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50 and humanity. What ! to attribute the sacred sanction
of God and Nature to the massacres of the Indian scalp-
ing-knife ! to the cannibal savage, torturing, murder*
ing, devouring, drinking the blood of his mangled vic-
tims ! Such notions shock every precept of mordity.



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320 BXBftcisEs. [Ex. 66.

55 every feeling of humaDity, every sentiment of honor.
These abominable principles, and the most abominable
avowal of them, demand the most decisive indignation.
I call upon that right reverend, and this most learned
bench, to vindicate the religion of their God, to support

60 the justice of their country. I call upon the bbhops to
interpose the sanctity of their lawn, upon the judges to
interpose the purity of their ermine, to save us from this
pollution. I call upon the honor of your lordships to
reverence the dignity of your ancestors, and to main-

65 tain your own. I call upon the spirit and humanity
of my country to vindicate the national character. I
invoke the Genius of the Constitution. From the tap-
estry, that adorns these walls, the immortal ancestor of
this noble lord frowns with indignation at the disgrace

70 of his country. In vain did he defend the liberty, and
establish the religion of Britain, against the tyranny of
Rome, if these worse than popish cruelties and inquisi-
torial practices are endured among us. To send forth
the merciless cannibal thirsting for blood! against

75 whom? your protestant brethren ! To lay waste their
country, to desolate their dwellings, and extirpate their
race and name by the aid and instrumentality of these
horrible hell-hounds of war ! Spain can no longer boast
pre-eminence in barbarity. She armed herself with

80 blood-hounds to extirpate the wretched natives of Mex-
ico ; we, more ruthless, loose these dogs of war against
our countrymen in America, endeared to us by every
tie, that can sanctify humanity. I solemnly cdl upon
your lordships, and upon every order of men in the state

95 to stamp upon the infamous procedure the indelible
stigma of public abhorrence. More particularly, I call
upon the holy prelates of our religion to do away this
iniquity ; let them perform a lustration to purify the
country from this deep and deadly sin.

66. Specimen of the Eloquence of James Otis.

England may as well dam up the waters of the Nile
with bulrushes, as to fetter the step of freedom, more
proud and firm in this youthful land, than where she



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Ex, 66.] SECULAR ELOQUENCE. 321

treads the sequestered glens of Scotland, %r couches
herself among the magnificent mountains of Switzer-
5 land. Arbitrary principles, like those, against which
we now contend, have cost one king of England his life,
another his crown — and they may yet cost, a third his
most flourishing colonies.

10 We are two million — one fifth fighting men. We
are bold and vigorous, — and we call no man master.
To the nation, from whom we are proud to derive our
origin, we ever were, and we ever will be, ready to yield
unforced assistance ; but it must not, and it can i^ver

15 be extorted. ~

Some have sneeringly asked, " Are the Americans
too poor to pay a few pounds on stamped paper ? No !
America, thanks to God and herself, is rich. But the
right to take ten pounds implies the right to take a

20 thousand ; and what must be the wealth, that avarice,
aided by power, cannot exhaust ? True, the spectre is
now small ; but the shadow he casts before him, is huge
enough to darken all this fair land.

Others, in sentimental style, talk of the immense debt

25 of gratitude, which we owe to England. And what is ^
the amount of this debt 1 Why, truly, it is the same
that the young lion owes to the dam, which has brought
it forth on the solitude of the mountain, or left it amid
the winds and storms of the desert.

30 We plunged into the wave, with the great charter of
freedom, in our teeth, because the fagot and torch were
behind us. We have waked this new world from its
savage lethargy : forests have been prostrated in our
path ; towns and cities have grown up suddenly as the

35 flowers of the tropics, and the fires in our autumnal
woods are scarcely more rapid, than the increase of our
wealth and population.

And do we owe all this to , the kind succor of the
mother country ? No ! we owe it to the tyranny, that

40 drove us from her, — to the pelting storms, which invigo-
rated our helpless infancy.

But perhaps others will say, '' We ask no money from
your gratitude, — we only demand that you should pay



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832 sxBRdiSBs. ^[Ex. 67.

your cfWn expenses." And who, I pray, is to judge of

45 their necessity t Why, the king— (and with all due
reverence to his sacred majesty, he understands the real
wants of his distant subjects, as little as he does the lan«
guage of the Choctaws.) Who is to judge concerning
the frequency of these demands! The ministry. Who

50 is to judge whether the money is properly expended t
The cabinet behind the throne.

