tion contest not with him, but such use as he shall make of the
house let him contribute as shall seem reasonable. Hold not
your commodities at too high a rate, for so the Flemings will
spoil your market ; but get what money you can into your hands.
Make away your broad cloth be it at 130 mass the matt, for the
Flemings hath great store which he seeks to make away albeit for
the money it cost ; and ours is very evil conditioned. What the
g' EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
cargazon of goods and money left with you amounts unto I can-
not say, for that the invoice is not summed, yet am I assured it is
sufficient for trial what may be done in these parts. And for that
the wages of Wm. Eaton, Walter Carwarden, and Edward
Saris is so small that the one half paid them here will not find
them apparel with other necessaries needful, wherefore there is
consideration to be had of them, and to pay them more than the
half if their need require. And for Mr. Wickham, who saith that
he is not the Company's servant, his time now out, and peremp-
torily saith he will not serve them under fourscore pound the
year, which I refuse to give him, the Company's express order
being to make the factors' wages themselves, who if I could per-
suade him no doubt will, as he shall deserve, be more bountiful
unto him than myself can, yet to be free of the exceeding and
intolerable trouble I have daily with him I have offered to double
his former entertainment, which was 20/. per year, and to make
it 40/. per annum till further advice out of England, which albeit
he unthankfully hath refused in your hearing protesting to allow
himself wages out of such goods as you shall deliver him to make
sale of for the Company, which I desire you carefully to prevent,
for the Company and myself, their unworthy substitute in this
place, will that no man under your command be his own carver
in any such fashion, referring the prevention thereof to your care-
ful discretion, and notwithstanding his absurdity I will that you
pay unto him here 20/. per year, which is the one half of what hath
been offered, and he refuseth. But [if] at [the] coming of the first
ship [he] will return, as he protesteth, you may let him go,
advising the Company as per occasion. And for that we are all
mortal I will that if it shall please God to take you out of this
life, Mr. Richard Cocks, I would have you give your place to
Mr. Peacocke, and if Mr. Peacocke die then to Mr. Wickham, if
apparent disorder in him enforce not the contrary ; and he dying
then to Mr. Eaton ; if he die then to Walter Carwarden ; if he
die then to Edward Saris. I pray be careful to leave your
business in the amplest manner you can. And thus referring all
what is here said or by haste omitted to the government of
your good discretion, whereof I have had good experience,
to the Company's profit, desiring you all to live and agree
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS g
together I leave, praying God to bless you and us in all our
Your loving friend,
as I acknowledge to have good occasion,
The 5th December, 1613.
Road of Ferando in Japan.
I pray forget me not in your love to Walter Carwarden and
Edward Saris, whom upon my life you shall find dutiful, honest,
and true, both to the Company and yourself. Vale.
Richard Cocks to Captain Adams and Rich. Wickham, in
Edow or elsewhere, the 24th December, 1613.
APTAIN Adams and Mr. Richard Wickham, when shall
please God to send you to Edow or Miaco and that
you have received money for such goods as you carry
up, either of the Emperor, or any other, then I pray
you furnish the young king of Firando, Tome Samme, with a
thousand taels, or what he stands in want of, in taking a re-
ceipt of his hand for the repayment thereof in Firando at
demand. Thus much the said king willed me to write in this
note for the more certainty of his furnishing there, which I pray
you both have a care to perform. And so I commit you to God.
From the English house at Firando in Japan the 24th December,
Your loving friend,
On the same sheet is a letter in Japanese from Cocks to Adams
and Wickham, dated Keicho, iSth year, 12th month, 21st day, em-
powering them to pay to Matsuura Hizen no Kami [i.e., the Tome
Samme referred to above'], against his bill for repayment in Firando,
io EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
10,000 mass of silver in ready money, or more if he requires it. The
prince is travelling to Edo, and wants the money on his way from
Surugo to that place. Cocks has been obliged to repeat the request in
Japanese in order to satisfy the prince. 1
Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham.
January the [ ] , 1613. Firando in Japan.
