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Kic. Cocks.


A consultation of merchants whose names are hereunder written,
held the 28th November, 1614, in Suratt, concerning a dis-
covery of the coasts and parts of Peartia (Persia) for trade of
merchandising, viz.

NE Richard Steel, an Englishman, who came lately
through Turkey and Peartia and now having been
here these five months past hath from time to time
given such reasons unto Mr. Tho. Aldworthe and
Wm. Biddulph of great hope for trade and commerce in Pearsia,
and especially the convenience of place for shipping to arrive and
discharge at, whereof General Downton will make particular
relation, and the concordancy of divers reports from others with
this of Richard Steel gave cause of this consultation, whereof
when we had with our best judgments debated and considered, it
was generally thought fit and concluded that the said Steel,


accompanied with John Crouther, should proceed in the said
discovery under such a competent charge as by our estimation
may amount unto 150^. ; the manner of payment thereof, for the
avoiding of the danger of robbery or other accidents, was not now
concluded but referred to further consideration.

General Nich. Downton.

Will. Edwards.

Tho. Aldworthe.

Tho. Elkington.

Edw. Dodsworth.

Tho. Mitford.


Captain Nicholas Downton to Sir Robert Sherley.


When in the Peppercorn I parted from you at
Saldania, my poor means for so long a passage con-
sidered, I little thought from this place ever to have
written to your Honour into Persia, yet God of His mercy (not-
withstanding the great mortality amongst my people) continued
my life not only home, but also though in weak estate carried
by the desire of my mind this far outwards towards Java,
Moluccoes, Japan and China, if I find fit encouragement. And
here meeting divers of my countrymen, as Mr. Thomas Aldworthe
of Bristowe and Richard Steel, by whom I was informed of your
landing, and evil usage by the Portugals and their favourers at
Sinda, with the loss of divers of your followers, by name not
knowing whom, and of your long abode in the Mogore's court,
Sir, by a true heart I swear I shall always rejoice in hearing of
your happy fortunes and also have a friendly feeling sadness if I
should hear the contrary. It gladdeth me to hear that my Lady
Sherley hath so well overcome her sea travel, and departed Agra
in health. William Hawkins died homewards ; so did most of
the people in that ship. He was buried in Ireland, and his wife
Y126S. p


is married to Gabriel Towerson. Mr. Towerson did visit your
son, and informed me of his health. Myself put into Ireland, for
want of better winds and strength of people to work my ship, and
there stayed till the depth of winter before I had means to bring
her home ; where being arrived, by reason of extremity of cold
and other infirmities of body, I went little out of my chamber till
I was carried to these ships made ready for this journey, wherein
though weak I desired to be transported into a warmer climate.
Sir, besides the ancient desire long dwelling in me, for to under-
stand or find out fit place for ships safely to ride and do business
within the king of Persia his dominions, the little conference I
had with your Honour at Saldania of the hopes withinland for
sales of cloth, and other our country commodities or to barter and
exchange them for the commodities of those countries, together
with your report of the magnanimity and noble virtues of that
king, much increase my desire that our countrymen may have
intercourse into Persia. Diligent have I since been by all means
possible to inform myself of some place fit to arrive on the coast,
wherein Jasques is the most hope we have ; yet that is no harbour
nor safeguard for ships at all times, but may find time in fair
weather, if we have the country to friend, both to land and receive
goods, but it is a world of inconveniences when men can have no
hope of quiet being by sea. Also I hear that in the town are
divers Portugals, which are always enemies to all our proceedings
and by reproachful slanders use ever to incense all nations against
us ; besides, according to their force, they will show their malice,
but I will leave that to the trial of time. And though I remain
destitute of a main and principal ground fit to lay a foundation
upon (which is safe harbour for our ships) my estate or credit in
this business stands in hazard, since my commendations or
scandal I expect to follow according to the success. And as the
charge will be great and dangerous if it miss, so wise men desire
to be strengthened with the best assurance by likelihood that
they may, before they will adventure their goods, yet I have now
resolved, leaving the success to the pleasure of God. I purpose
to put the Indian Company to that expense in sending this
bearer Richard Steel to you into Persia, desiring your help in this
business, which may as I think increase your honour with the