In every instance, those who take, are to judge for
those who pay ; if this system is suffered to go into ope-
ration, we shall have reason to esteem it a^reat privi-

55 lege, that raiu and dew do not depend upon parliament ;
otherwise they would soon be taxed and dried.

But thanks to God, there is freedom enough left upon
earth to resist such monstrous injustice. The flame of
liberty is extinguished in Greece and Rome, but the

60 light of its glowing embers is still bright and strong on
the shores of America. Actuated by its sacred influ-
ence, we will resist unto death. But we will not coun-
tenance anarchy and misrule. The wrongs that a des-
perate community have heaped upon their enemies,

65 shall be amply and speedily repaired. Still, it may be
well for some proud men to remember, that a fire is
lighted in these colonies, which one breath of their king
may kindle into such fury, that the blood of all England
cannot extinguish it.

67. Pin's Reply to Walpole.

Sir,
The atrocious crime of being a young man, which
the honorable gentleman has, with such spirit and de-
cency, charged upon me, I shall neither attempt to palli-
ate, nor deny, — but content myself with wishing that I
5 may be one of those whose follies may cease with their
youth, and not of that number who are ignorant in spite
of experience. Whether youth can be imputed to any
man as a reproach, I will not, sir, assume the province
of determining; — but surely age may become justly con-
10 temptible, if the opportunities which it brings have past
away without improvement, and vice appears to prevail



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Ex. 67.] SECULAR ELOQUENCE. 339

when the passions have subsided. The wretch who,
after having seen the consequences of a thousand er-
rors, continues still to blunder, and whose age has on-

15 ly added obstinacy to stupidity, is surely the object of
either abhorrence or contempt, and deserves not that
his grey hairs should secure him from insult. Much
more, sir, is he to be abhorred, who, as he advanced in
age, has receded from virtue, and becomes more wicked

20 with less temptation; — who prostitutes himself for
money which he cannot enjoy, and spends the remains
of his life in the ruin of his country. But youth, sir, is
not my only crime ; I have been accused of actitig a
theatrical part. A theatrical part may either imply

25 some peculiarities of gesture, or a dissimulatjion of my
real sentiments, and an adoption of the opinions and
language of another man.

In the first sense, sir, the charge is too trifling to be
confuted, and deserves only to be mentioned to be de«

30 fpised. I am at liberty, like every other man, to use my
own language ; and though, perhaps I may have some
ambition to please this gentleman, I shall not lay my-
self under any restraint, nor very solicitously copy his
diction, or his mien, however matured by age, or mod-

B5.elied by experience. If any man shall by charging me
with theatrical behavior, imply that I utter any senti-
ments but my own, I shall treat him as a calumniator
and a villain ; — nor shall any protection shelter him from
the treatment he deserves. I shall, on such an occa-

40 fion, without scruple, trample upon all those forms with
which wealth and dignity intrench tliemselves, — nor
shall any thinfir but age restrain my resentment ; — age
which always brings one privilege, that of being inso-
lent and supercilious without punishment Bat with

4§ regard, sir, to those whom I have offended, I am of
opinkMD, that if I bad acted a borrowed part, I should
have avoided their censure ; the heat that oflfended
them is the ardor of conviction, and that xeal for the
service of my country, which neither hope nor fear shall

50 influence me to anppress. I will not sit unooncemed
while my liberty i^ invaded, nor look in silence upon



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8S4 EXBa<»8B«. [Ex. €8.

pablio robbery. I will «xert my eDdeavoors, at whaterer
hazard, to repel the aggresaor, and drag the thief to jus-
tice — whoever may protect them in their ?i]lany-^^«nd
55 whoever may partake of their plunder.

08. Speech of Mr, Urifin against Cheeiham.

I am one of those who believe that the heart of the
wilful and the deliberate libeller ia blacker than that of
the highway robber* or of one who commits the crime of
midnight arson. The man who plunders on the faigli-
5 way, may have the semblance of an apology for wb&t he
does. An affectionate wife may demand subsistence ;
a circle of helf^ess children raise to him the supplicat«
ing hand ibr food. He may be driven to the de^ierate
act by the high mandate of imperative necessity. The

10 mild features of the husband and the father may inter-
mingle with those of the robber and soften the rough-
ness of the shade. But the robber of character plun-
ders that which " not eniicheth him/' though it makes
his neighbor ** poor indeed " — ^The man who at the

15 midnight hour consumes his neighbor's dwellings does
bin an injury which perhaps is not irreparable. Indus-
try may rear another habitation. The storm may in-
deed descend upon him until charity opens a neighbor-
ing door : the rude winds of heaven may whistle around

