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few men in our fleet, whereof two m< 1
Mr. Emsworth and Timothy Wood, for which the Almighty
make us ever thankful, amongst many others I thought it

unfit to certify you of our proceedings here since our
in the country.

The 14th of October, 1614, we arrived in the road <>f Swally,
where our General sent an

Surrat of our arrival and to request the principal of thei
come aboard our ships to advise us of the state and condition of
the country, and in what safety we might land OUT goods,
what store of commodities were fitting for our country, with their

The 16th Mr. Thomas Aldwurthe came aboard and
that the countries within themselves . only at \

with the Portingals ; our safeties there not to be doubted, all
former matters being concluded and ended ; and for buyio
commodities we could not have come in a more tit time, by
reason of the wars betwixt the Portingals and the Indians, which
had continued for these two years past, so that tlv
very little or no commodities transported by sea. Mr. Aldworthe
likewise acquainted us of the death of Paul Canning and
that of necessity one must reside at Agra, both f<>r holding
respondency with the Mogore as for the buying of commodities
at certain times of the year; and therefore at a Council holden
the iSth of October, Mr. William Edwards was made choice of
to reside at Agra with seven other merchants, and Mr. Thomas
Aldworthe to remain principal at Surrat with the rest of the
merchants. And having so disposed of the factories we made all
haste that could be for the landing of our goods, that we might
proceed about our business for the lading one ship or more for


England, as well for your encouragement in proceeding here as
to give you notice of a port in Percia called Jascas, lying betwixt
Sinde and Ormouce in the latitude of 26°, where ships of
great burthen may very well come unto ; and therefore if you will
send shipping thither no question but you may have a trade
settled there, which will be very commodious if God give a
blessing unto it. For I have been informed by many (espe-
cially by one Richard Steel, merchant, who came from Aleppo to
Spahan in Percia and so into India, with one John Midnall, who
died at the Mogore's court, and that by means of the said Steel
all his goods and moneys are in deposito in the Mogore's
treasurer's hands, which amount unto five or six hundred pounds,
to make good the rest of an account due unto Mr. Leat, Mr.
Abbot and others that were interested in his Percian voyage),
that Percia will vent five hundred cloths and one thousand
kerseys, Agam colours, per annum to very great profit, besides tin
in bars, lead, iron, cony skins, fitches and other commodities of
the like sorts, for the Percian country is so cold that for six
months in the year they wear cloth; and also there is divers
commodities of India will give great profit there. Upon which
encouragements, by a general consent of a council, we have
entertained the said Richard Steel in your sen-ice to come home
through Percia again for better discovering of the country, and
have given him only money to bear his charges. More he did
not require, but doth wholly refer himself unto you for a reward
when his labour of discovery shall be shewn. We have also
appointed John Crouther to go along with him to Spahan and
then to return to us again for our better instruction of Indian
commodities vendible in those parts ; but if either should die
before their coming to Spahan then is the other to proceed for


At our landing at Surrat we stood betwixt hope and despair
for the space of a month whether we should proceed in these
countries or no, for by Mocrob Chan, chief governor of Surat,
we had many wrongs done us, ourselves stayed so that we could
have no recourse to our ships, our goods taken and used at his
pleasure, our arms that we brought for our defence taken from us,
and forced us to show the king's presents, which formerly we had


certified to the court should not be seen until they were ;
to the Mogore (only to make us break promise, to bring us in
disgrace with the Emperor), and so with delays and by I
kept us in Surrat from proceeding about our businesses until the

last of November; and then with much ado were licensed to
proceed for the buying of commodities. The 3rd we cam<
Barroch, where great store ofcalicoes are made; and having
the musters of many sorts, as also of cotton yarn and indi
l.ft three merchants therewith a commission for the buyii
these commodities, if they could be had at reasonable pri

The 9th we came to Brodera, where commonly is store of
gumlac, where we purposed to have left two merchants, but not
finding any quantity we departed without leaving any thi i

The 13th we came to Amadavrs, which city was the seat of
the king of the Gogerats ; it is a great town as spacious as the
city and suburbs of London, where we found not many commo-
dities for our purpose, only indigoes, of which there is commonly
great store, for the countries round about doth bring their com-
modities here to be sold.

