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Worships' factors for ware which for the purpose we carried,
then to proceed for Patania and Syam, trusting that our arrival
would have been time enough to Patania to meet with China
commodities and so by taking up money of the Queen, which



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 81

lends at 20 per cent, per annum, the rest till a round cargazon by
sales and truck at Siam might have despatched the ship to take
the next monsoon for Masulpatam, to be thence despatched up [on
the same] for England and not without some sheathing about Siam.
Now after a si [ow passage our] arrival at Bantam was upon the
20th of April, where shortly after upon a gener [al view] of the ship's
estate by the worm, it was resolved upon that she would not be
able [to] accomplish the full circuit of the voyage intended with
so little trimming as the seasons would allow, and that therefore
must take full time while a lading might be provided here at
Bantam, and so return for England thence. Hereupon we
speedily landed goods which we judged to be good and might
amount to the purpose, hoping that we might (in the meantime
of our fitting to transport the rest for Patania and Siam) make a
match with the Chinese for delivery of pepper at harvest. But
they being pestered with the despatching their junks, and the
time for their retailing our wares far off, did not in our time seek
to trade with us, wherefore we left that business to be accom-
plished by Mr. John Jourdain and Richard Cobb, to whom we
delivered an invoice of the goods there landed and a remem-
brance, the copies of which we send your Worships herewith.

The James thus falling from us we practised to obtain the
Osiander, which having trimmed at Jaccatra was ready to come
to Bantam ; but Captain Christian, that had goods and men about
Priaman and quantity besides with him which he hoped to
despatch there, could not [be] won to any other course. Our
purpose with this ship was that having transported our goods to
our ports aforesaid, to send her thence to Masulpatam with a
cargazon of 12 or 15 [thousand] rials cost, where landing the
goods and merchants who should upon the same be providing
[torn away] and other commodities fit for England, the ship with
some small matter [to return the nearest] way for Siam to take
in another lading for Japan, from whence (by God's grace) [might
upon] the like sum formerly carried from us, make our stock
whole again ; and if by im [pediments] she should fail of the
Japan voyage, there would not want other employment, there
being for your Worships so many factories, settled in the Indies

which have need to be visited with trade by small ships. In fine
Y 1268. G



8s EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

all this failing and no junk to be had to carry the goods and us
away, the captain and company yielded to proceed with the re-
mainder of goods to Patania and there to trim, and so return-
ing from Jaccatra took us in at Bantam and we departed thence
the ioth of June and three days before we came into the
road the Darling from Socodania fell into our company, and so
the last day of June we arrived together in this road, she being
bound (as at Bantam we had also heard) to visit this and the
factory at Siam. Since our meeting we have had conference
with Captain Larkin about the having of his ship to do the ser-
vice aforesaid if yet we may accomplish it, and he shows himself
not unwilling, but the resolution is deferred till our coming to
Siam, where we with all our wares appointed for that place
already laden into her, are upon proceeding, having landed into
this town 40I bales of sundry sorts of wares, containing as per
the copy of the invoice herewith we also send your Worships.
And to manage the same we leave Adam Denton, chief, and one
John Johnson to assist ; and there is no doubt that, if there hap-
pen good means for trade, Adam Denton will show good skill in
making use thereof. With me there goeth William Sheppard,
which we brought from Bantam, and also Thomas Brockedon,
that came purser of the James, and could there have been spared
more of the factors at Bantam we should have taken them, fur
the trade betwixt Siam and places up in the land, as Langjan
(Luang Praban), Jangama (Kiang-mai), Pegu, &c, have their
passages so stopped by the Ava king of Pegu, which maketh
war against the king of Siam, that we shall be fain to embark
and disperse to great value to Camboja, and where we shall
understand trade may be made, of which and all things else that
may appertain to our business at Siam shall be certified from
thence overland, after a few days conference had with Mr. Lar-
kin there, and time enough to be carried by the ship hence. And
now, whereas your Worships have by your factors attained to
the settling of divers factories and more like to be, if you mean
to have the fruit from them your Worships strive for, you must
accomplish divers things to the purpose. The first is that the
extreme authority given Captains and Generals be translated to
men fit to govern on land, for, howsoever your Worships use to



