and inclineth to the captain's part in this kind of voyages. It is
good to distinguish or limit the offices and charges of captain and
cape merchant, for the captains do arrogate all authority to
themselves from your merchants. Nine condemned men landed
at Saldania to shift for themselves, etc. Cory the Saldanian is
returned to his old bias of guts about his neck ; he hath done some
good and some harm there. The Hope from Surratt arrived at
Saldania. The General, Captain Keeling, maketh much of his
men. The Lord Ambassador setteth up a pillar at the Cape with
inscription of his embassage.
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 185
Tho. Keridge to Sir Thomas Smith, dated in Agimer,
20th September, 1614.
[See No. 166.]
Nicholas Downton by the copy of his letter written
to Mr. Edwards from Swally to the Court [? March, 1615.]
He reproveth Wm. Edwards very sharply of many abuses in
general and particular, and wishes him to take measure of
himself with reformation ; wherein I gather that if Captain
Downton be truly humble, charitable and sincere, then is William
Edwards very blamable.
George Umngton in Saldania [to the East India Company] ,
20th June, 1615.
Danger of our whole fleet upon the main of Barbary ; better
sometimes to be fortunate than wise, for all our wise men erred.
Captain Harris and his men would not underwrite the act made
by Captain Keeling concerning dead men's goods. France
Johnson and Edward White died in the way to the Cape. But
20 men sick in all the fleet to Saldania. Mr. Cradle, master in
the Expedition, displaced and made a mate in the Dragon, and
Tho. Bonner made master in his place. Discord between Cap-
tain Harris and Robt. Gipps, cape merchant in the Peppercorn.
Captain Downton from Surratt or at sea [to the East India
Company] , the 7th March, 1614.
Many distastes offered by Mocrob Chan at our ships' first
coming. By a letter from Tho. Keridge it appeared that
Mocrob Chan was but the king's instrument to fulfil the
desire of the king, etc., and that there was no hope from the
king but through him. I therefore endeavoured by all means
to win him to us. Mocrob Chan takes occasion to think us
1 86 EAST INDIA COMTAXTS RECORDS
confederates with the Portugals because we denied with our
ships to go against Damon, nor otherwise to promise him to
fight with the Portagals except they gave us first cause, notwith-
standing he offered us large sums of moneys to fulfil his desire.
The said Mocrob Chan was the more suspicious of us to be con-
federates with the Portugals because when a fleet of 60 frigates
came within shot of me I would not shoot at them, I being un-
willing to break the peace. The said Mocrob Chan, after I
endeavoured to give him the best content I could, did ever show
me great kindness. He suffered us to carry our goods (which we
bought in the country) aboard without bringing the same into
the customhouse. The Mogul commanded Mocrob Chan to
make no peace with the Portugals. If your ships come yearly
for a little while of sufficient strength to encounter the Portugals,
the Indians in short time would little care for them, and the
Portugals for want of trade would be discouraged and grow weak,
for the inhabitants love them not. I had by mine intelligencer
advice of a letter which Mocrob Chan received of the Jesuits,
declaring that the Viceroy had express commandment from the
king his master first to drive away the English and then to
take the town of Surratt. This letter I obtained of Mocrob Chan ;
the copy Englished I herewith send you. The manner of the
Portugals' coming with his fleet, their force, etc., pride, etc.,
never speaking to us, nor showing the cause. Our consultation,
accord and resolution to fight with them. Their manner of
fighting with us and success. The Guzerats ready to embrace a
peace upon a parley with the Portugals, doubting of our success ;
for the force of the Portugals was great, insomuch that it would
not have gone well with us if God had favoured their cause. I
never see men fight with greater resolution than the Portugals ;
therefore not to be taxed with cowardice as some have done.
The gallants of the Portugals' army were in this business, whereof
divers killed and afterwards burnt in the ships ; and yet the
report cometh from Damon that the frigates carried thither to be
buried above 300 Portugals. For others they took not so much
pains or care, besides many drove ashore and swam about. If
the Portugals had not fallen into an error at the first they might
have destroyed the Hope, and by likelihood the rest hastening so
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 1S7
to her aid. They renew their strength again within ten days ; we
feared new dangers and prepared accordingly. They set upon us
by fireworks. The Portugals with all their power departed from
us and went before the bar of Surratt. We were afraid they
would set up their rest against the town ; but they were wiser.
