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depreciating such a principle, and guarding their riches
against the encroaching of Christian charity; I hope
they will never again afford such an opportunity of corn-

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EXEftClSES. [Sx. 74

paring theoi wikM (he pope, or conumlliig^^ai li^fii the
apofltles. 1 do not think their riches witt be diminish*

10 ed ; but if they were to be«o— is not the ^ei4i^ di-
rectly put (o them, which will they prefer t their flock
or their ri^es? for which did Christ die, or the tpO»-
tles so€er nMurtyrdom, or Pawl preach, or Luther pro-
test ? was it ibr the tithe of flax, or the tithe of fosrren

15 land, or the tithe of potatoes, or the tithe-proctor, or the
tithe-former^ or the tithe^pig ? Your riches are sisture,
but if they are impaired by your acts of benevolenee,
does our religion depend on your riches? €^ such a '
principb your Savior should have accepted of the king*

20 doms of the earth, and their glory, and have ci^itulat^
with tlM devil for the propagation of the faith. Never
was a. great principle readored prevalent by power 6t
riches - -4ow and artificial means are resorted lo Ibr ful-
filling the little views of men, their love of power, their

25 avarice, or ambition ; but to apply to tke^ great designs
of God such wretched auxiliaries, is to forget his divini-
ty and to deny his omnipotence. What ! does the word
come more powerfully from the dignitary in purple and
'fine linen tlum it caoM from the poor apostle widi tioth-

30 ing but the spirit of the Lord on his lips, and the |^ory
of God standing on his right hand t What ! atf lords,
not cultivate bwrren land ; not encourage the manufke-
tures of your country ; not relieve the poor of your Ifeck,
if the church is to be at any expense thereby I-^Where

35 shall we find this principle? not in the Bible. I have
adverted to the sacred writings without crtticisra, I al-
low, but not without devotion — there is not in any part
of them such a sentiment — not in the purity of Christ
nor the poverty of the apostles, nor the prophecy of Isai-

40 ah, nor the patience of Job, nor the haVp of I>avid, nor
the wisdom of Solomon ! No, my lords, on this sub|iect
your Bible is against you— the precepts and practice of
the primitive church are agunst you — the great words
increase and multiply— 1& axiom of philosophy, that

45 nature does nothing in vain — ^the productive principle
that formed the system, and defends it against the am-
bition and encroi^chments of its own elements— Uie re-

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prodoetive principlQ which coatinues the system, and
Which makes vegetation support life, and life adminis-

50 ter back again to vegetation ; taking from the grave its
sterile <]uality, and making death it^f propagate to life
and succession — the plenitude of things, and the majes-
ty of nature, through all her organs, manifest against
SQch a sentiment ; this blind fatality of error, which,

6S under the pretence of defending the wealth of the priest-
hood, cheeks the growth of mankind, arrests his indus-
fry and makes the sterility of the planet a part of its re*
ligion. Orattan.

75. Speech ou the Greek Revolution,

It may, in the next place, be asked, perhaps suppos*
idg all this to be true, what can we do? Are we to go
to war t Are we to interfere in the Greek cause, or
any other European cause 1 Are we to endanger our

'5 pacific relations ?-*No, certainly not. What, then, the
question recurs, remains fer us ? If we will not endan-
ger our own peace, it we will neither furnish armies»
nor navies, to the cause which we think the just one,
what is there within our power?

It) Sir, this reasoning mistakes the age. Tlie time has
been, indeed, when fleets, and armies, and subsidies,
were the principal reliances, even in the best cause.
But, happily for mankind, there has come a great change
in this respect Moral causes come into consideration,

15 in prq>ortion as the progress of knowledge is advanced ;
and the public opinion of the civilized world is rapidly
gaining an ascendancy over mere brutal force. It is
already able to oppose the most formidable obstruction
to the progress of injustice and oppression ; and, as it

SM gtows more intelligent and more intense, it will be more
and more formidable. It may be silenced by military
power, but it cannot be conquered. It is elastic, irre-
pressible, and invulnerable to the weapons of ordinary
warfare. It is that impassible, unextinguishable enemy

^ of mere violence and arbitrary rule, which, like Milton's

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994 BxsacuiBs. |fik. 7S;

" ViUl in every part,
Cannot, but by aonibilating, die.*'

Until this be propitiated or satisfied, it is vain, for

30 power to talk either of triumphs or of repose. No flat-
ter what fields are desolated, what fortresses surrender*
ed, what armies subdued, or what provinces overrun.
In the history of the year that has passed by us, and in
the instance of unhappy Spain, we have seen the vanity