. WICKHAM, it being generally agreed upon (with
your own consent) that you make a voyage for Edow,
Sherongo, and those parts of Japan, with such a
cargazon of goods and merchandise as I should think
fitting, being assisted with Captain Wm. Adams for the better
despatching your business with the Emperor, with whom you
know he hath good entrance, and no other employment for him
at present ; yet those matters of the Emperor's being past, I
pray you detain him not there, but will him to make as much
speed as he can back for Firando, where there will be necessary
use of him.
And being arrived in those parts my opinion is that you take
up your lodging in the best merchant's house in the town where
you may have a gadonge (godown) fire-free to prevent the danger
thereof, which is not unknown unto you this country is much
subject unto, and to live under the roof of a natural Japan is better
than to be in the house of any stranger, be he Dutch, Spaniard,
Portugal, or of any other nation whatsoever ; and the better man's
house you lie at, the more credit it will be for you and the more
security you will live in what occasion soever happen. I myself
speak this per experience, as having made proof thereof. And
have an especial care not to trust any man with the Company's
goods without making ready payment ; for I am informed these
1 Communicated by Dr. Riess, of Tokio University.
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS SI
country people are not to be trusted, neither will any merchant
of account seek to buy upon credit, and for others, they are to be
And in my opinion it will be your best course to make choice
of some one man in those parts to assist you in making choice
and receiving of your monies, a thing much to be regarded in
these parts per means of the great deceit is used therein ; and
no doubt you may procure such a one for a small matter. And
make much of friends when you have them, and use these country
people kindly both in word and deed, for fair words will do
much and as soon are spoken as foul, and always good will come
thereof ; for these country people are not to be used neither with
bad words nor blows, no, not so much as servants entertained for
necessary uses ; but rather put them away if they be not to your
liking, and make choice of others.
And to use any speeches to persuade you from gaming I think
it is needless, for I hold you no gamester ; yet notwithstanding
the admonition of a friend is not to be rejected, and to say the
truth, many inconveniences happen and fall out per means of
gaming, although it be but to pass away the time for trifles ; and
therefore it is not amiss to forswear gaming.
It is good to use both Dutch, Spaniards, and Portugals kindly,
as also all other strangers ; and learn from them what you can,
but make them not partakers of your secrets or pretences.
And for sales or despatch of your commodities I know you will
use your best endeavour for our employers' benefit ; and there-
fore I will set you no stinted rate or price, but wish you to sell
away as time shall serve, at all prices, to turn all into ready
money before any other shipping come out of England that it
may not be said we lie still and do nothing but eat and drink
without taking care for anything. I hope you will not let the
Dutch go beyond you in this point.
You know that as yet we have not sold our English cloth under
8 taels the English yard, and cloth of Cambaia under four for one
profit ; but stand you not upon that matter, but sell away both
the one and other as you can, as also gunpowder, although it be
under 20 taels the barrel, which is a low price, yet you must
consider it is a dangerous commodity to be kept, and therefore
12 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
make despatch. Once use your best endeavour both for that and
the rest, as aforesaid, etc.
And for the two parcels of commodities left in the custody of
Andreas alias Zendoque Dono of Uringo and Quedoquea Stibio
Dono, at Edow and Sherongo, you are to take account of it as
being part of your cargazon.
And if Tome Samme, the young king of Firando, come unto you
with a note or remembrance of my hand, to lend him one thou-
sand taels or more, as Captain Adams will advise you, I pray you
take in my note and let him have the money, in giving you a bill
of his hand to repay it me here again in Firando at demand ;
which Captain Adams tells me I need not to stand in doubt of,
for that the Dutch have done the like heretofore and have re-
ceived good payment. But this must be done when you have
received money of the Emperor.
And having any overplus of that money lying by you, or that
is received for any other commodity, use your best endeavour to
send it to me per first sure conveyance (which I think will be per
Captain Adams) that it may not be dead, but be employed to the
Company's use, as occasion shall be offered.
And for your diet or such as shall be with you, I will not
prescribe you any rate, because I am unacquainted with the
place, but leave that to your own discretion, not doubting but you
will use frugality, etc.