The 20th we sent three merchants to Cambay with two
thousand rupees to be employed in quilts and carpets.

Here in Amadavares we stayed 20 days to provide ourselves
of carts and camels for our journey for Agra ; in which tin*
bought 15 churls of indigo Chirkes at 10, io.}, n, u and
rupees per maund, which is thirty-two pounds. Some indi]
of Byana there were in town, of which we had bought but little
quantity. Thus having no further at present to certify you of,
I humbly take my leave and rest

Your servant to be commanded,

Thomas Mitford.
December 26th, 1614.



John Crouther to the Governor and Committees of the East

India Company.

Amadavar, the 26th of December, anno 1614.

^GHT Worshipful, my reverent duty in all humble
manner remembered, etc. Having received certain
notice of the return of one of the ships from this place
for England, and myself being to undertake a long
and tedious journey as hereafter I will declare unto your Wor-
ships, I thought it a part of duty before my departure to give
your Worships advertisement of all occurrences according as the
shortness of time and place will permit me. Wherefore, to let
pass the tedious discourse of our voyage betwixt England and
Surat, fearing to be troublesome and knowing your Worships shall
receive ample advice from the General and masters, it may please
you to understand that the 15th of October we arrived in the
road of Suallye, where the same day Mr. Aldworthe came aboard
unto us, who brought us certain advice of the wars betwixt the
Portingals and the Mogul : that Chaoull was besieged by the
king of Decanee and Damon by the Mogul his forces, and that
Mocrob Chan was general of the forces against Damon and
governor of the kingdom of Surat. The next day Mr. Aldworthe
with three of the factors went up to Surat to entreat Mocrob
Chan that he would be pleased to give us the benefit of the king's
firman which he had granted unto us, and that he would go down
unto the general to ratify the same. He seemed at the first to
receive great content that we were arrived, but excused himself
that he could not go down aboard the ships by reason that their
Ramdam was not expired, and, that being past, we should have
what in reason we would desire ; yet underhand secretly he had
given a special command that none should dare to buy any of our
commodities without his license. He delayed us in this kind
three or four days till at last, being importuned by Mr. Aldworthe
and Mr. Dodsworth, he sent Hadgeeozan, whom the General
received, and invited him to go aboard, but he excused himself;


so the General having bestowed a present upon himself and

another upon Mocrob Chan which he sent l>v him, he dep
with great shows of content. In his company went Mr. Ald-
worthe, Mr. Emsworth, and Mr. Mitford. Mr. Elkington three

days afterwards w> nt up to Mr. Emsworth to \i-it him, he being

fallen sick of a tlux and a fever. Now Mocrob Chan, having
these merchants in his power, began to show himself in hi- true
colours, discovering the secret rancour of his poisoned stomach
and the hidden malice which he beareth unto our nation. I i
ently lie caused all the ways to be kept betwixt the town and
the ships by his servants and soldiers, that no letters nor provision
might be brought unto us; withal demanding us to land the
goods we had, and to go with the ships against Damon, which if
we would not consent unto, then we should take what goods we
had in the country and so depart. Whereupon some few bales
of indigo and packs of cotton wools were sent aboard, which Mr.
Aldworthe had provided before our coming. Mocrob (dun
seeing that he could not prevail, and thinking we would rather
forsake the country than yield unto his demands, rather for fear
of the king's displeasure than for any good-will he bore unto us,
gave us the benefit of the king's firman. In this sort, by this
malicious wretch's occasion we were delayed until the 7th of
November before we could unlade any goods, at which time we
discharged and sent unto Surat by carts overland all your packs
of cloth, all the pictures, two chests of sword blades, 12 chests of
money, the Mogul's present, 3 chests with cases of bottles, with
all the trunks of looking-glasses. The 8th, Mr. Edwards with
most of the factors went up to Surat, where instead of a welcome
we were most basely searched, Mr. Edwards himself not being
exempted. This course they took with all the rest of your goods,
opening the packs of cloth, the trunks of looking-glasses and
whatsoever, not sparing the king's presents, whereupon there
grew some difference betwixt ».he governor and our cape mer-
chants, but instead of kind usage he cast them in the teeth with
Sir Henry Middleton's doings in the Red Sea, threatening that
now he would seek to have restitution. In this manner we were
detained until the last of November, at which time Mr. Edwards
with most of your factors departed upon the journey towards this