king for bringing trade by sea into his country, and bind your
countrymen more to honour and respect you, to which by all good
offices I do assure myself your heart is inclined. If these my
endeavours effect nothing, I shall be for ever disgraced for under-
taking a business beyond my commission. If it prove well, the
Indian Company will not fail to be thankful to you, and I, that
have no ability to do good or hurt, shall be bound to pray for you
for lending your best assistance to save my credit, for I forget no
syllable of what concerning this business I formerly have received
from you. The thing principally to entreat you for is to move
the king, and know his Majesty's pleasure, whether he will grant
and give his firm and chop for the subjects of the King of
England to have free intercourse and peaceable commerce
throughout all his dominions, which if his Highness will grant,
then that it may please him that Jasques may be prepared by his
directions for the courteous entertainment of the English, when
it shall please God to send any of our ships thither, as also for
their quiet transportation from thence to the court and other
places as occasion shall import ; and also that it may please you
to give Richard Steel, who is now the Indian Company's servant,
all furtherance for his information concerning merchandising
business, as also your help for his quiet passage out of Persia
homewards, to give account to the Indian Company of his good
endeavours herein, and the like to whomsoever shall come in his
company, who is to return to Surat, there to make our factory
understand the same, the better to govern themselves according
as occasion offereth itself. So with all true affection and friendly
respect, I remember my service to your Honour, ever resting

Your loving friend,

Nich. Downton.

p 2



John Sandcrofte to the East India Company.
Laus Deo. In Zurat, the 29th November, 1614.

IGHT worshipful Sir and Sirs,

May it please you, the igth April we crossed the
line in 4 degrees 43 minutes in circa variation. The
15th June we arrived at Saldania thanks be to God in
safety, viz. the Gift, Hector, Hope and Solomon. May it please
you, Captain Best arrived at Saldania the 20th February last and
stayed there 14 days; Captain Newport the 21st March, departed
the 31st ditto ; Mr. Pet arrived there 21st of May, departed the 7th
of June. The 30th of June we set sail from Saldania ; the 6th of
August we arrived at St. Augustine in St. Lawrence with the
4 ships, thanks be given to God, having had many contrary winds
since we came from the Cape of Bona Esperanza. At St.
Augustine we bought some 20 head of cattle, most of them ex-
cellent good and fat and cost 5, 6, and 7 shillings per head, and
for a silver chain worth 8 or 9 shillings two beasts of the best
sort. The people did much desire chains such as came from the
masters' whistles, being all silver ; those which were gilt they
would not take at any rate. If we had had more chains they
would have sold us more cattle. The second of September we
crossed the line. The 9th ditto we arrived in the bay of Delisha
in the island of Socatra. The 12th ditto the cape merchants
bought of the king all his aloes which were merchantable, which
was 27 kintals in circa at thirty dollars per kintal, whereof
14 kintales were dry, the rest more green ; but all excellent goods.
The 14th ditto we. set sail from thence. The 23rd ditto the mon-
soon left us. The second of October we fell with Dabul, being in
17 degrees 35 minutes in circa. The 15th ditto we arrived in the
road of Swallie in good safety, thanks be to God, having lost in
the four ships twelve men in circa, but not any one merchant or
other man of note ; and the rest of the people in better health
than they were when we came out of England, which I pray God