Much quicksilver lost for want of good packing. The ships'
muskets break like glass ; the cocks and hammers of snaphances
evilly made. The false making of sold pieces hath disgraced
them. The axletrees of your great ordnance made of brittle wood.
The tracks must be turned when the timber is seasoned. Match
too scanty. Want of iron chains to lay upon our cables to keep
them from cutting. Defect in our flesh; our oil most part run
out ; our meal also spoiled by green casks ; so of our pease and
oatmeal. No scales nor weights. Much of our beer cast over-
board, being put into bad casks.
William Biddulph [to the East India Company] , 28th February,
1614, in Surratt.
[See No. 254.]
Wm. Edwards [to the East India Company]. In Amadavar,
the 20th December, 1614.
[See No. 177.]
Tho. Mitford [to the East India Company] ,
26th December, 1614.
[See No. 217.]
1 88 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
Edward Dodsworth [to the East India Company].
Aboard the Hope, in Ireland, in Gelbege [Killybegg] Harbour;
written at his first arrival ; 5th November, 1615.
At our arrival at Surratt we found small store of goods
provided for our ships ; therefore we concluded to send up into
divers places of India to buy goods both for England and
other parts of the Indies. It was the last of November
before we could be permitted to go forward by reason they of
Surratt feared that the Portugals would assault Surratt. We
go along to Amadavar, having Mr. Edwards in company towards
Agra. We came to Amadavar the 15th December, being limited
by our General to return with our goods by the last of January.
Some of our factors sent to one place and some to another
to buy several commodities. We buy indigoes at Amadavar
and Sirques (Sarkhej). The country people wanting money
were desirous to put off their indigoes at reasonable rates. De-
scription of the Portugals' arrival, forces, attempts and success.
The governors of the whole country generally do not well affect
Christians, but for their own peace and profit ready to take part
with the strongest. The trade at Surrat like to be commodious,
for vending of some cloth, quicksilver, lead, elephants' teeth, etc.
and goods to be bought to relade two ships for England yearly.
Good trade there will be also for spices, etc. from Bantam, where-
with he adviseth that one ship be yearly laden, and from Bantam
to go at such season as she may meet with our fleet going from
hence towards Surratt (at such a convenient place as may be
appointed), which will be a good strengthening each to other ;
and of such India commodities so laden at Bantam to make sale
at Surratt as that place will profitably carry ; and for the rest of
the spices in the same ship to be shipped for England among the
indigoes which shall be laden at Surratt, being very fit stowage,
and the rather because much room is lost in stowing the indigoes
alone, as in this ship the Hope experience showeth. The
Portugals having felt the sweetness of the trade at Surrat a long
time, being the nursery of all their trade both for buying and
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 189
selling, will not easily be put out ; but, as they have received
authority from their king, I make account will this next year
following make their strength to give us a general overthrow,
whereby utterly to discourage us and redeem their graces lost. I
think fit to write you thus much and not to defer the relation hereof
till my coming, fearing it would be too late for you to provide a
sufficient fleet this year, which being omitted, questionless Surratt
will be taken and we then frustrated of our present hopes, for that
the Mogore's timorousness will then bring him to compound. I
arrived at Saldania the 17th June, where meeting happily with
Captain Keeling I advised him of all matters, and spared him
what ordnance I had least use of, he also supplying unto me what
we wanted. At Saldania you may have a plantation if you
please, which will be good comfort to such of your shipping as
shall have recourse that way. I in 27 degrees north latitude met
with a Holland ship which went to Mouris Island (Mauritius) to
lade woods, which seemeth to be bastard ebony ; but there found
3 Holland ships cast away and split upon the rocks, of two
whereof all the men and goods wholly lost, but of one the men
and best part of the goods saved, with which goods this ship was
laden. Sir Henry Folliot's kindness and good offices performed
to us in Ireland. Captain Mainwaring came into Ireland with
two ships, having received his pardon. If this ship the Hope
could come soon enough about, it would be a good strengthening
to your fleet now making ready, etc. To furnish him with
necessaries according to the master's letter, and with what money
shall be thought fit.
Captain Reeling's letter [to the East India Company]
from Saldania, dated the 19th June, 1615.
