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Analysis of the principles of rhetorical delivery as applied in reading and ... online

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Some wand'ring spiV^ of Heaven, fay fountain side,
Or in thick shade retir'd from him to draw
What further woul^ be leara'd. Live while ye may,*
Yet h&ppy pair ; enjoy, till I return,

30 Short pleasures, for long woes are to auoceed.'*
So saying, his proud, step be scornful tun'd.

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Ex. 19-22.] EX6R0UB8 ON BMPHA8IS. 223

But with sly circumspcctioD, and began,
Tbiough wood, ibrough waste, o'er bill, o'er dale, bis
roam. MiUon.

In the following ipeech, where an emphatic claase is in Italic,
er has the mark of monotone, it requires a firm, fall voice, and gen-
erally a low note.

15 Speech of Tiius ^imetim to the Romam.

Though I am not conscious, O Romans,oran7 crime
by me committed, it is yet with the utmost shame and
oonfusion that I appear in your assembly. You have
seen it — posterity will know it ! — in the fourth consul-
6 ship of Titus Quinctius, the JEqm and Volsci, (scarce
a match for the Hernici alone,) came in arms, to the
ff&Tf gatei (fR&me, — (o) and went away unchastised i
The course of our manners, indeed, and the state ofour
affiifrs, have long been such, that I had no reason to

10 presage much good : but, could I have imagined tha^
so great an ignominy would have befallen me this year
I would, by banishment or death, (if all other means
bad failed,) have avdided the station I am now in. (q)
Wkkt ? might Rome then have been taken, if these

15 men who were at our gates had not wanted courage
for the attempt ?— J?dwe taken, whilst I was eSnsul?
*— (o) Of honors I bad sufficient—- of life enough —
more than enough—**! should have died in my third

But who are they that our dastardly enemies thus

20 despise ? — the eSnsuU, or ydti, Romans } If we are in
faoh, depdse us, or punish us yet more severely. Kyou
are to bkime — may neither gods nor men punish your
fauhs! only may you repent! — Nd^ Romans, the

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334 SXEBCISSS ON SMPHASlS. [Ex. ld-33.

confidence of our enemies is not owing to their courage^

25 or, to their belief of your edwardice : they hare been
too often vinguiihedj not to know both themselves, and
you. {oo)DUcordj ditcord is the ruin of this city ! The
eternal dispiitei, between the senate and the people^
are the sole cause of our misfortunes. While we set no

30 bounds to our dominion, nor you to your liberty ;
while you impatiently endure Patrician magistrates,
and wePlebeCan; our enemies take Aear/, grow elated,
and presumptuous. (^) In the name of the immorta^
gods, what is it, Romans, you would have ? You desired

35 Tribunes ; for the sake of peace, we grilnted them.
You were eager to have Decemvirs ; we cons^ted to
their creation. You grew toiary of these Decemvirs;
we obliged them to slbdicate. Your hatred pursued
them when reduced to private men ; and we suffered

40 you to put to death, or banish, Patricians of the first
rank in the republic. You insisted upon the restoration
of the Tribuneship ; we yielded ; we quietly saw Con-^
suls of your own faction elected. Yc^u have the pro-
tection of your Tribunes, and the privilege of appeal ;

45 the Patricians are subjected to the decrees of the
Commons. Under pretence of equal and impartial
laws, you have invaded 5ur lights ; and we have «i^-
fered it, and we $till swSgt it. (®) When shall we see
an end of discord ? When shall we have one interest,

50 and one common country? Victorious and triumphant,

you show less temper than we under defeat. When

you are to contend with u^ you can seize the Aventine

hill, you can possess yourselves of the Mons Sacer.

The enemy is at our gates — the ^squUine is near

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Ex. 19-22.] EXBBC18B8 ON KMPHASIS. 225

65 being ^afteit,— aod nobody Uirs to hinder it ! But
against us you are valiant, against us you can arm with
diligence. Come dn, then, besiege the senate-house,
make a camp of the forum, fill the jails with our chief
nobles, and when you have achieved these glorious

60 exploits, then, at last, sally out at the ^squiline gate,
with the same fierce spirits, against the inemy. Does
your resolution fail you for this ? Go then, and behold
firom our walls your lands ravaged, your houses plun-
dered and in flames, the whole country laid waste with

65 fire and sword. Have you any thing here to repatr
these damages? Will the Tribunes make up your
losses to you ? They will give you words as many as
you please ; bring impeachments in abundance against
the prime men in the stilte ; heap laws upon lilws ; as-