long to continue. May it please your Worships, about a year
since, the Portingals took in this road a great ship of a n or
1,200 tons called the Remewe richly laden, and divers great men
were interested therein, and the Great Mogul's mother was a
great adventurer, which caused the Great Mogul to drive the
Portingals out of this place and hath made peace with the king of
Decane who hath joined their forces together and hath besieged
most of the forts belonging to the Portingals between this and
Goa. The Moors have vowed to drive them out of this country,
which they might easily do with the help of these four ships.
The Viceroy of this place did much import our General to go to
Daman with the ships, which is some 13 leagues off, to keep the
road that the frigates might not bring in no victuals to the
besieged, but in regard our General could not do it, the Viceroy
would have forced him to go, whereupon he hath much detracted
time, but now all is in good forwardness, and I think Mr. Ed-
wards will be ready to go for Agra within two days at the farthest,
and is promised by the Viceroy to do him all the kindness he
can ; and he sent for Mr. Edwards two days since and gave him
a present worth 300 dollars in circa. The 23rd of this month
Mr. Emsworth and Mr. Wood departed this life. The rest of the
merchants are in good health, thanks be to God. I cannot advise
your Worships of the prices of commodities in this place, in
regard there hath not anything been bought or sold since our
coming, only a few swords at 7 and 8 dollars per piece. Here
is great store of goods in the country, and we are to go to
Amadavar, Cambaia and Brothera to buy goods for the lading of
one of the ships, but which of the ships shall go home it is
not known. Mr. Oxwicke and Mr. Young went to Baroach
the 23rd ditto to buy cotton yarn and other goods. Here
is one Mr. Steel, who is employed into Persia to discover
trade, and Mr. Crouther is to go with him. Mr. Steel do
pretend he is able to carry ships to a port in Persia where silk
may be bought at js. per pound. We do hear of the death of Sir
Henry Middleton and of the most part of his men, which is much
lamented. At our coming to this place we found Mr. Aldworthe
and Mr. Biddulph, who have been very well used. Mr. Canning
died long before our coming. And thus with remembrance of my


humble duty and prayer to the Almighty for the long continuance
of your Worships' good healths and happy success in all your

Your Worships' servant in all duty to be commanded,

John Sandcrofte.

Laus Deo. In Amadavar, the 19th December, 1614.

IGHT worshipful Sir and Sirs,

May it please you, the 13th of this month we
arrived here in safety, thanks be to God, having
brought up with us 12 chests money to buy goods for
the lading of one of the ships for England, and to send for Agra
88 broad cloths, 192 sword blades, a chest of looking-glasses, a
trunk of comb-cases, divers pictures, and burning-glasses, besides
the present ; but the particulars cannot advise, in that have them
not. Mr. Edwards, Mr. Rogers, Mr. Mitford, Mr. Browne,
Mr. Young, Mr. Ufflett, Mr. Fettiplace, Mr. Smith, Mr. Prowde
is to go for Agra ; Mr. Aldworthe, Mr. Dodsworth, Mr. Pres-
ton, Mr. Battie and Mr. Elmore is to stay here to provide
goods ; Mr. Hamden, Mr. Humphrey Elkington, Richard Pitt
and myself are appointed to go to-morrow to Cambaya, to buy
what goods we can at reasonable prices that serves for England.
May it please you here is great store of goods in the country
and at reasonable rates. It is reported here is Serkesse
(Sarkhej) indigo enough to lade three or four ships. The
merchants hold it at 10, 11, and 12 rupees the maund (the maund
contains 32 or 33 lbs. English in circa ; 2 rupees 5 pice make
a rial of 8, being new ; the old rials is worth 2 rupees and 10 pice,
the rial being 164 pice in circa). This day we bought 50 maund
of rich indigo as good as ever I saw in Aleppo, for 15 rupees the
maund. We sold this day 6 broadcloths at 8£ rupees the covad
(being 34 inches) and 13 sword blades at 14 rupees per blade.
The Portingals here burnt divers small towns, which hath brought
these people to be their utter enemies. There stayed nobody at
Brothera, in that the gumlac did not prove this year and that


2I 5

there was none to be had. As occasion shall be offered I will not
fail, God willing, to write your Worships by every conveyance.
This is a very good country, a very good air and a quiet sort of
people. I should have been glad to have spent my time in these
parts, if it had not pleased your Worships otherwise to dispose of
me, to which am very well content. And thus, with remembrance
of my humble duty, commit your Worships to the gracious pro-
tection of the Almighty.

Your Worships' servant in all duty to be commanded,

John Sandcrofte.


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure,
at or near Firando.

Firando, in Japan, the 2nd of December, 1614.