He professeth himself to have a care to observe all your
articles in the commission, repeating the particulars. To send
some store of thick warm clothes (besides canvas suits) to clothe
your poor sailors in cold weather and wadmall stockings. He
wondereth you will employ Portugals in your ships and busi-
ness, a ready way to betray all. One of them shipped was
igo EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
a plotter to betray Captain Newport in the Expedition. Bad
men put into our ships ; not above 12 helmsmen in the
Peppercorn. Batten, a master's mate, wholly unfit for the
voyage and place : your stewards more fit to be under tutors
and a rod than in charge ; your factors very unfit etc. You
put too much kintlage into these ships. The Peppercorn
more fit for peace than for these voyages ; she cannot carry out
her ordnance but in very smooth water ; being deep laden she
is a slug, but jocund ; she saileth well. They lost many days
sail by the sluggishness of the Peppercorn at the first ; and
the Expedition in the whole voyage. But 25 sick men in all the
fleet to Saldania. The Dragon is undersailed in all her small
sails and her boltropes so small that they often break to the spoil
of her sails; her rudder also is very defective. Mr. Burrell much
blamed. Your lemon water in that fleet stark naught. Sweet
oil run out by reason of bad casks. Discord between Captain
Harris and Robert Gipps. Captain Newport discontent because
Mr. Barkeley is set above him in succession, avowing that if
Captain Keeling die he will never wear his flag upon the foretop.
Barkeley commended. He challengeth your license for sending
home 5 or 6 cwt. pepper in each ship : and Wm. Cradle for the
use of 20 or 30/. for private, and divers others the like. He
wondereth what should move the Company to bind some so strict
from private trade and yet tolerate others ; the reasons are that
men's affections are free. He wants presents of worth to present
unto kings etc. as former Generals have done. That you make
ready your Surratt fleet to be in the Downs by the 15th of
January at the furthest. Directions out of his experience what
course all our ships are to hold as most direct unto Cape Bone
Spei. Wonderful many arguments and requests to have his wife
sent unto him or to permit him to come home (in what fashion
soever) in your next ship from Bantam. But three men lost in
all the fleet in the way to the Cape. Wishing you not to suffer
any gentleman passenger to go along in any of your ships.
Merland, whom some of the Lords commended, is the veriest
villain in the world. A dissension between Captain Harris and
Robert Gipps about priority and duty. It were meet you dis-
tinguish or bound the offices and authority of each, viz., captain
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 191
and cape merchant. Wm. Cradle displaced and Thomas Bonner
master in his place. Tho. Barwick removed from the Peppercorn
to the Lion for contention between Captain Harris and him.
Ningin root not a peck yet gotten together by all our means.
They resolve to newlay the Peppercorn's hatches. The quick-
silver in the Lion much leaked out. Not to build your ships so
pinned in above. He desireth to be resolved whether we may
put the condemned men ashore where we will against their wills,
for the Lord Ambassador saith no ; therefore do they purpose to
keep them till your advice. At the Cape the lord Ambassador
found a rock wherein he amrmeth to be quicksilver and vermilion,
whereof 30 or 40 lbs. is sent home for trial by Edw. Dodsworth.
The course they mind to take for Surratt through God's conduct.
He wisheth to send in every fleet to Surratt a ship or two of
small draught and good defence, which, having done your service
at Surratt, may be employed from port to port in the Indies, such
as are also roomy, which is fitting for hot weather. Requests
again for his wife with arguments.
Thomas Keridge [to the East India Company] ,
[dated in Agimer, the 20th January, 1614.
[See No. 235.]
John Sandcrofte, [to the East India Company] ,
29th November, 1614, in Surratt.
[See No. 194.]
Ralph Preston's letter [to the East India Company] ,
the 9th March, 1614, before Dabul.
\See No. 265.]
192 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
Robert Gipps [to the East India Company] ,
the 19th June, 1615, in Saldania.
Ignorance of our mariners to the endangering of all our
ships upon the coast of Barbary. Barwick removed from the
Peppercorn into the Lion for discord with Captain Harris.
Curtis is put master into the Peppercorn. Edward White dieth
out of the Peppercorn the 26th May, 1615. Discord between
Captain Harris and Robert Gipps ; the captain revileth the
merchant and threateneth him. Complaints of Captain Harris,
who refuseth to advise with his council and would not enter-
tain the Company and General's order concerning dead men's
goods, being faulty himself. Captain Harris brought 100/. to sea
for private trade. At Saldania they esteem brass better than
copper. The captains arrogate much over the merchants. Mr.