place with the aforesaid 12 chests of money, the cloth and all
other goods which we had before discharged. We arrived here
the 13th of this month, and to-morrow Mr. Edwards meaneth to
take his journey towards Agra, with Mr. Mitford, John Browne,
Nicholas Uffiett, Robert Young, Henry Smith and Roger Prowde,
Francis Fettiplace and myself. Mr. Aldworthe, Mr. Dodsworth
and some others do remain here for the providing of indigo.
Humphrey Elkington, Edward Hamden and Richard Pitt are
sent to see what good may be done at Cambaya ; John Oxwicke
with three others are left at Baroche (two days' journey from
Surat in our way to this place) to provide cotton yarn and calicoes,
and Mr. Thomas Elkington, Edmund Aspinall with others are
left at Surat.

Thus far in the amplest manner that time and place will per-
mit me, I have showed to your Worships the estate of our business.
Concerning the estate of the country for sales and employments,
it may please you to understand that your vermilion, quicksilver
and elephants' teeth are in great request and will prove good
commodities in this place ; your cloth little respected and there
is only six bargained for at 20 rupees the covad, which are not as
yet delivered. Your cases of looking-glasses and knives are little
enquired after in these parts ; it is thought they and the cloth will
prove good commodities at the court. Your sword blades, some
few of the crooked ones have been sold at 14 rupees and of the
straight at 12. For the lead and iron, I fear they will be forced
to seek a new market for it. The country here is full of com-
modities, for by reason of the wars with the Portingals there hath
been but little shipped for the Red Sea or any other parts these
two years. There are bought here at several prices, as from
10 to 14 rupees the maund, at least 500 maunds of indigoes. As
yet they hold up their indigoes somewhat dear, but when they
shall perceive the small quantity that we intend to buy they will
fall apace, for they have great store lying upon their hands and
no vent for it.

At our being at Surat, upon certain encouragements which

Mr. Aldworthe by letters received from Sir Robert Sherley for

the discovering of trade into Persia, as also upon a notice of a

port in the king of Persia's country called Jasques, fit for our

Y 1268. R


ships of burden to come unto, and nut of any gre it d f the

Portingals, it was concluded by the consent of the General and
council that one of your Worships' factors, for which busim
pleased them to make choice of myself, should be sent hit 1
in the company of one Richard Steel, a young man of Bristol,
which came hither overland out of Persia in the company of one
John Midnall, which deceased at Agra; there by the means of
Sir Robert Sherley to learn how the king will be affect d to this
trade, as also to desire his letters unto the Governor of J asques
for our good entertainment, and to discover to the utmost of our
power what commodities of ours will vent in those parts and the
fittest places for the venting of them. Our business being accom-
plished there, Richard Steel is to proceed on forward to Aleppo
and from theme with all speed for England to acquaint your
Worships what is done in the business, and myself to return into
these parts. This business, although it was agreed upon at Suratej
yet was it not fully concluded until yesterday, which is the r< D
that, having so little time for to provide ourselves (for we intend,
God willing, to begin our journey to-morrow), that I have not so
amply advised you of all matters nor in so good form as willingly
I would ; but out of Persia, if it please God, I will advise you of all
occurrences from this forward. In the mean space I
your Worships to pardon these rude and scribbled lines and
impute it rather unto want of time than to any negligence in me.
And thus ceasing further to trouble your Worships at present,
I humbly take my leave, remaining

Your Worships' servant ever to be commanded,

Jo. Crouthcr.



William Edwards to Sir Thomas Smith, Governor of the
East India Company.

Anno 1614, the 26th of December, in Amadavaz.

IGHT Worshipful, the best of my service and wishes I
tender as rightly due unto your many favours, etc.

