejoice that the
worshipful Company have so well provided themselves with fit
men to reside in these parts, but more especially in the suffi-
ciency of the lieger, which for this place is most requisite, having
to deal with a people subtle and deceitful, full of delays in all
businesses except to serve their own turn, and no truth in them,
and the king ruled by those men near him, too much delighted
with toys, wherewith the lieger must come so well provided that
once in eight days, or at least when he hath occasion to proffer
speech, he hath something or other to present. Any toy that is
not of his country, though not worth two shillings, sometime is
sufficient, which may move the king not only to favour our busi-
ness and to grace him, but in short time to give some pension or
allowance towards his maintenance, for the better obtaining
whereof fit presents must be for the nobility brought which are
chief in grace. Cloth and such things as are to be bought for
money they esteem not ; good sword blades of the country fashion,
rich knives, cases of bottles with hot waters, they (as the king)
affecting toys ; our pieces, being long and heavy, they esteem
not. And for that the king's esteem of him may be the more
(whereby our business will be the better effected), respect must
be given him there below, attended on by those fit and such as
know duty, whereof the king will have intelligence. Our English
cloth is at present scarce and in good request, viz. stammels,
Venice reds, popinjay greens, and such like light colours, good
quantity will vend speedily, so that the lieger need not fear the
present sale of two or three hundred cloths, and some Devon-
shire kerseys also, which here they begin to wear in garments.
Sir Robert Sherley sold some two or three hundred covadas of


broadcloth at 14 and 15 rupees per covada, which cost in Eng-
land 12, 13, 14 and 15s. per yard, but most of them were stametts,
which are best liked. Quicksilver is worth 280 rupees the
great maund, the seer being 30 pisas in weight ; vermilion at
290 rupees ; at present no great quantity here, but oftentimes it is
brought from Bengala, and then to be had reasonable ; so that I
think, the danger of the bringing of the quicksilver considered, it
will be better sold there or at Amadavar. Elephants' teeth are
of different prices, according to their goodness ; the small round
teeth which are white and sound are worth 100 rupees per
maund, and those best esteemed, the hollow of them being little
worth. Lead is worth 6£ rupees per maund, but that too heavy
so far to be carried. If the lieger so advise, I will procure the
king's letter for his safe conducting hitherwards, for that the way
is dangerous for Christians ; yet from Amadavar there cometh
monthly caphilas. Concerning Midnall's goods which I got de-
posited, upon Mocrob Chan's letters received from Mr. Aldworthe,
I sued unto the king for it, the delivery whereof he granted, but
yet I have not received it, for I must have his second confirma-
tion of the said grant, and being the goods of a deceased it is a
difficult business, for that all dead men's goods are disposed to
the king's use as his, and had not Mocrob Chan written we
should not have had it, notwithstanding the article for that pur-
pose, though it had been the goods of one of our own people, (as
by experience of Mr. Canning) ; and restoring they deliver not
the goods but monies for it, rated as themselves please, for future
preventing whereof you must now provide, lest haply the least
occasion, which is incident to any of us, may be detrimental to
the worshipful Company in matters of greater consequence. For
indigo to be sent down I have advised Signor Nicholas Withing-
ton by two or three several conveyances on purpose, and doubt
not, if your bills of exchange came safely, the quantity written
for, or the greatest part thereof, will be with you by the time
prescribed by Mr. Aldworthe, together with that formerly bought.
Mr. Aldworthe adviseth me our letters sent home unto the wor-
shipful Company by the General's direction were detained from
them, and that in his letter he wrote disgracefully of all of us.
At the first I much marvel, considering the General's profession


and cannot conceive how so evil an action should be contrived.
For the latter there happened a controversy betwixt him and the
agent, occasioned at the first by their differences in opinion con-
cerning the settling of our factory; whereon it seems the General
aimed at his displacing, which if he had done, the Company's
loss had been the greatest, he being a man of so well known
government and now experimented in these parts, both which in
my opinion maketh him fitter for that place than any that could
be left here. For my part I have received favour of the General,
and will acknowledge his love, yet for that I may not be partial
to the prejudice of our employers. Thus I have enlarged of those
things at present needful, and have showed you the particular
passages in procuring of the king's letter, that thereby you may
perceive the managing of our affairs here, and their shifting of
business when they like them not. And thus as unknown, wish-
ing all prosperous success to your affairs, I commend my duty to
the General and to Mr. Edwards and with remembrance of my
love unto the whole company, I rest

Your Worship's to be commanded,

Tho. Keridge.


OLLECTIONS from all the letters received from
Surratt and Bantam by the Hope, who arrived in
Ireland November 5th and came to anchor in the
Thames [November 24th,] 1615. 1

Captain Downton's letter, being a copy of one sent by
Richard Steel by the way of Persia, dated 22nd November, 1614.

[See No. 185.]

1 These abstracts are printed only in the cases in which the originals are no longer
extant. In other cases a reference to the original has been deemed sufficient.



A letter from John Young, 25th February, 1614.

He going out for Mr. Aldworthe's boy had no salary allowed
unto him ; now doth entreat the Company to allot him salary
amongst the rest of their factors. Captain Downton doth com-
mend him and soliciteth for him.


A note of divers particulars desired by Mocrob Chan to be
provided in England for the Mogore.

[See No. 183.]

Edward Holmeden, dated the 7th of March, 1614, in Surratt.
He was employed in Cambaya in buying quilts and con-
serves. He humbly desireth Sir Thomas Smith to be good to
him in procuring him increase of allowance of his salary, as he
shall be found to deserve.


Thomas Keridge from Agimere, 20th September, 1614.
[See No. 165.]


Wm. Edwards' private letter to Sir Thomas Smith,

[26th December, 1614 and 14th March, 1614.]

[See No. 219.]

Richard Baker's letter in Saldania, 20th June, 1615.

All the masters erred in their course, bringing all the fleet
in great hazard upon the main shore of Barbarie at Cape
Boyador. His direction for the best course from England to
the Cape Bone Spei. The mariners will not be brought to
confer their observations together notwithstanding your com-
mission ; therefore fit to be enjoined unto it upon a penalty.


They attained Saldania in gi days, notwithstanding they had
23 days contrary winds. Mr. Woodall's great abuses in the
chirurgeon's chest, putting divers boxes of one simple, whereas
he writeth in their superscriptions to be diverse ; drugs rotten,
unguents made of kitchen stuff. Boys that have no skill
thrust into place of chirurgeons. He is to be accounted guilty
of the death of so many men as perish through his default.
The abuse of carpenters also, that place their unskilful boys in
place of that weighty charge. Barret hath put into this fleet
six unfit men instead of sufficient. Old salted beef not noted or
distinguished from the new, that so it might have been first
spent ; and some hogsheads miscontented. The masters will
not yield unto any good article concerning dead men's goods,
which Captain Keeling had made. Tho. Barwick, master of the
Peppercorn, was (for falling out with Captain Harris) put master
into the Lion. Wm. Cradle dismissed from being a master.
Divers men changed out of one place into another. All your
pursers (except Tho. Arthington) were exempted from being of the
council. They take 900 and odd breams at one draught at the
Cape. Higgons and Starkey dead in the Dragon between Eng-
land and the Cape. He adviseth to preserve all your old sails to
make tents in Saldania, &c, for the refreshing of your sick men,
for the storms do spoil your new sails. Contentions between
Captain Harris and Robert Gipps, the cape merchant in the
same ship, striving who shall have the charge and managing of
the merchandise. Captain Keeling demurreth upon the question

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