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 83

set down good rules, they cannot endure to read further than
may serve their own turn and think they may sway factors as if
they were their own private servants ; and in this case they will
with their own and their mariners' private dealing soon con-
found your trade if there were no other inconvenience besides it ;
factors have occasion strongly to contend with princes, governors
and other great men, and how servile men to Captains of ships
shall be regarded in such a case your Worships may judge.
Another inconvenience is the diversity of accounts in one place,
it being a common condition in men each to stand upon his repu-
tation of speediest accomplishment, circumventing and prevent-
ing another without respect due and by this means become better
servants to those with whom they deal than to their masters.
Another inconvenience, and that very great, is the riding of great
ships (as the Globe and James) by the nose in a road till their
goods be sold and their employments be laden, we having found
it as followeth : first, arriving at the road of Pollicat had soon
after two several troops of messengers from the Shabunder to
welcome us, and to show us that if we came to trade we should
not want any favours needful and that his desire was to see us
ashore ; this agreeing with our own desire, I went ashore, taking
Thomas Brockedon with me and being entered into the town
understood that the Shabunder was gone forth of the town. So
we turning directly towards a large castle the Dutch have there
built were at our coming into it entertained with kind shows by
Warner Van Berghen, alias Captain Drinkwater, Captain there
and Rector of all the factories upon that coast, being then accom-
panied with Captain Samuel King, English born, and there we
also found with them sundry of the principals of the town pre-
pared to declare unto us (as they presently did) that their king
had given by his cowl or firman the privilege of the whole trade
of that town to the Hollanders, without whose leave we English
nor other strangers might intermeddle, and the said Van Berghen
added that it was not in his power to give leave. These speeches
having heard and knowing that Mr. Floris had been in the like
manner put off, conceived that the king of Velour must be dealt
withal with the King's Majesty's letters, which no doubt at any
time will prevail. But the king being within the land at war, few

G 2



3 4 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

factors of us and our two principal ports to be furnished being
Musulpatam and Pettapoly, we having that night following re-
ceived very kind entertainment of the Dutch, we prepared in the
morning to embark, at which time the parties aforesaid returned
to parley again and, making the same conclusion as before, they
added that we ought to pay anchorage. Our answer was that we
knew it to be their hearty desire that we should stay and trade
with them, if we could have sufferance by the Hollander, but
now we would neither accept of liberty nor stay to trade, neither
would we give them anchorage. Whereat without more ado they
gave us betel to chew, as their manner of courtesy is, and 1
us farewell, desiring us to be good to Gentiles, if we met them
at sea. This town and territory yields very good sorts of paint-
ings and woven wares fit for Java, the Moluccos, and these parts
which we proceed in, but there being for no value in town at the
present to be bought, nor vent for any of our commodities, and
for the reasons aforesaid, we contended no further but proceeded
to the more certainty, and so arrived at Pettepoly the [blank]
June, where having spent eight days in settling George Chauncey
and Thomas Brockedon with money and goods which we there
landed, we repaired to Musulpatam where we finished the rest as
per the account appears. Governors and Shabunders entertained
us with great show of honour, they seeming, and all the rest, as
greatly contented with our coming to trade with them as if we
had brought a prize wherein everyone had a share. The news of
our arrival no sooner came up to the court of the King but
other Governors both for Musulpatam and Pettepoly were ap-
pointed, that had outrented the former, by which means it was
about two months before we could enter further than to petty
trade, for order was sent to prohibit us (at Musulpatam) the
king's beam, and that our goods yet to land should be detained
at the Banksall (as they call their Custom house) till his coming,
and we that by this time knew the qualities of Governors so con-
tended against that course, that liberty of having home our goods
was yielded to, but request was made by the Shabunder in the
Governor's name that we would forbear sale till his coming, which
should be shortly with money to buy all. Nevertheless we bar-
gained with divers and received their earnests, but for lack of the