In my general advice I have related what my little
experience in those parts affords my pen and therefore
needless to trouble your Worship with the same herein. But
forasmuch as the same is general I have thought it not unfit to
acquaint you with some occurrences passed here by the council of
merchants in the point of residing at Agra, or the court of the
Great Mogul, which is that whereas your Worship and Company
out of your undeserved opinions have preferred me to that em-
ployment, and that in our consultations the merchants, having
rather respect unto your Worship and Company's wisdom than
any desert in me, have appointed me thereunto, and howsoever
my intent and purpose was to run in profession and fashion and
other circumstances of a merchant, yet my endeavours herein and
in what else for the general good shall appear cheerfully forwards,
and as my desire hath ever been to show my thankfulness unto
your Worships' love, so have I opportunity in a small measure
not to deserve but to continue your favourable opinions of my
sincere intentions. Your two young kinsmen, Mr. Henry Smith
and Mr. Roger Prowde, I have obtained to go along with me for
Agra by their own desires, but some oppositions in others. There
the Persian language is commonly spoken, which passeth through
all these countries ; here in Surat it is in little use, though most
understand it ; so I esteem they shall much more profit there
than here.

But in this employment at Agra, as it appears in our consul-
tations, the necessity of residency with the king is such, by the
report of Mr. Aldworthe and one Richard Steel, an Englishman,
of whom mention is made in my general advice, as cannot be
avoided, and he to be a man sent immediately from our king, for
that the title of merchant is of them despised, as appears in the

R 2


letter of Paul Canning's sent for England by Mr. Aldworthe.
The expense answerable must of necessity follow, and whi reas in
the said consultation an estimation of 300/. expense per annum is
set down, Paul Canning's letter having since been reviewed by
Mr. Aldworthe and the rest it appears thereby that between four,
five, or six hundred pounds per annum is the least thai can defray
the needful expense for himself and three or four persons more*
These things have somewhat troubled my thoughts, in respect of
the strict capitulation in your commission, insisting on the point
of frugality and abridgment of Paul Canning's charges, which by
the computation of Mr. Aldworthe is much to be enlarged. He,
being known to be a merchant both by profession and charge, was
wholly neglected, whereof he complained in his letter to Mr.
Aldworthe, wherefore the necessity being such as cither to keep
residency with the king or to give over this trade, we have jointly
concluded to make one year's experience of the charge, or till
your next ships' arrival here; and herein hoping of your Wor-
ship's and Company's good acceptance of my endeavours I do
with all willingness undertake this charge, which God make

Your servant Mr. Nelson, by virtue of your Worship's letter in
his behalf and his own desires, proceedeth to Agra with me, who
may in time be able to do your Worship and Company good

Right worshipful Sir, whereas it pleased your Worship and
Company to deliver me in your commission fit for residence in
the court of the Great Mogul, and that the merchants appointed
to determine the same have proceeded accordingly in their choice,
it was long debating in what manner and title I should proceed,
wherein my especial aim was to follow the letter of your commis-
sion in observing the fashion and profession of a merchant ;
whereunto was answered that if I should do so, it were much
better not to proceed, and so not to expect the continuance of a
trade, for that the title of a merchant is despised in the court, as
by experience in Paul Canning and Thomas Keridge, who while
they professed to belong to our king, and of his followers, they
were gracious in the eyes of the king and nobles, but afterwards
were much neglected. Wherefore, though jealous of giving


offence, yet the necessity of the present occasion makes me
presume on your allowance and good acceptance of my sincere
endeavours herein, and so it is ordained I proceed under the title
of the king's messenger and servant, as will appear in our consul-
tation. My humble request is that your Worship and Company
will conceive my intentions to be as I have professed and shall by
God's assistance manifest loyal and sincere.

Some disquiet it hath given me for the breach of your commis-
sion, though with all the allowance that this place can give, which
makes me bold to be thus tedious unto your Worship in my own
excuse herein, but I am too bold with your patience.