And because you are to go overland from Osekey to Shrongo
in company of Captain Adams about the Emperor's business, and
that it is fit someone of trust go in the bark with the rest of the
goods per sea for that place, I have thought good to send John
Phebe with it, a man well known to Captain Adams, whom you
may entertain there as the Company's servant under you if you
find him capable or that it be fitting.
And forget not to write me per all conveyances what you do,
and learn out what you can touching trade into any place we yet
know not of; and God willing you shall not want to hear from
me so often as I find fit conveyance. And it is good you write
continually to Mr. Eaton for Osekey as I have willed him to do
the like to you ; for so may we from time to time understand of
each other's proceedings, and I be ready to supply your wants
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 13
with such commodities as lie by me, if in case you can sell them
you have there. And for a juribasso, if he which promised you
come from Langasaque (Nangasaki), you shall have him with
you, otherwise you must get one at Edow or Shrongo, and in
the meantime Captain Adams hath promised me that Andreas
shall help you, and tells me that you cannot want to find one
there to your content.
I know not what else to advise you of for present ; but if any-
thing come to my remembrance hereafter, you shall understand
thereof per first. And so the Lord send you a prosperous voyage
and safely to return. Amen.
Your loving friend,
The cargazon or invoice of goods, viz. :
The sum total of the whole cargazon amounts to 748/. 06s. old.
The numbers and poise of 173 bags of pepper as followeth,
Summa totalis 173 sacks pepper poise 8383 Catties cost
sterling 82L 17s. Old.
Mr. Wickham, I pray you have due care to give Captain
Adams content ; which you may easily do, if you use him with
kind speeches, and fall not into terms with him upon any
argument. I am persuaded I could live with him seven years
before any extraordinary speeches should happen betwixt us.
And the necessary use we have of him is as well known to you as
me. I hope a word will suffice for that matter.
The poise of 600 bars of lead as followeth :
Summa totalis 600 bars of lead poise 16,083 lbs. at [ ] per
c n cost sterling ml. $s. lod.
14 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
John Jourdain to the East India Company.
Bantam the 31st day of January anno 1613.
IGHT Worshipful, per the Expedition, who departed
from hence the 2nd ditto, I wrote at large of what
then passed and of the lading of 3972 sacks of pepper
for the account of the Sixth Voyage, amounting unto
the sum of Sxy^bh 1 rials of eight, custom and all charges, as per
an abstract sent home may appear. And the next day after her
departure out of this road came General Saris from Jappan in
the Clove, unexpected to have come this monsoon ; which was
the occasion that the factors of that voyage were unprovided of
pepper for her lading. Notwithstanding with much trouble and
diligence it was very soon effected and bought to the quantity of
6vooo sacks, at 15 rials of eight per 10 sacks, as per account, etc.
And- concerning the Darling who departed for Mossapotam
(Masulipatam) with the Dragon out of this road of Bantam the
10th of December, thinking to have gone through the straits of
Mallacca, was put back again and is gone through the straits of
Sundy, but she came not into the road, but had news from them
by a Holland ship which met with them some 17 leagues out of
Bantam 14 days past, doubting much of her putting back for
that she had many of her men sick. Also since my last writing
by the Expedition it hath pleased God to take Edward Langley
out of this miserable life, leaving in money 700 rials of 8 and
one great chest with divers commodities as per invoice in the
same chest may appear ; all which money and commodities is
delivered by General Saris' order unto the purser of the Clove,
Mr. Melsham, to be delivered to the Worshipful Company, as
also his will made and legacies given goeth in the little box
within the chest, also the copy of a confession made by the said
Edward Langley after his will ended, which the General will
deliver your Worships ; by the which confession you shall
perceive the bad consciences of some of the factors and the ill
carriage of this business formerly. And since this confession was
1 See note, Vol. I., p. 76.
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 15
made per Edward Langley I have understood that, after the
inventory of the whole goods was taken, that the said Ed.
Langley, having the keys of the warehouses in his hand, did
divers times fetch out cloth which maybe he had forgotten to
put to account, as also he trusted the keys in divers men's hands
which had nothing to do with the goods, after inventory was taken.