90 his uncovered family. But he looks forward to better
days ; be has yet a hook to hang a hope on* No
such consolation cheers the heart of him whose charac-
ter has been torn from him. If innocent, he may look,
like Anaxagoras, to the heavens ; but he must be ton*

25 strained to feel that this world is to him a wilderness.
For whither shall he go ? Shall he dedicate himself to
the service of his country ? But will his country receive
himf Will she employ in her councils, or in hef ar-
mies, the man at whom the " slow unmoving finger of

90 scorn" is pointed ? Shall he betake himself to the
fire-side ! The story of his disgrace will enter his
own doors before him. And can he bear, think you,
can he bear the sympathizing agonies of a dts-



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BS. Cf8.] SECULAR CLOQUSNCB. 998

tressed wife ? Ca& he eadoie the formidftble presence

35 of scratinizing, sneering domestics ? Will his children
recei?e instriietion from the lips of s disgraced hiher 1
Gentlemen, I am not ranging on faky groond. lam
telling the plain stofjr of my client's wrongs. By the
ruthless hand of malice his character has b^n wanton-

40 ly massaered ; — and he now appears before a jary of his
country for redress Will yon deny him this redress ?
-—Is character valuable 7 On th» point I will not in-
sult you with argument. There are certain things, .to
argue which is treason against nature. The author of

45 our being did not intend to leave this point afloat at the
mercy of opinion, but with his own hand has he kindly
planted in the soul of man an mstinctire iave of charac*
ter. This high sentiment has no affinity to pride. It
is the ennoWng €|nality oC the soul : and if we have

50 hitherto been elevated above the ranks of surrounding
creation^ human nature owes its elevation to the love of
cktir4i€ier. It is the lowe of character for which the poet
has sung, the philosopher toiled, the here bled. It is
the looe of character which wrought miraefes at ancient

55 Greece; the looe of character is the eagteon which
Rome rose to empire. And it is the love of character
animating the bosom of her sons, on which America
must depend in those approaching crises that may ** try
men's soub^" Will a jury weaken this our nation's

€0 hope ? Will they by their verdict pronounce to the
youth of oar country, that character is scarce worth
possessing ?

We read of that j^fosophy which can smile over the
destruction of property-H>f that religion which enables

65 its possessor to extend die benign lock of forgiveness
and complacency to his mur^rers. But it is not in the
soul of man to bear the laceration of slander. The phi-
losophy which eotrid bear it, we should despise. The
religioa which could bear it, we should not despise —

70 but we should be conetrakied to say, that its kingdom
was not of this world.
28



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BZBscisni. [Ex. 69.



W. TImmder 8iorm.

Thej came to the highlaods. It was the latter part
of a calm, soltrj day, that they floated gently with the
tide between these stem mountains. There was that
perfect qaiet which prevails over nature in the languor
5 of summer heat ; the turning of a plank, or the acciden-
tal falling of an oar on deck, was echoed from the nrKmn*
tain side, and reverberated along the shores ; and if by
chance the captain gave a shout of command, there were
airy tongues that nnocked it from every cliff.

10 I gazed about me in mute delight and wonder at these
scenes of nature's magnificence. To the left the Dun-
derberg reared its woody precipices, height over height,
forest over forest, away into the deep summer sky. To
the right strutted forth the bold promontory of Antony's

15 Nose, with a solitary eagle wheeling about it ; while
beyond, mountain succeeded to mountain, until they
seemed to lock their arms together, and confine this
mighty river in their embraces. There was a feeling
of quiet luxury in gazing at the broad, green bosoms

20 here and there scooped out among the precipices; or
at woodlands high in air, nodding over the edge of some
beetling bluff, and their foliage all transparent in the
yellow sunshine.

In the midst of my admiration, I remarked a pfle of

25 bright, snowy clouds peering above the western heights.
It was succeeded by another, and another, each seem-
ingly pushing onwards its predecessor, and towering,
with dazzling brilliancy, in the deep blue atmosphere :
and now muttering peals of thunder were faintly heard

dO rolling behind the mountains. The river, hitherto still
and glassy, reflecting pictures of the sky and land, now
showed a dark ripple at a distance, as the breeze came
creeping up it. The fish-hawks wheeled and screamed,
and sought their nests on the high dry trees ; the crow

35 flew clamorously to the crevices of the rocks, and all
nature seemed conscious of the approaching thnnder-
gust.