70 semblies you shall have withont dnd i but will any of
you return the richer from those assemblies f (q) Ex-
tinguish, O Romans, these fatal divisions ; generously
break this cursed enchantment, which keeps you bu-
ried in a scandalous inaction. Open your eyes, and

75 consider the management of those ambitious men,who,
to make themselves powerful in their party, study noth-
ing but hdw they may foment divisions in the cotnmon'
wealth, — ^If you can but summon up your former c6ur-
age, if you will now march out of Rome with your c6n-

80 suls, there is no punishment you can inflict, which I
will not submit to, if I do not, in a few days, drive
those pillagers out of our territory. This terror of
war, with which you seem so grievously struck, shall
Quickly be ren^oved from Rome to their own cities.

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23] Page 86. Difference between the amwum and the
mtensive inflection.

The difficulty to be avoided may be seen sufficiently in an ez-
aniple or two. There is a general tendency to make the slide of the
voice as great in degree, when there is little stress, as when there is
much ; whereas in the former case the slide should be gentle, and
sometimes hardly perceptible. i

Common slide.

To play with important triiths ; to disturb the repose
of established tenets ; to subtilize^ objections ; and elude
pr6of, is too often the sport of youthful vanity, of which
maturer experience commonly repents.

Were the miser's repentance upon the neglect of a
good bargain; his sorrow for being over-reached; his
hope of improving a sum ; and his fear of falling into
want ; directed to their proper 6bjects, they would make
so many christian graces and virtues.

Tniensive slide.

Consider, I beseech you, what was the part of a
faithful citizen ? of a prudent, an active, and an honest
minister ? Was he not to secure Euboea, as our defence
against all attacks by sea ? Was he not to make Beotia
our barrier on the midland side ? The cities bordering
on Peloponnesus our bulwark on that quarter ? Was he
not to attend with due precaution to the importation of
corn, that this trade might be protected through all its
progress up to our own harbors ? Was he not to cover
those districts which we commanded, by seasonable de-
tachments, as the Proconesus, the Chersonesus, and Ten-
edos f To exert himself in the assembly for this pur-

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pose, while with equal zeal he labored to gain others
to our interest and alliance, as Byzantium, Abydus, and
Euboia ? Was he not to cut off the best, and most im-
portant resources of our enemies, and to supply those ia
which our country was defective ? — And all this you gain-
ed by my counsels, and my administration.


24] Pag« 118. Compass of voice.

To auift in cultivating the bottom of the voice, I have selected
ezamplee of sublime or solemn description, which admits of but litUe
inflection ; and some which contain the figure of simile. Where the
mark for low note is inserted, the reader will take pains to keep down
his voice, and to preserve it in nearly Che grave monotone.

1 . (o) He bowed the heavens also, and came down ;
and darkness was under his feet. — And he rode upon a
cherub, and did fly : yea, he did fly upon the wings of
the wind. — He made darkness his secret place ; his pavil-
ion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of
the skies.-^At the brightness that was before him his thick
clouds passed, hailstones and coals of fire. — The Lord
also thundered in the heavens, and the Highest gave his
voice ; hailstones and coals of fire.

2. (o) And then shall appear the sign of the Son of
Man in heaven : and then shall all the tribes of the earth
mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man, coming in the
clouds of heaven, with power and great glory. — ^And he
shall send his angels, with a great sound of a trumpet, and
they shall gather together his elect from the four winds,
from one end of heaven to the other.

3. (o) And the heaven departed as a scroll, when it
is rolled together ; and every mountain and island were

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moved out of their places. 2 And the kings of the earth,
and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief cap-
tains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and ev-
etj free-man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks
of the mountains ; 3 And said to the mountains and rocks.
Fall on us, and bide us from the face of him that sitteth
on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb : — For
the great day of his wrath is come ; and who shall be able
to stand ?

4. And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on
it, froni whose face the earth and the heaven fled away ;
and there was found no place for them. 5 And I saw the
dead, small and great, stand before God ; and the books
were opened : and another book was opened, which is
the book of life : and the dead were judged out of those
things which were written in the books according to their
works. 6 And the sea gave up the dead which were
in it ; and death and hell delivered up the dead which
were in them ; and they were judged every man according
to their works.