Therefore I doubt that some subtlety may be as well used in
this as in former matters, which I cannot certainly know until I
take a new inventory of all the loose goods, which as yet I have
had no time to do until this ship be gone ; then, God willing, I
mind to bring all the loose goods into one warehouse, for it lies
most confusedly and in great danger both for thieves and fire,
and especially with fire, which we have been in great danger
three times within ten days, the town being burnt, yet God be
thanked we have not received any harm, only some small charge
in covering the godowns with straw. And as for the plot of
ground which was given per the king to General Best, we cannot
get as yet the writing of the king to build upon it, but [he] doth
drive us off from day to day, hoping of some bribe besides the
1500 rials which was promised by General Best. The General,
Mr. John Saris, hath done his best in obtaining of this writing,
but he hath been put off by delays. Both General Best and
General Saris hath done their endeavours to effect that business,
being a matter of so great importance, both for the safeguard
of the goods, as also to avoid the great charge that we are at in
the hire of warehouses and portage, which if we can be permitted
to build, the extraordinary expense which we are now at will
free the charge of building within a short time. Now concerning
the business here it stands in the like manner as General Best
left it ; only we are, per appointment of General Saris, to be all
in one house both at bed and board, not doubting but we shall
hold that decorum as shall be fitting both for the profit of
the Worshipful Company and not scandalize our nation as
formerly it hath been in keeping so many houses, to the glory of
the Hollanders, who in their trade are our mortal enemies, and
to the profit of the Chinese and Javas, which doth look for such
opportunities to have one to cross another that they may the
better encroach upon us in the sale of their commodities, as it
1 6 EAST INDIA COMPA.YY'S RECORDS
was the last year about the buying of China commodities, hoping
that this year it will be carried in another manner. For I will do
my best endeavours to bring all things to right as well in
providing of China commodities as also for the lading of such
ships as we expect to be here in September next or thereabouts.
And as for the building of the house which the king hath
promised, if I see that we may build it upon a sure foundation I
will proceed therein ; otherwise I will leave it until further order
from your Worships. For that if the trade at the Moullucas be
not supplied I do not see what profit can be made here, having
trade in Guzerat and Coromandel ; for this place will not vent
the one half thereof, besides nothing to be had here but pepper ;
and a most unhealthful country; the Moullucas being a very
healthful place and the people willing to trade with us. But now
in regard that there is not any ship gone this year they will be
out of hope ; for that they did depend much upon the English
this year, which now they will be frustrate of their hopes and
hold the Hollanders' words to be true, who tells them that they
shall never see any English ship there but once in four years, and
then some small ship which can do them no good nor succour
them with anything, but only to induce them to be enemies with
the Hollanders, who do protect them from the Portugals and
others ; which, if any ship had gone this year thither, there had
been no doubt of her lading, and would have kept them in hopes
until better opportunity. Thus not having else at present to
enlarge I rest, commending your Worships to the protection of
the most Highest, whom bless and prosper all your proceedings.
Your servant to command,
Herewith I send the receipt of Sir Robert Sherley for 250/.,
this being the second, the first being gone in the Expedition.
The first of this month of February came in the Darling into this
road, having spent their mainyard and cracked their foremast ;
whereupon the General, Mr. John Saris, called a council and
doth determine to leave orders that she shall go for Cacadanha
(Sukadana), from thence to Pottany and Syam, to visit the
factories there [ ] returns hither.
EAST INDIA COMPANY S RECORDS
1st February 1613.
HEREAS Mr. John Gourney, principal merchant, to-
gether with the rest of the merchants in the James
have required in the behalf of the Worshipful Com-
pany at the hands of Mr. Peter Floris, principal
merchant in the Globe, the account of 852 rials f, which the
said Mr. Gourney and merchants in the James do find by
account to have been short employed ; to which Mr. Floris
answers that whereas that sum of 852 rials f was by a general
confer of the principal merchants of the Globe given unto Mier
Shumelo at their first being at Masulpatam, whereby to have
procured a cowl for such ships as should come hither after them :
he therefore doth refuse to give any other account thereof unto
the foresaid Mr. Gourney, but refers it unto the Worshipful
Company our masters in England. Dated in Musilpatam 1st
February anno 1613 in Musilpatam.