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 85

beam were constrained to redeliver each man his earnest. Some-
what we did in the sale of some porcelain and some sandal nuts,
and pepper we weighed and delivered by night. In fine the
Governor being come and being a Brahmin that certain years
before had governed the same place in which he broke with the
Hollanders for about 7,000 pagodas, which is 10,000 rials, not
long after his arrival he repaired to our house, where he showed
a great desire to deal for all and we showed as great a desire that
he would not seek for any. To be short, sundry meetings we had
and in the meantime amongst ourselves held three councils about
it, and in fine rested resolved that seeing none durst repair to buy
or sell with us till his turn were served, lest therefore by delays
we should outride this monsoon (which would be a mischief), we
contented ourselves to suffer a less inconvenience by letting him
have 4,000 pagodas in money and ware. And so at last we agreed,
and also upon the commodities and their prices which he should
give us to be paid within two months after, but with what delays
and bad commodities we were performed withal were a misery to
recite. These Governors purchase with their places (as they say)
all the benefits by all trades withal and, whether it be so or no, it
appears little less ; for although Moors have free liberty to trade,
yet such they were that have been fain to take back their earnest
as aforesaid, and for the Gentiles (which be the naturals), none
may trade without compounding with one Lingana which rents
the office of merchandizing and brokerage for 4,000 pagodas a
year. When this man is feed by weavers and such as seek to
trade with us with about 8 or 10 per cent., they may freely come
and bring us ware, and besides what the Governor cometh to
knowledge of must yield him at least 10 per cent, more ; and
sometimes men have been taken and accused of having gotten
much by trade, and after many blows and long imprisonment
paid a forfeit of all the money they had taken. This makes poor
men bring their paintings in hugger-mugger and in the night as
thieves do their stolen cloaks to brokers. The Governors of
Pettepoly are more easier somewhat. The best remedies against
these inconveniences after we shall have found good means for
vent these ways as may be to purpose, that then factors be there
established, and having ever beforehand to make provision against



86 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

ships come and also to arend the custom of our trade by the year
as the Hollanders do, that pay 3,000 pagodas per annum and so
pass their goods to and fro through the custom house or banksall
at Musulpatam freely ; and yet when the most ease is purchased
that can be to govern your business upon that coast, there must
be men of great understanding, discretion and courage, for the
arrogancy of governors and great Moors and the Jewish subtlety
of the Gentiles can and will sift the best factors you can send, and
it were pity this trade for lack of good decorum should be lost, for
that coast can afford means to other places as aforesaid and also
for England, and may vent store of spices, drugs and China wares,
and also from England some commodities may fit, as yearly about
50 broadcloths (of which 30 at least stamels, 10 Venice reds and
the rest popinjay greens and plunkets) ; 50 kersies of the like pro-
portion of colours ; lead, if we had brought somewhat more than
the 15 tons we had, there would have been vent for all, yet what
continual need there may be for lead I cannot certify. Store of
tin is brought yearly from Tannassary (Tenasserim) to Musulpa-
tam and sold at betwixt 60 and 80 pagodas per candy, but whether
our sort, not being accounted so good, may pass well I know not ;
some therefore to try were not amiss. Yet still twice so much
money must be sent at least as the wares amount to, whereby to
assure passage through employments ; for the sales of our English
wares hath no certain time, and for these country commodities,
quantity by others may breed gluts which may disappoint purposes.

It hath been reported by the Dutch General that now was at
Bantam, that deputies from their Company have been in England
to confer with your Worships about some accord betwixt your
Worships and them in this trade of the Indies. If it so fall out,
then doubtless each may bid welcome to the revenues of a great
king, whereas by the contrary we shall by hunting one another so
assuage the profits that in few years it will not be worth the
trouble. And for some approbation, whereas Mr. Augustine
Spalding purchased 20 sacks of pepper for a corge of the tapies
left by the Globe, we could not now at Bantam be promised ten
for the like, and yet this year is the bearing year.

I need not trouble your wisdoms much with informations how
to govern the general trade the best way, but my hearty desire being



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 87

to see your great prosperity by this trade enforceth my pen to run,
holding it possible that something of what I write may come to
bear to the purpose, which may excuse me for the rest.