Cradle displaced from master out of the Expedition, and Tho.
Bonner put in his place, Cradle being made mate in the Dragon.
Only four men dead in all the fleet from England to Saldania.
Nine condemned men put ashore at Saldania.
Thomas Elkington's letter [to the East India Company] , dated
aboard the Solomon in Swally Road, 25th February, 1614.
[See No. 251.]
Tho. Keridge his letter from Agra or Agimere "to Captain
Downton], dated 22nd November, 1614.
[See No. 186.]
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 193
Thomas Aldworthe and Wm. Biddulph [to the East India Com-
pany] , of the last February, kept till the 2nd March, anno
Mention of former letters sent by the Globe and James,
whereof herewith also the copies. The arrival of Captain
Downton's fleet and receipt of your letters. William Edwards
ordered to go for Agra and Tho. Aldworthe to remain at
Surat ; divers appointed to go into the country to buy goods,
some to one place, some to another, to relade a ship home.
Fourteen hundred churls of indigo bought at Amadavar and
Sirques and sent down. The copy of their journal and balance
of their ledger sent by the Hope. Sixty churls of indigo for-
merly bought for the Tenth Voyage now put over to the Joint
Stock and rated at n| rupees the maund ; but the baftas
rated and charged as they cost, being worth no less. Some
things bought formerly which they keep there still as unfit for
England to sell again in Surratt and to be employed with the
rest of their stock in indigoes etc. to send home in the next ships.
Our cloth, quicksilver and vermilion which was sent up to Agra
not yet sold, for anything we know by writing. Midnall's goods
deposited into the king's hands. Likelihood of good trade at
Surratt. Some quantity of cloth is hoped will sell yearly in
Agra, wherefore we sent up thither all the cloth that came in
these ships. Ormus besieged by the Persian. Good trade ex-
pected between Bantam and Surratt with spices etc. and from
Surratt to Jasques in Persia ; our hopes are great concerning this
business. Our lead, quicksilver and vermilion yet unsold ; the
lead is worth 8 mamoodies, but the quicksilver and vermilion
worth at present but 250 or 260 mamoodies per maund. Pic-
tures, comb-cases, looking-glasses, spectacles, burning-glasses and
such like are not for sale here but for gifts ; therefore we wish no
more to be sent. The stock now left here at the departure of your
ships (which others write to be 1,700/. in Surratt and Agra) we
intend presently after the departure of these ships to employ in
indigo and other things according to order to be ready to relade
a ship at their next coming. If you leave here a stock of 20,000
or 25,000/., you may have two ships re-laden yearly from this place,
Y 1268. o
i 9 4 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
and that within forty days of their first coming, without longer
stay. The 500/. worth of Lahore indigo bought at Agra, being
33 fardles containing by estimation b\ maund per fardle, is now
come down and shipped aboard the Hector. Withington sick at
Agra. All the baftas are shipped from Surratt to the southwards.
Fourteen hundred and twenty one churls of indigo shipped in the
Hope etc. Two books of Paul Canning's sent home in the Hope,
but his account of moneys spent in Agra etc. not yet sent
by Tho. Keridge. The difference between Captain Best and
Thomas Arthington [to the East India Company] , from
Saldania, 18th June, 1615. By the Hope.
Aboard the Dragon.
Their passage from England to Saldania from the 4th March
to the 5th June. Williams Higons, Ric. Starkey (upon the packs) ;
these two only dead in the Dragon ; Higons the 24th May, 1615.
The news which the Hope brought from Surratt hath furnished
our General sufficiently. He commendeth much the General,
Captain Keeling. The masters of your ships will not be brought
to confer their observations together. Your act in your commis-
sion concerning dead men's goods is not well understood ; which
you may please to reform and to write the construction thereof,
being the 10th article of your commission for seafaring causes.
Mr. Barwick master of the Peppercorn is removed and placed
master in the Lion. Mr. Curtis master of the Lion is put into
the Peppercorn. A falling out between Captain Harris and his
cape merchant about good [ ? ] , made friends again by the
council. Wm. Cradle for abuses displaced from being master in
the Expedition and made master's mate of the Dragon, and Tho.