4. Tis listening Fear and dumb Amazement all :
When to the startled eye, the sudden glance
Appears far south, eruptive through the cloud :
And following slower, in explosion fast,
5 The Thunder raises his tremendous voice.
At first heard solemn o'er the verge of heaven,
The tempest growls ; (©) but as it nearer comes,
And rolls its awful burthen on the wind ;
The lightnings flash a larger curve, and more

10 The noise astounds: till over head a sheet
Of livid flame discloses wide ; then shuts
And opens wider ; shuts andjjopens, still
Expansive, wrapping ether in a blaze.
Follows the loosened aggravated roar,

] 5 Enlarging, deep'ning, mingling, peal on peal
Crush'd horrible, convulsing heaven and earth.

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5. Twas then great Marlb'rough's niigbty soul

was prov'd,
That in the shock of charging hosts unmov'd,
Amidst confusion, horror and despair,
Examin'd all the dreadful scenes of war ;
In peaceful thought the field of death survey'd,
To fainting squadrons sent the timely aid,
Inspired repuls'd battalions to engage,
And taught the doubtful battle where to rage,
(o) So when an angel, by divine command.
With rising tempests shakes a guilty land,
(Such as of late o'er pale Britannia past,)
Calm and serene he drives the furious blast ;
And pleas'd th' Almighty's orders to perform,
Rides on the whirlwind, and directs the storm.

6. Rous'd from his trance, he mounts with eyes

When o'er the ship in undulation vast,
A giant surge down rushes from on high,
And fore and aft dissever'd ruins lie ;
(p) As when, Britannia's empire to maintain.
Great Hawke descends in thunder on the main,
Around the brazen voice of battle roars,
And fatal lightnings blast the hostile shores $
Beneath the storm their shatter'cf navies groan,
The trembling deep recoils from zone to zone ;
Thus the torn vessel felt the enormous stroke.
The beams beneath the thund'ring dehige broke.

7. To whom in grief thus Abdiel stern replied.
Reign thou in Hell, thy kingdom ; let me serve

In heav'n God ever blest, and his divine
Behests obey, worthiest to be obey 'd ;
5 Yet chains in Hell, not realms expect ; meanwhile
From me, (return'd as erst thou saidst from flight,)
This greeting on thy impious crest receive.

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(c,) So saying, a noble stroke be lifted bigfa.
Which bung not, but so swift with tempest fell

10 On the proud crest of Satan, that no sight,

For motion of swift tluNight, tess could bis shield,
Such ruin intercept ; ten paces huge
He back recoil'd ; the tenth on bended knee
His massy spear upstayM ; as if on earth

L5 Winds under ground, or waters forcing way.
Sidelong bad pusb'd a mountain from bis seat,
Half sunk with all his pines.-

-Now storming fury rose,

And clamor such as beard in heav'n till now

20 Was never ; arms on armor clashing, brayM
Horrible discord, and the madding wheels
Of brazen chariots rag'd ; dire was the noise
Of conflict ; overheard the dismal hiss
Of fiery darts in Naming vollies flew,

25 And flying, vaulted either host with fire.
So under fiery cope together !jushM
Both battles main, with ruinous assault
And inextinguishable rage ^ all Heaven
Resounded, and had Earth been then, all Earth

30 Had to her centre shook w i

Long time in even scale ■ i

The battle hung ; till Satan, vftho that day
Prodigious pow'r had shown, and met in arms
No equal, ranging through the dire attack

35 Of fighting Seraphim confus'd, at length

Saw where the sword of Michael smote, and fell'd
Squadrons at once ; with huge two-handed sway,
Brandish'd aloft, the horrid edge came down
Wide wasting ; such destruction to withstand

40 He hasted, and oppos'd the rocky orb
Of ten fold adamant, his ample shield,
A vast circumference. At bis approach
The great Archangel from bis warlike toil
Surceas'd, and glad, as hoping here to end

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45 Intestine war in Heav'n, ih* arch foe subduM.
Now wav'd their fiery swords, and in the air
Made horrid circles; two broad suns their shields
Blaz'd opposite, while expectation stood
In horror ; from each hand with speed retir'd,

60 Where erst was thickest fight, the angelic throng,
And left lai^e fields, unsafe within the wind
Of such commotion ; such as, to set forth
Great things by small, if nature's concord broke.
Among the constellations war were sprung,

65 Two planets rushing from aspect malign
Of fiercest oppositbn in mid-sky
Should combat, and their jarring spheres confound.


The following examples tre selected ts a specimen of those pa8»
sa^es, which are most favorable to the caltivation of a top to the
▼oice. In pronouncing these, the reader should aim to get up his
voice to the highest note on which he can articulate with freedom
and distinctness. See remarks, page 120. If the student wishes for
more examples of this kind, he is referred to Exercises [5.]