There is a lewd fellow in the Hector, of whom, though against
my custom, I must give notice of, Henry Brighust, one of the
quartermasters, of whom our General can say much for the times
past ; he is mutinous and scandalous and fit to work the destruc-
tion of a fleet. One thing among many I shall acquaint your
Worship with, and is that gathering divers together of his consort-
ship he professeth in these words, that if this trade were continued
Sir Thomas Smith and his crew for their private benefits will
overthrow the state of the commonwealth of England ; which
grew unto a public question among themselves pro and contra a
long while, for which he hardly escaped severe punishment ; but
by the mediation of divers in the ship, I was content to refer him
to your Worship and Company for his reward. He is generally
evilly conditioned and therefore I thought it my duty to advise of
so disdeserving a man.

I have been bold to consign unto your Worship by the order
of Mr. Robert Bell one truss of quilts and carpets
ffi -OlZ? marked as in the margin, which he ordained me to buy
for his particular use, which it may please your Wor-
ship to cause to be delivered him. So with my humble service
and prayer for your Worship's many happy years of government
over us I commend you to God's protection.

Letter continued from Ajmere.

Right worshipful Sir, we are now in the 14th March, and the
above is copy of one sent by sea in your returned ships. And
now it may please you to understand that our entertainment by


the Great Mogul hath been very honourable, as in my general
advice at large appeareth, and our expectation of a contenting
trade hereafter without obstacle or impediment, the Portin
being at present in deep disgrace with the king and people and
wearied in their proceedings, and hopeless of prevailing in their
purpose of surprising of or burning of Surat, whereby they hoped
to have fashioned their own peace; and now that they perceive
our ships to arrive on the coast at the last of the westerly
monsoons, and depart about the last of the easterly monsoons,
in the interim whereof no ships can stir on the coast, whereby
they arc prevented in their purposes, they doubtless will give ov< r
this place (so the king thinketh and so he wisheth) ; and the
country being full of commodities, viz: of indigoes of all sorts, and
calicoes also of all sorts, with cotton yarn, drugs and Others,
sufficient to lade every year 1,000 tons by weight. And as the
people of this country of all sorts pretend to love us, so I am sine
they fear us concerning their seas, for great and small are mer-
chants, and hereafter, the Portingals standing in these present
terms with them, they either will desire our waft of their ships for
the Red Sea or to freight our ships thither, wherein a course
would be thought upon, and order given in the same.

I presented the Mogul with your Worship's picture, which he
esteemed so well for the workmanship that the day after he sent
for all his painters in public to see the same, who did admire it
and confessed that none of them could anything mar imitate the
same which makes him prize it above all the rest, and esteems it
for a jewel.

In the returned ship gocth a pair of playing tables without
tablemen, which will follow. Let it please your Worship to
accept of them as a token of my remembrance, and acknowledg-
ment of the great debt I owe you. And so committing your
Worship to the merciful protection of God's providence, I rest
Your Worship's humble ever at command,

Will. Edwards.



Thomas Aldworthe to the East India Company.

Amadavas, this 27th of December, 1614 (stilo anglicano).

IGHT Worshipful, my duty remembered, etc. These
are certifying your Worships that in November last
was twelvemonth, I wrote you from this place by
letters I sent to Meselapatan with the James, wherein
I certified you at large of all things that passed here with us until
that time ; after which I wrote you again in September last by the
aforesaid way with Mr. Peter Floris, who wrote me that he meant
to depart from Meselapatan in October last, and so for Bantam,
and after that for England ; and although he make a long voyage
of it, yet by his writing me it seems it will prove profitable in the
end, which God grant. Your Worships shall now perceive that
it hath pleased God to send safe to Suratt Captain Nicholas
Downton with his four ships, who arrived at Sually Road on the
15th of October last, with all his people in health ; whereupon I
repaired aboard them the next day following, and after consulta-
tions had according to your orders given, it was concluded that
Mr. William Edwards should go up to Agra to be resident there,
with the king, and myself to remain in Suratt as before for the
ordering of your business in these parts. In which consultations
aforesaid it was determined that present provision should be made
for the relading of the Solomon with the greater part indigo, and
some baftas and cotton yarn to fill her, for which purpose Mr.
Dodsworth with three or four more came up with me to this
place, in company of Mr. Edwards, the better to safeguard our

Online LibraryEast India CompanyLetters received by the East India company from its servants in the East (Volume 2) → online text (page 22 of 35)