We, finding no pepper here as we hoped for, nor certainty of
sales for any great value for ready money during the time of the
James her abode here, have borrowed of Robert Larkin, Captain
of the Darling, 3,000 rials which is left with our Captain to be
carried in the ships for Bantam. This money we must repay at
Siam at time of need, or bear damage [ ] more

after 10 per cent, in the meantime for interest per annum. Also
have accepted of 423! rials which certain Guzerats are to deliver
Mr. Jourdain at Bantam, to have the same repaid at Siam upon
advice and although there is good hope that the goods at Bantam
and these monies may well accomplish for the clearing the James
with a lading of pepper, we have notwithstanding agreed to
request Mr. Jourdain to furnish what may want and charge the
same upon these factories to be employed here for him as he shall
advise. And so for our farther business I refer me to what shall
be advised from Siam ; rest, praying the Almighty ever to bless
your affairs.

Your Worship's servant,

John Gourney.

The Dutch have paid the Queen for interest as followeth : —

The first month 2 per cent, and 1 ditto the mint master, which
is 3 per cent, for one month.

The next two months 3 per cent, and one to the mint master,
which is 4 per cent, for 2 months.

The next 3 months 6 per cent, and one to the mint master,
which is 7 per cent, for 3 months.

The next 6 months 10 per cent, and one to the mint master,
which is 5 [11 ?] per cent for 6 months.

A year's interest amounteth to 20 per cent, per annum.




88



EAST IXDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS




*59A

Laus Deo semper. 25th of July, anno 1614.

ACTORY or invoice of 40I bales, goods belonging to
the Ninth Voj Lge, for account of the Right Worship-
ful East India Company, landed in Patanie from the
James, and are left in the hands of Adam 1 Knton,
Chief Merchant, assisted by John Johnson, is as followcth : —

(The detailed enumeration of the contents of the bales with their prices
has been omitted. Of the 40J bales 29 were of Niasulipatam cloths, viz. \
Salampouries, white beathillies, pcrcalla, boxshaes, coarse and
cured gingams, maravaines, painted and woven sawoies, tapir-
shins, sarassa patola and dragam Malaya; ihe remaining pack
being Petapoli goods, viz. red yarne, red beathillies, salampourie,
percalla and sarassa Malaya. The total cost is given as pagodas
4406. o. o\.)



160

(Duplicate of 159).



161

John Gourney to Sir Thomas Smith.

Laus Deo. In Pattania, the 28th July, 1614.

1IGHT Worshipful, It was not through ignorance of my
duty that till this present I have forborne to write to
your Worship in particular, but my desire was first to
do that which might manifest my willingness to do the
service I came for, being I was a stranger to your Worship, and
could never write but must have mingled complaints of disorders




EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS 89

by the Captain and Master in their governments. The Master's
qualities I need not describe, being no doubt very well known to
your Worship and Company. About half our time the Captain
was much swayed by him, and since that have not so well agreed.
The contentions held amongst us (I make account) hath already
caused dispute at home with your Worship and Company, and
also will be examined, God sending the ship unto you; and though
I be then absent, which is my disadvantage, yet I will forbear to
certify the great volume of particulars belonging to the story,
leaving the same to the report of others, assuring myself in sum,
your Worship will find that the Captain hath governed at sea
with much brawling and little justice, and ashore with much
greatness without skill. At Mesulpotam feigning to take a house
to bake bread in and to still rack for the ship, he made it his
habitation wherein held such greatness that hath consumed much
more money than was necessary, the which and suffering all kinds
of disorders by his trumpeters and many others that commonly he
had about him caused no little disease to our proceedings. It
will be no doubt justified that to perform the despatch of the ship
I have as it were passed through the pikes of the [ ]

of other practices of Governor and tradesmen and [ ]

and the cross carriage of the Captain and [ ] others

and what weak assistance I have had is known to the company of
the James. Yet John Hawks well earned his wages, and could I
have broken him in full, as I did in part, of the [ ] of

good fellowship, there should have been allotted him some better
degree of employment before the day of his death, which was two
days after our coming into this road, of a flux, and, not leaving
anything of 20 rials which he had received at Bantam for ware
which he had gathered at the Coast, declared to me by himself in
presence of Mr. Wootton. The Governor of Meslopatam, that had
first taken about the value of 700 pagodas in goods upon account
of custom outwards and after forced goods for payment, looking
for ready money for his custom, and the Shabunder breaking
promise in sending a full payment in goods instead of half money,
and the governor of Pettepoli failing in like case, brought our
conclusion into some extremity. Wherefore the master therefore
(as he would have me to conceive) told me of 240 rials that the