The clouds now rolled in volumes over the mountain
tops ; their summits still bright and snowy, but the low-



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Bx. 70,] 8BCULAR CLOaVENCB. 327

40 er parts of an inky blackness. The rain began to pat-
ter down in broad and scattered drops ; the wind fresh-
ened, and curled up the waves ; at length it seemed as if
the bellying clouds were torn open by the mountain
tops,, and complete torrents of rain came rattling down.

45 The lightning leaped from cloud to cloud, and stream-
ed quivering against the rocks, splitting and rending the
stoutest forest trees. The thunder burst in tremendous
explosions ; the peals were echoed from mountain to
mountain ; they crashed upon Dunderberg, and rolled

50 up the long deftle of the highlands, each headland mak-
ing a new echo, until old Bull hill seemed to bellow back
the storm.

For a time the scudding rack and mist, and the sheet-
ed rain, alAiost hid the landscape from the sight. There

55 was a fearful gloom, illumined still more fearfully by the
streams of lightning which glittered among the rain-
drops. Never had I beheld such an absolute warring of
the elements; it seemed as if the storm was tearing and
rending its way through this mountain defile, and had

60 brought all the artillery of heaven into action.

Irving,
70. Slavery.

My ear is pained »

My soul is sick, with every day's report

Of wrong and outrage, with which earth is filled.

There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart ;
5 It does not feel for man : the natural bond

Of brotherhood is severed as the flax

That faUs asunder at the touch of fire.

He finds his fellow guilty of a skin

Not colored like his own ; and having power
10 To en^ce the wrong, for such a worthy cause,

Dooms and devotes him as his lawful prey.

Lands intersected by a narrow frith

Abhor each other. Mountains interposed

Make enemies of nations, who had else,
15 Like kindred drops, been mingled into one.

Thus man devotes his brother, and destroys ;

Andy worse than all, and most to be deplored^



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328 sssftciscs. [Ex. 7k

As Juimiii mtare's broadeet, Ibniett bkii,
Cbaiot bim, and tasks bus, and exacts bis swMt
% With stripes, tbat mercy, witb a bleeding beart»
Weeps wben she sees ioflioted on a beast
Then what is man t And what roan, seeing tbis.
And having human fteltngs, does not binsh.
And bang his head, to think himself a man f
^ I would not have a slave to till my ground,
To carry me, to &n n»e while I sleep,
And tremble wben I wake^ for all the wealth
That sinews, bougbt and sold, bav« ever earned.
^ No ! dear as freeckmi is, and in my bean's
'^30 Just estimation prized above all price,
I had much rather be myself the dave,
Attd wear the bonds, than &sten them ion bim.
We bave no slaves at home— then why abroad !
And they themselves once ferried o^er the wave
3S Thatparts ns, are emancipate and loosed.

Slaves cannot breathe In England ; if their hmgs
Receive our air, that moment they are free ;
They toocb our country^ and tbeir shackles (kll.
That's noble, and bespeaks a iiation proud
40 And iealons of the Messing. Spread it then.
And let it cireulate tbrou^ every vein
Of all your empire ; tbat, where Britian's power
Is felt, mankind may feel her mercy too. Qntper,



71. ErmpHm vfHyder AU.

When at length Hyder Ali found tbat he had to do
with men who either would sign no convention, or whom
no treaty and no aignature could bind, and who were
the determined enemies of human iotercoorse itself^ be

5 decreed to make tbe country possessed by these inoor^
rigible and predestinated criminals a memorable exam-
ple to mankind. He resolved, in tbe gfoomy recesses
of a mind capacious of such things, to leare the whole
Camatic an everlasting moiMiment of vengeance ; and

10 to put perpetual desolation as a barrier between him and
those agamst whom the faith which holds tbe moral eU



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Bk. 71.] SBCULAIiSUKlVftffCE. OXQ

ements of the worid together, ww-iio [nroMotion. He
becaoM al length to coufkkat of hie ^ce> se iBd^ected
in hf« might, that he made no secret whuieoever of his

15 dreadful resoiution. HariDg termisaled his disputes
with e?ery enemy, and every rival, who buried their
mutual animosities in their comteon detestation against
the creditors of tlfe nabob of Arcot, he drew from «very
quarter whatever a savage ferocity could add to bis

20 new nidiments in the arts of destruction ; and com-
pounding all the Materials of fury, haVoc, artd d6sola*
tion, into one black cloud, he hung ibr a wliile on the
declivities of the mountains. While the authors of all
these evils were idly atid dtupidlv gazing 6n this men-