R. WICKHAM, Yours dated yesterday, or rather at
10 o'clock yesternight, came this morning to my hands
with the 13^ mass, which I gave to Mr. Nealson. If
Captain Adams will not carry John Phebe with him,
let him use his own discretion etc. Even now per Yasimon Dono
I have received your other letter and am much grieved at the
news of another leak. Captain Adams wrote me nothing thereof,
and Yasimon Dono the bringer hereof saith it is a matter of
nothing and will easily be stopped within ship, and for that pur-
pose is come to fetch two or three barks to unlade stones into.
I know Captain Adams will not adventure his life in desperate
sort if he saw any just occasion. If the wind be out of the way,
I ^ would be glad of your company. I have not received any
money for Ed. Sayer. They which owe it are none of the
Hastings in paying. I had rather it were in his purse than mine,
etc. (I mean in Ed. Sayer's). You gave me a great lock to put



on a chest or door, but I know not where it is, neither where the
key of the lock of your chamber door is. If Toshtro have that
key let him return it per this bringer ; and write me a word where
the great lock and key is. Mr. Nealson saith you gave it him but
that he received it not. Commend me to Ed. Sayer, Signor
Damian and Signor John. And so I end, with hearty commen-
dations to yourself, resting

Your loving friend at command,

Ric. Cocks.


Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure,
at Cochi, in Firando.

R. WICKHAM, John Japan promised me to leave me
the writings of the boy Tushma, how he bought him,
and render up his right to me. Let him send me those
writings if he have them, or send me word where I
shall find them. I send John Phebe of purpose to bring this
letter to you, understanding the junk is ready to put to sea.

Ric. Cocks.
Firando, 3rd December, 1614.




A document in Japanese, being a list of parcels, with their weights :
in all, seven packages, wrapped tip in leather, matting, etc. Sakuyemon
gives his sealed receipt for them on the 22nd August [1613] . Pro-
bably he had undertaken to carry them to some other part of Japan?
1 Communicated by Dr. Riess, of Tokio University.



Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, aboard the Sea Adventure,
at Cochi in Firando.

Firando, in Japan, the 3rd of December, 1614.

R. WICKHAM, Your letter with the paper in Japan
characters I have received, and am heartily glad the
leaks prove otherwise than was expected. Also I have
spoken to Mr. Nealson and received your scissors of
him, and send them along to you per the bearer hereof, John
Phebe. And for John Ocanano the Spaniard, I know not what
other course you should take with him but set him ashore at
Syam, for as I understand him that was his desire. Only if any
English ship be there to carry him to Bantam, I know you will
favour him in what you may ; or else send him to Patania, if
shipping be there to carry him. I for my part have not been for-
getful to give him something out of my poverty. If you or others
do the like, no doubt God will reward you, etc. I verily think
now that you will have a fair wind, and therefore the Lord
prosper you in your affairs and send you a good voyage and safely
to return. Amen.

Your loving friend at command,

Ric. Cocks.
On back :

I pray you send me your packing bill with the number of
chests and fardles, and what is in them, to put in the waste




Thomas Elkington to John Oxvvicke, at Barochc.
In Surrat, this 8th December, 1614.

IOVING Friend, Your health desired etc. By letters
received from Mr. Edwards and the rest I have under-
stood of their safe arrival and departure from Baroch.
They advise me for the payment of 3,000/. or there-
about, if you charge me therewithal ; it shall be accomplished
whensoever you do the same according to their order. Our
General for use of the ships is to be fitted with some strong
dutties, which here are not to be had ; therefore he would have
you to provide and send him so soon as you can 20 corge of the
strongest you can there procure, being for the mending and
making of sails ; and hereafter as he shall have cause of more he
will advise you. Our elephants' teeth we have sold at 70 mamoo-
dies the maund, but not yet all delivered or money received, but
hope for all. And this is all the sales of import that hitherto we
have made. News we have not much to advise you ; only on
Sunday last passed by, within musket shot of the ships, 60 sail of
frigates of the Portingals, which, as far as those aboard could
perceive, went towards the northward.

Thus for present not having other, I rest and leave you to

Your loving friend,

Thomas Elkington.


Thomas Aldworthe to John Oxwicke in Barocha.
Brodera, this 9th of December, 1614.

^R. OXWICKE, We hear there is a difference between
Narangee and the other broker, so must you with your
discretion temper it that the general business be not
hindered ; for though we ought to respect Narangee as
an honest man and our broker, yet if any other broker can fit us
with better bargains than he, you are in such a case to take your


advantage as heretofore told you ; when not, then fitter to use
one than two. Only have a care the business be not delayed,
and for your better assistance Mr. Farewell is sent down, for that
we have no cause to leave any Englishmen here as we thought to
have done. So hoping on your careful endeavours, I commend
you to God.

Your loving friend,

Tho. Aldworthe.