Bonner placed master of the Expedition. The pursers excluded
the council and the causes why. Ten of the condemned men set
willingly ashore at Saldania. Commendations of their bread and
ship-beer unto Saldania. His advice and directions concerning
our ships' nearest course for the Cape out of England to the Cape
EAST INDIA COMPANY S RECORDS 195
Thomas Keridge to Wm. Edwards.
Laus Deo. In Agemere, the 23rd of November, 1614.
ORSHIPFUL Sir, Having intelligence from Mr. Ald-
worthe of your purpose in coming hither to the court,
I held it my duty to advise of such things as I held
fitting in the behalf of the right worshipful Company,
which in my general letter to Captain Downton and yourself I
have written, whereunto I refer myself. And for that I have had
some experience of this court, I have advised you should come well
furnished with fitting trifles for continual presents for the king,
which, though it may seem ridiculous, you shall find that longer
than something is to be given former favour and respect will be
restrained, the king so exceedingly delighted with toys, which I
may well so term, for anything that is strange, though of small
value, it contents him. So that you must use means to procure
all things fitting, as rich gloves, wrought or embroidered caps
and purses, looking-glasses, Venice drinking glasses, curious pic-
tures in stone, in wood, in wax or painted, knives great and small
exceedingly requested, striking clocks ; if a jack to roast meat on,
I think he would like it ; or any toy of new invention, though but
for sight only, will please him ; if any coloured beaver hats or
silk stockings for his women, they will be esteemed. Fit
presents for some of the nobility must also be thought upon,
choice sword blades of the country fashion much requested and,
if extraordinary good and will endure bending, nothing is more
esteemed ; if you have store, as Sir Henry Middleton had, bring
many, they will sell to great profit ; knives great and small, cases
of bottles filled with strong waters and such-like things, whereof I
doubt not your ships are well provided, being we suffered the
inconveniency of the want of them. I have advised concerning
broadcloth ; this the principal place for sale of it ; and I think it
requisite you should bring some small quantity of all sorts of
other commodities, though they bear good price below, that this
people may have the better knowledge what our country yieldeth ;
l 9 6 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
and if you advise I will procure the king's letter for your safe
Sir, your care must be in the choice of your company and
servants, that they be men of civil conversation and government,
the contrary a fault incident to our nation in foreign parts. At
Amadabaz you are to fit yourself with provision for your journey,
where all things are cheapest to be had, good horses only excepted,
which are to be had here reasonable, and if you advise for any I
will provide they shall meet you at Jalver (Jhalra Patan ?) which
is near the midway from Amadabaz hither. Saddles and furni-
ture are to be had at Amadabaz reasonable and choice [to]
And thus, though unknown, you see I am bold to advise in
what I think needful, hoping you will take it in good part and
excuse my present haste, with remembering my duty to yourself.
I wish all prosperous success to your affairs and rest
Your loving friend to be commanded,
Richard Cocks to the East India Company.
(Sent by the Sea Adventure to Siam, and so to Bantam, whence
it was brought by the Dragon. Received, 19 May, 1617.)
Firando in Japan, the 25th November, 1614.
May it please you to understand that the Clove
being departed from hence towards England, the 5th
of December, 1613, I went within three days after to
Langasaque, accompanied with Mr. Wm. Adams and Mr. Edmund
Sayer to the intent to have bought a junk to have made a voyage
for Siam and have saved the monsoon, as Captain John Saris left
1 Some gaps in this letter have been filled up from O.C. 201, which is almost a
duplicate of it.
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS igj
order. But there was no junk to be sold, all being made ready to
go, some one way and some another, according to their owners'
directions ; amongst which there were four or five that were bound
for Cochinchina and offered us freight as other men paid ; where-
upon by general consent we agreed to make a voyage for that place,
because, some 2 or 3 years before, John Joosen, a Dutchman, in
going in a junk for Syam could not get that place, but was con-
strained to put into Cochinchina to Quinham (Quinhon), where
he was well received of the king, and made a far better voyage
than he should have done at Syam ; which being considered, as I
said before, we made a cargazon of 730^. sterling, wherein was
eight broadcloths and two hundred pounds sterling in rials of
eight, the rest in cloth cambaia and half our elephants' teeth ;
and Mr. Tempest Peacock and Walter Carwarden appointed to go
with it, because they might come back again in time to go the
next monsoon for Syam. And for their better entertainment in
Cochinchina, they carried the King's Majesty of England's letter