25 acing meteor, which bhickened all their b^rizon, it sud-
denly bonst, and poured down the whole of its contents
upon the plains of the Carnatic. Then ensued a scene
of wo, the like Of which no eye had seen, no heart con-
ceived, and which no tongue can adequately tell. All

30 the horrors of war before IrioWn or heard of, were mer-
cy to that new havoc. A storm of universal fire blasted
every field, consumed every house, destroyed every
temple. The miserable inhabitants, flying from their
flaming villages, in part wete slaughtered ; others, with-

35 out regard to sex, to age, to the respect of rank, or sa-
credness of i\inction ; fathers torn firom children, hus-
bahds from wives, enveloped in a whirlwind of cavalry,
and amidst the goading spears of drivers, and the tramp-
ling of pursuing horses, were swept into captivity, in an

40 unknown and hostile land. Those, who were able to
evade this tempest, fled to the walled cities. But es-
caping from fire, sword, and exile, they fell into the
jaws of fiunine.

For eighteen months, without intermissiob, this de-

45 struction raged from the gates of Madras to the gates of
Tanjore; and so completely did these masters in their
art, Hyder AH and his more ferocious son, absolve
themselves of' their impious vow, that when the British
armies traversecl, as they did, the Carnatic for hundreds

50 of miles in all directions, through the whole line of their
march, they did not see one man, not one woman, not

38»



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dSO BXBRCl^BS. [Ex. ?2, 73.

one child, not one fcmr'^ted beast of a^y 4e00ription
whatever. CHie dead, uniform silence reigned over the
' whole fegion. Evrke,



72, Apostrophe to slup.

Sleep, gentle sleep,

Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,
That thou no more^wilt weigh my eyelids down,
And steep my senses in forgetfulness ?
5 Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs,
Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee.
And hush'd with buzzing night-flies to thy slumber :
Than in the perfum'd chambers of the great.
Under the canopies of costly state,

10 And luird with sounds of sweetest melody ?
O.thou dull god, why liest thou with the vile,
In loathsome beds ; and leav'st the kingly couch,
A watch-case, or a common 'larum bell ?
Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mast

15 Seal up the ship-boy's eyes, and rock bis brains
In cradle of the rude imperious surge ;
And in the visitation of the winds,
Who take the ruffian billows by the top.
Curling their monstrous heads, and hanging them

20 With deafning clamors^n the slippery clouds.
That, with the burly, death itself awakes ?
Canst thou, O partial sleep ! give thy repose
To the wet sea-boy, in an hour so rude ;
And, in the calmest and most stillest night,

25 With all appliances, and means to boot,

Deny it to a king ? Shaksptarc,

73. Vanity of Power and misery of Kings.

No matter where ; of comfort no man speak :
Let's talk of graves, of worms, and epitaphs ;
Make dust our p&per, and with rainy eyes
Write sorrow on the bosom of the earth.
5 Let's choose executors, and ulk of wills :



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r



Ek, 74.] SECULAR BtXMlUBNCE. 331

And yet not so, — for what can we bequeath,
Save our depoeed bodies to the ground 7
Our lands, our lives, and all are fiolin^broke's.
And nothing can we call our own, but death ;

10 And that small model of the barren earth,
Which serves as paste and cover to our bones.
For heaven's sake, let us sit upon the ground.
And tell sad stories of the death of kings : —
How some have been depos'd, some slain in war ;

15 Some haunted by the ghosts they have deposed ;
Some poisoned by their wives, some sleeping kilFd ;
All murder'd : — For within the hollow crown
That rounds the mortal temples of a king.
Keeps death his court ; and there the antic sits,

20 Scoffing his state, and grinning at his pomp ;
Allowing him a breath, a little scene
To monarchize, be fear'd, and kill with looks;
Infusing him with self and vain conceit, —
As if this flesh, which walls about our life,

25 Were brass impregnable ; and'humor'd thus.
Comes at the last, and with a little pin
Bores through his castle wall, and — farewell king !
Cover your heads, and mock not flesh And blood
With solemn reverence ; throw away respect,

30 Tradition, form, and ceremonious duty.
For you have but mistook me all this while :
I live with bread like you, feel want, taste grief.
Need friends : — Subjected thus,
How can you say to me — I am a king ?

Shakspeare.



74. Reproof of the Irish Bishops.

Here are the sovereign pontiff of the Catholic faith,
and the Catholic king of Spain,' distributing one^ third
part of the revenues of their Church for the poor, and
here are some of the enlightened doctors of our church



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