8. Has a wise and good God furnished us with de-
sires which have no correspondent objects, and raised
expectations in our breasts, with no other view but to dis-
appoint them ? — ^Are we to be forever in search of hap-
piness, without arriving at it, either in this world or the
next ? — Are we formed with a passionate longing for
immortality, and yet destined to perish after this short
period of existence ? — Are we prompted to the noblest
actions, and supported through life, under the severest
hardships and most delicate temptations, by the hopes of
a reward which is visionary and chimerical, by the ex-
pectation of praises, of which it is utterly impossible for
us ever to have the least knowledge or enjoyment ?

9. (^) " Whence and what art thou, execrable shape,
That dar'st, though grim and terrible, advance
Thy miscreated front athwart ray way

To yonder gates ? through them I mean to pass.

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5 That be assured, without leave ask'd of thee :
Retire, or taste thy folly ; and learn by proof,
Hell-bora, not to contend with spirits of Heaven."

To whom the goblin full of wrath repli'd ;
(^) " Art thou that traitor- Angel, art thou he,

10 Who first broke peace in Heaven and faith, till then
Unbroken, and in proud rebellious arms
Drew after him the third part of Heav'n's sons,
Conjur'd against the Highest, for which both thou
And they, outcast from Grod, are here condemned

15 To waste eternal days in woe and pain I

And reckon'st thou thyself with spirits of Heaven,
Hell-doom'd, and breath'st defiance here and scorn,
Where /reign king, and, to enrage thee more,
Thv king and lord ? Back to thy punishment^

20 False fugitive, and to thy speed add wings^
Lest with a whip of scorpions I pursue
Thy lingering, or with one stroke of this dart.
Strange horrors seize thee, and pangs unfelt before.'^

25.] Page 120. Transition.

The Exercises of the foregoing head were designed to accastom
the voice to exertion on the extreme notes of its compass, high and
low. The following exercises under this head are intended to ac-
custom the voice to those sudden transitions which sentiment often
requires, not only as to pitchy but also as to quantity,

1 The Power of Eloquence*


1 Heard ye those loud contending waves.
That shook Cecropia's pillar'd state ?
Saw ye the mighty from their graves
Look up, and tremble at her fate ?
Who shall calm the angry storm ?
Who the mighty task perform,

And bid the raging tumult cease ?
See the son of Hermes rise \

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With syren tongue, and speaking eyes,
Hush the noise, and soothe to peace !

2 Lo ! from the regions of the North,

The reddening storm of bafile pours ;
Rolls along the trembling earth,
Fastens on the Olynthian towers.

3 {^y^ Where rests the sword ? — where sleep the brave ?

Awake ! Cecropia's ally save

From the fury of the blast ;
Burst the storm on Phocis' walls ;
Rise ! or Greece forever falls,

^Up! or Freedom breathes her last !"

4 (^) The jarring States, obsequious now.

View the Patriot's hand on high ;
Thunder gathering on his brow,
Lightning flashing from his eye !

5 Borne by the tide of words along.

One voice, one mind, inspire the throng :

(?®) " To arms ! to arms ! to arms !" they cry,

" Grasp the shield, and draw the sword.

Lead us to Philippi's lord.
Let us conquer him — or die !"

1 ( — ') Ah Eloquence I thou wast undone ;

Wast from thy native country driven, '

When Tyranny eclipsM the sun,
And blotted out the stars of heaven.

2 When Liberty from Greece withdrew,
And o'er the Adriatic flew.

To where the Tiber pours his urn.
She struck the rude Tarpeian rock ;
Sparks were kindled by the shock —

Again thy fires began to burn !

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334 £ltEltCISl!S ON MOD0LATIO9. [Ex. 25.

9 Now shioiog forth, thou mad'st complaint
The CoD9cript Fathers to thy charms ;

Rous'd the world-bestridiDg giant.
Sinking fast in Slavery's arms !

9 I see thee stand by Freedom's fane^
Pouring the persuasive strain,

Giving vast conceptions birth :
Hirk ! I hear thy thunder's sound,
Shake the Forum round and round—*

Shake the pillars of the earth !

10 First-born of Liberty divine !

Put on Rdigion^s bright array ;
Spiak ! and the starless grave shall shine
The portal of eternal day !

1 1 RisCf kindling with the orient beam ;
Let Calvary*8 hill inspire the theme !