Herewith are sent you
3 musters 2^, 3, 5, of white baftas
with their prices. They are half an
inch narrower and one covad shorter
than those of Barocha.


Thomas Elkington to John Oxwicke in Baroche.

Laus Deo. In Surrat, the 10th December, 1614.

flOVING Friend, Hearty commendations with desire of
your health etc. Two days past I wrote you a few
lines, requesting you to provide for our General 20 corge
of strong dutties such as may be fit for making and
mending of sails and that it be done with as much speed as you
can. Now you shall understand that yours of the 7th present I
have received by the Nabob's peon and according to your writing
have sent you by him z\ covads stammel and 2| covads Venice
red, not having any cloth of the colours you sent for muster, and
10 sword blades crooked, in price of which you may use your
discretion and go the nearer hand with him in regard of the kind-
ness he hath showed to Mr. Edwards. We have not here sold
any under 40 mamoodies the piece and so with you I think they
may be very well worth. Your own are not yet out of the custom
house ; else would have sent them. I perceive you have hitherto
done little in the providing of those commodities that are there to


be had. You being there present shall see what is most requisite,
yet withal it were good to consider of the small time we have
remaining to do much business in. You write of a note that
Mr. Edwards should send for the 5 covados cloth, but I never
received any such ; notwithstanding upon your own letter have
sent them. Thus for present not having other, I commit you to
God's holy protection, resting

Your loving friend,

Thomas Elkington.

To Mr. Bayly Ball I pray commend me and request him to
hold me excused that I write him not. I am not forgetful of his
things with the Nabob, yet nothing done therein.


See under No. 189.


Richard Cocks to the Company of Merchant Adventurers of
England resident in Middleburgh.

[Firando, 10th December, 1614.]

IGHT worshipful Sir and Sirs,

May it please you to understand that I, being
[ ] unworthy brother of that your

right [worshipful Company] of Merchant Adventurers
of England thought [it] my duty, being in these remote
parts of the world, [to write] unto your Worships of my health
and welfare, not being [able by] means of other employments
to make my personal appearance as otherwise I would do,


if place and opportunity would give me leave, which I beseech
your Worships to take notice of [and not] let me fall into any
broke of the house, for may it [please your Worships] to under-
stand that for the space of 15 or 16 [years I] have been very
little or no time at all in England, my employments being still in
foreign parts ; and it is now almost [ ] years past since

my last departure out of England in the Clove of London, under
the command of Captain John Saris our [General] , where we
passed a most long and tedious voyage of almost three years,
doubling the Cape Bona Speranza and coming along the southern
parts of Ethiopia, entering in [the Red Sea ?] and visiting other
islands and places along [ ] Cambaia and India,

till we arrived at Bantam, and from thence went and visited
[ ] islands of Molucos, and so took [our course for

the ?] mighty empire of Japan, arriving [ ] the

1 2th day of June 1613 [ ] . Large privileges of the

Emperor [ ] all parts of his dominions, with promise

[ ] further discovery to the northwards [ ]. The

Dutch arrived here some three years before [and obtained ?] the
like privileges, they being assisted [therein by William ?] Adams,
an Englishman who hath remained [ ] in these parts and

now is entertained into the [service of the] right worshipful
Company of English Merchants trading [into the] Indies, etc.
Also may it please your Worships to understand that of late the
Emperor of Japan hath banished all [Jesuits], priests, friars and
nuns out of his whole dominions of Japan, shipping them away
some for Amacan (Macao) in China (where it is said they will
have but cold entertainment) and the rest for the Manillias or
Phillippinas, and hath pulled down and [ ] all their

monasteries and churches. They lay the fault of this [
or alteration in the arrival of our nation in these parts, though it
is well known their own merits and bad behaviour [are the] chief
occasion thereof. Once gone they are, and many here nothing
sorrow thereat etc. At present here is [rumours of?] wars in
Japan betwixt Ogusho Same, the Emperor [ ] and

Fidaia Same, the son of Ticus Same [the deceased Emperor ?] ,
Fidaia Same the young prince being strongly [ ] or

fortress of Osekey with 80,000 or 100,000 [ ] come


of it in the end God He knoweth [ ] other is in

person [ ] an army of 300,000 men. I know not

what else [ ] advise your Worships of, and leave you

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