Per me Peter Floris.
Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham in Edow or elsewhere.
5th of February 1613.
R. WICKHAM, Although I have no matter of im-
portance to write you, yet having fit conveyance I
would not want to let you hear from me. At this
instant the master of the junk is come from Langa-
saque to this place, I mean of the junk bound for Cochin
China, and Mr. Peacock will be ready to go along with
him for Langasaque within 4 or 5 days, God permitting, for
all things are ready. God send them a prosperous voyage.
I am given to understand that Ushian Dona, the old king's
Y 1268. c
18 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
governor, is laid up and all he hath seized upon, and told he is
well dealt withal if he escape with life. Also the Captain
Chinesa is fallen at square with his new wife and hath given
her his wacadash bidding her cut off her little finger, which she
had done had she not been prevented per Maria, Harnando's
woman, who paid dear for it, having her left thumb almost cut
off. Also the king hath given Signor Zanzebar a new name
viz. Yasimon. Other matters I have not to write of at present ;
only you did ill to carry the key of your chamber along with you,
for now must I break off the lock to deliver your four fowling
pieces to Mr. Peacock, according as you gave me order, he being
willing not only to pleasure you in that, but to assist Walter to
put away your other matters. And so I commit you to God.
From the English house at Firando in Japan the 5th of Feb-
Your loving Friend,
Richard Cocks to Richard Wickham, in Edow or Shrongo
per Sr. George Droit.
Firando in Japan the 17th of February 1613.
R. WICKHAM, My last unto you was of the 5th
present sent per Oyen Dono, the young king's gover-
nor, with other two for Captain Adams and Mr. Eaton,
which young king and his train departed from hence
the 9th ditto, and the morrow after I received a letter from you
per the Dutch juribasso, dated in Anuxma the 4th current
which came in time, otherwise all your four guns had gone along
to Cochin China, for they were made up and delivered to Mr.
Peacock, according as you willed me at our departure, but now
two are taken back at hazard, because they would not stand to
unlap them again. Your other three letters to Mr. Peacock,
Mr. Nealson and Walter Carwarden I delivered and had taken
back the knife and sheath before your letter came to my hands,
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 19
for I knew it. Mr. Peacock and Walter Carwarden departed
from hence for Langasaque the 14th present, and Signor Yasi-
mon Dono (alias Zanzebar) did accompany them, in respect it is
doubtful whether Koyngero's junk go this year for Cochin China
or no, for that the owners are much indebted, and the junk
arrested for payment ; so I have given Mr. Peacock directions to
look out if she will be sold at a reasonable rate, and to strike up
a match for the one half of her, and to be at his choice to have
the whole per rato at her return from Cochin China, to the intent
she may serve our turn for Syam. In my next I will advise you
what is done therein. Captain Brower doth send goods for
Cochin China because we do, for that the States shall not tax
him of slothfulness, they having been here so long before us.
He will go himself for Langasaque some 4 or 5 days hence, at
least he giveth it out so. It is said that his kinsman Cornelius
the glazier shall go along with the goods for Cochin China, but
as yet he is not come to town. Here is reports that all the papist
Jesuits, friars and priests shall be banished out of Japan as well
at Langasaque as elsewhere, but I doubt the news is too good to
be true. I know not what else to write but hope you will have a
care to despatch away your commodities as price goeth, for that
Captain Adams may bring store of money along with him. I
pray you sell away as you can as time serveth. And so I
commit you to God.
Your loving friend,
Masulipatam, February 18th, 1613. T. Essington, Captain, and
P. Floris, Merchant of the Globe, to Thos. Aldworth, Chief
EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS
William Eaton to Richard Wickham in Edo.
In Ozekey the first of March 1613.
OVING and good Friend Mr. Wickham, I commend
me unto you etc. You shall understand that since
your departure I have showed my goods to divers
merchants, but have not as yet sold anything, being
offered no more but 6 taels for pepper, 5^ taels for broadcloth a
yard, and for baftas I2| mass per piece, and for allejas according
to the rate of the country cloth, and for tin 16 taels a pecul and
for gunpowder the barrel 10 taels ; so as at these rates I am not