Unfold the garments rolPd in blood !
O touch the soul, touch all her chords,
With all the omnipotence of words.

And point the way to heaven — ^to God.


2. Hohenlinden Description of a Battle with Firearmt4

1 (o) On Linden, when the sun was low,
All bloodless lay the untrodden snow,
And dark as winter was the flow

Of Iser rolling rapidly.

2 But Linden saw another sight.
When the drum beat at dead of nighty
Commanding fires of death to light

The darkness of her scenery.

3 By torch and trumpet fast arrayed,
Each warrior drew his battle blade,

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I ^ ■.^■

And furious erery charger neighed,
To jdn the dreadful revelry.

4 Then shook the bills with thunder riven^
Then rushed the steeds to battle driven^
And louder than the bdts of Heaven^
\ Far flashed the red artiUeiy^

6 And redder yet those fires shall glow,
On Linden's hills of blood-stained snow ^

I And darker yet shall be the flow

Of Iser rdlkig rapidly.

h 6 Tis morn,— but scarce yon lurid sun

Can pierce the war clouds, rolling duri,
I White furious Frafnk and fiery Hun

Shout, in their sulpb'rous canopy.

7 The combat deepens. (®°.) On, ye brave,
Who rush to gtory, or the grave !

Wave, Munich, all thy banners wave !
And charge with dl thy chivalry !

\ ^("^) Ah ! few shall part where many meet !

The snow shall be their winding sheet,
And every turf beneath their feet
Shall be a soldier's sepulchre.

3. HanieVs Soliloquy.

This is one df tbe most difficult things to read in the English
langoage. No one should attempt it withoiit entering into the sen-
timent, by recurring to the story of Hamlet. The notation which I
have given, howev^ imperfect, mavat least furnish the reader with
some guide in the management of his voice. Want of discrimina-
*• tion, has been the common fault in reading this soliloqay.

f To be, or ndc to be ? .. that is the question.—

\% Whether 'tis nobler in the mind, to svffer

The slings and arrowsf of outrageous fortune.

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Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
5 And, by opposmg, dnd them ? — To die — to sISep—
No more :— and, by a sleep, to say we end
The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to ? — 'tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wish'd. To die ; — to sldep ; —

1 To sleep ! perchance, to dream : — Ay, there's the riib ;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come.
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause. There's the respect,
That makes calamity of so long life ;

15 For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,^
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's cdntumely.
The pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay.
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes ;

20 When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bddkin f who would fardels bear,
To groan and sweat under a weary life ?
{'q) But that the dread of something after death,
That undiscover'd country, from whose bourne

25 No traveller returns, puzzles the will ;

And makes us rather bear those ills we have.
Than fly to others that we know not of.
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all,—.
And thus the native hue of resolution

30 Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;
And enterprises of great pith and moment,
With this regard their currents turn awry.
And lose the name of action.

4. Battle of Waterloo.
1 There was a sound of revelry by night,
And Belgium's capital had gathered then

* The indignant feeling awakehed in Camlet b^ this enamera'
lion of pariicnlars, require! the voice gradually to rise on each, till
it comes to the mark of transition.

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Her beauty and her chivalry, and bright
The lamps shone o'er fair women and brave men :
A thousand hearts beat happily ; and when
Music arose with its voluptuous swell,
Soft eyes looked love to eyes which spake again,
All went merry as a marriage-bell ;
(^) But bush ! hark ! •• a deep sound strikes like a
rising knell t

2 Did ye not hear it ? — No ; 'twas but the wind,
Or the car rattling o'er the stony street :
{^) On with the dance ! let joy be unconfined ;
No sleep till morn, when youth and pleasure meet
To chase the glowing hours with flying feet —
(o) But, hark ! — that heavy sound breaks in once more,
As if the clouds its echo would repeat.
And nearer, clearer, deadlier than before !
(^®) ^^rm ! irm ! it is — ^it is — the cannorCs opening


3 ( — ) Ah ! then and there was hurrying to and fro,
And gathering tears, and tremblings of distress,
And cheeks all pale, which but an hour ago
Blushed at the praise of their own loveliness :
And there were sudden partings, such as press
The life from out young hearts, and choking sighs
Which ne'er might be repeated — who could guess
If ever more should meet those mutual eyes,

Since upon night so sweet such awful morn could rise f

4 And there was mounting in hot haste ; the steed.
The mustering squadron, and the clattering car.
Went pouring foward with impetuous speed,
And swiftly forming in the ranks of war.

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