35 of all triumphs, in a cause which violates the general
sense of justice of the civilized world. It is notbingi
that the troops of France have passed from the Pyre-
nees to Cadiz ; it is nothing, that an unhappy and pros-
trate nation has fallen before them ; it is nothing that

40 arrests, and confiscation, and execution, sweep away the
little remnant of national resistance. There is an <ene-
my that still exists to check the glory of these triumphs.
It follows the conqueror back to the very scene of his
ovations ; it calls upon him to take notice that Europe,

45 though silent, is yet indignant ; it shows him that the
sceptre of his victory is a barren sceptre ; that it shall
confer neither joy nor honor, but shall moulder to dry
ashes in his grasp. In the midst of his exultation, it
pierces his ear with the cry of injured justice, it denoun*

50 ces against him the indignation of an enlightened and
civilized age : it turns to bitterness the cup of his re-
joicing, and wounds him with the sting which belongs
to the conciousness of having outraged the opinion of
mankind. Webster,

76. Character of Hamilton.

That writer would deserve the fame of a public bene-
factor who could exhibit the character of Hamilton,
with the truth and force, that all who intimately knew
' him, conceived it : his example would then take the
5 same ascendant, as his talents. The portrait alone,
however exquisitely finished, could not inspire genius
where it is not ; but if the world should again have pos-
session of so rare a gift, it might awaken it when it
sleeps, as by a spark from heaven's own altar ; for sure-

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10 ly if there is any. thing like divinity in man, it is his ad-
miration of virtue.

But who alive can exhibit this portrait ? If our age,
on that supposition, more fruitful than any other, had
produced two Hamiltons, one of tbem might have de-

1^ picted the other. To delineate genius one must feel

its power ; Hamilton, and he alone, with all its inspi*

rations, could have transfused its whole fervid soul into

the picture, and swelled its lineaments into life. The

. writer's mind, expanding with its own peculiar enthusi-

90 asm, and glowing with kindred fires, would then have
stretched to the dimensions of his subject.

Such is the infirmity of human nature, it is very dif-
ficult for a man, who is greatly the superior of his as-
sociates, to preserve their friendship without abatement ;

25 yet, though he could not possibly conceal his superiori-
ty, he was so little inclined to display it, he was so much
: at ease in his possession, that no jealousy or envy chill-
ed his bosom, when his friends obtained praise. He
was indeed so entirely the friend of his friends, so mag-

^ nanimous, so superior, or, more properly, so insensible
to all exclusive selfishness of spirit ; so frank, so ardent,
yet so little overbearing, so much trusted, admired, be-
loved, almost adored, that his power over their affections
was entire, and lasted through his life. We do not be-

35 lieve, that he left any worthy man his foe, who had ev-
er been his friend.

Men of the most elevated minds, have not always the
readiest discernment of character. Perhaps he was
sometimes too sudden and too lavish in bestowing his

40 confidence ; his manly spirit disdaining artifice, suspect-
ed none. But while the power of- his friends over him
seemed to have no limits, and really had none, in res-
pect to those things- which were of a nature to be yield-
ed, no man, not the Roman Cato himself, was more
45 inflexible on every pohiit that touched, or seemed to
touch integrity and honor. With him, it was not
enough to be unsuspected ; his bosom would have glow-
ed like a furnace, at his own whispers of reproach.
Mere purity would have seemed to him below praise ;

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9B6 Bxmcinn. {Ea.. 77.

M tnd Boch were his htbiti^ and sneh kis nstnte, tlitt Ibe
pecuniary temptations which manj elhers can only wich
mat exertion and self denial resist, had no attractions
m him. He was very far from obstinate ; yet> as his
friends asMiled his* opinions with less profiMind thought

5& than he had devoted to them^ Aey were seldom sha&n

by discossion. He defended them, howeTer, with as

mudi mildness as fotce, and evinced, thsi if he did not

yield, it was not for want of gentleness or modesty.

The tears that flow on this fond recital will never dry

60 up. My heart, penetrated with the remembrMice of
the roan, grows liquid as i write, and I could pour it
out like water. I could weep too for my country,
which mournful as it is, does not know the half of its
loss. It deeply laments, when it turns it eyes back,

6S and sees what Hamilton was ; but my soul sttfens with
despair, when I think what Hamilton wodd have been.


77. Siaie^ of the French Republic.

^ With the jacobins of France, marriage is in efiect an-
nihilated ; children are encouraged to cut the throats
oftheir parenu; mothers are taught that tenderness is
no part oftheir character; and to demonstrate their at»
5 tachment to their party, that they ouffht to make no
scruple to rake with their bloody hands in the bowels of
those who come from their own.