90 EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

Captain had received of Sir Henry Middleton for a cable of the
ships; and the Captain after, perceiving I knew thereof, told me
that Sir Henry delivered him so much money, but bound him and
his executors to render the same at Bantam at return, if he did
not take away the cable with him into the Trade, this money he
still keeps employed to his own use, although I told him that it
plainly appeared the Worshipful Company bore the adventure and
therefore would look to have the profit. Now at his coming to
Bantam and seeing nobody question with him about the [

] out that the money was paid him by Sir Henry [
] him, whereas all men know he had for payment taken
taffaties, satins, velvets and some [ that the master

revealed this money because the Captain would not let him have
the use of above 60 rials thereof. One thing more which concerns
is that, after he had given his warrant for the landing of four tubs
containing 40 basins worth 90 pagodas from the ship at Masla-
patam, he took them being landed to his own account upon likeli-
hood that they belonged to him ; but he saith he will not swear
they are his, nor could I find any man that knew of the coming
aboard of more than 3 tubs of basins, which besides he had.
There wants of our number above 50, and though some more may
be shattered than are in the account, I hold it very likely these
tubs may be your Worship's and the Company's. If Mr. Spalding
do remember that some of the basins we had were in tubs, then
these are they. The rain falling upon some packs of Captain
Saris in Bantam yard while we were taking the porcelain out to
be shipped as we might measure and count them, caused Mr. Cocks
so to thrust in the packs as would dam up our way, wherefore
with speed gat out all the same day, and rather than leave them
there, shipped them presently, giving order to Paul Hall, Richard
Bennet and the purser to count them as they put them down in
hold, but they notwithstanding, because of the night approaching
stowed them without counting ; but your Worship may presume,
and Richard Cobb will say, that what was sold is passed to
account, some spent in our and the Captain's house left out, of
which Richard Cobb hath also the account. These things I
rather chose to trouble your Worship withal in particular than in
the general letter, holding it in my judgment most fit for the cause.



EAST INDIA COMPANT/'S RECORDS <>■

Now seeing it is my chance to remain in these parts time beyond
my reckoning! I humbly desire yonr Worship to be pleased to
"use to be passed two hundred pounds of my wages into h
v „ v .„ for these Indies, of which 100 for Sural and the other 100
orTestpotan etc., or any of these displeasing, Bantam, ^hal
/ tllp first vovaee I adventured no/, in another mans
^an pnHn fi my V supp g ,y the second, and then because I saw
the course was not followed yearly, I passed it away Of this
I write only to show I am not a mere stranger to th.s trade, and
oT to daL privilege by it, holding all nothing withou ^ you
Worship's pleasure, whose prudent rules is not for me to examine
Twentv-five pounds more I desire be delivered to my sister, Ann
G^mey! which will attend your Worship's pleasure or the same
And as my wages shall grow afterwards till two hundred^
more (I sav 200*.), I desire may be delivered to Mr. William
Rnch and my brier Thomas Gourney, who have order from
m" "for the disposing thereof. If my adventuring be granted I
desire that my bills be delivered my said brother or to Mr. W.lbam
pTnch And'so, with my hearty prayer to Almighty God to give
you increase of health and happiness, -^^ ^^

John Gourney.




162

Thomas Herode (master's mate of the Darling) to Sir Thomas
Smith. Patania, 28th of July, 1614.
IGHT Worthy Sir, Having certified your Worships of
all which hath happened to us until the Clove departed,
I thought good likewise to certify your Worship of the
=1 rest of our proceedings likewise, and having so good an
ODDortunity to write as happened by our meeting with the James
where n wL Captain Marlowe, my very good friend, and having
££Z ship'and all things fitted, we set sad from Bantam




9* EAST INDIA COMPANY'S RECORDS

the ioth of March 1613 and we arrived at Socadania the 3rd of April



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