To alt this let us join the practice of camtibalism,
with which, in the proper terms, and with the grl^test
10 truth, their several factions accuse each other* By can-
nibalism, I mean their devouring, as a nutriment of their
ferocity, some parts of the bodiestif those they have mur-
dered: their drinking of the blood of their victims, and
forcing the victims themselves to drink the blood oftheir
111 kindred, slaughtered bdbre their faces. Bj cannibal-
ism, I mean also to signify aH their namel^, unman-
ly, and^ abominable insults on the bodies of those they

As to those whom they suffer to die a natural death.

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l^t. 77.]- SECULAR ELOQUENCE. 337

9^ ihej do not permit them to enjoy the last consolations of
mankind, or those rights of sepulture, which indicate
hope, and which mere nature has taught to mankind in
all countries to soothe the afflictions, and to cover the
infirmity of mortal condition. They disgrace men in

85 the entry into life : they vitiate and enslave them
through the whole course of it ; and they deprive them
of all comfort at the conclusion of their dishonored and
depraved existence. Endeavoring to persuade the
people that they are no better than beasts, the whole

30 body of their institution tends to make them beasts ot
prey, furious and savage. For this purpose the active
part of them is disciplined into a ferocity which has no
parallel. To this ferocity there is joined not one of the
rude, unfashioned virtues which accompany the vices,

36 where the whole are left to grow up together in the
rankness of uncultivated nature. But nothing is left to
nature in their systems.

The same discipline which hardens their hearts, re-
laxes their morals. Whilst courts of justice were thrust

40 out by revolutionary tribunals, and silent churches were
only the funeral monuments of departed religion, there
were no fewer than nineteen or twenty theatres, great
and small, most of them kept open at the public ex-
pense, and all of them crowded every night. Among

45 the gaunt, haggard forms of famine and nakedness,
amidst the yells of murder, the tears of affliction, and the
cries of despair ; the song, the dance, the mimic scene,
the buffoon laughter, went on as regularly as in the gay
hour of festive peace. I have it from good iiuthority,

50 that under the scaffold of judicial murder, and the gap*
ing planks that poured down blood on the spectators,
the space was hired out for a shew of dancing dogs. I
think, without concert, we have made the very same re-
mark on reading some of their pieces, which being writ-

55 ten for other purposes, let us into a view 6C their social
life. It struck us that the habit^ of Paris had no resem-
blance to the finished virtues, or to the polished vice,
and elegant, though not blameless luxury, of the capital
of a great empire. Tbeit society was more like that of a

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S89 tBBEClBBB. Pix. 78.

deo of o«Uawft upon a doiibtftil frontier ; of a lewd Ut-
em for Ihe revels and debauchees of banditti, astastins,
bravos and smugglers mixed with bombastic flyers,
the refuse and rejected o&l of strolling theatres, puff-
ing out illHSorted verses about virtue, mixed with the

65 licentious and blasphemous sonp, proper to the brutri
and hardened course of life belonging to that sort of
wretches. This system of manners in itself is at w ar
with all orderly and moral society, and is in its neigh-
borhood unsafe. If great bodies of that kind were any

70 where established in a bordering territory, we should
have a right to demand of their governments the suppres-
sion, of such a nuisance. What are we to do if the gov-
ernment and the whole community is of the same des-
cription ? Yet that government has thought proper to

75 invite ours to lay by its unjust hatred, and to listen to
the voice of humanity as taught by their example.


78. Cicergfor Ciumtius.

You, T. Attius, I know, had every where given it
out, that I was to defend my client, not from facts^ not
upon the footing of innocence, but by taking advantage
merely of the law in his behalf. Have I done so t I
5 appeal to yourself. Have I sought to cover him behind
a legal defence only ? On the contrary, have I not
pleaded bis cause as if he had been a senator, liable, by
the Cornelian kw, to be capitally convicted ; and shown
that neither proof nor probable presumption lies against

10 his innocence ? In doing so, I must acquaint you, that
I have compli^ with the desire of Cluentius himself.
For when he first consulted me in this cause, and when
I ififermed him that it was clear no aptlon could be
brought against him from the Cornelian law, he instant*

15 ly bought and obtested me, that I would not rest bp
defence upon that ground : saying, with tears in his
eyes, that his reputation was as dear to him as his life ;
and that what he sought,^ as an innocent man, was not
eiily to be absolved n^ any penalty, but to be acquits

9D ted in tfte opinion ofall his feflow-citizens.

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£Z. 78.] SECUtAE M^^^tTBNCE. 390

Hitberto^ th^^i htve pleaded ^s eauM upon hii
plan. But my client must forgive me, if ne^ I shall
plead it upon my own. For I shoald be wanting to
myself, and to that regard which my character and sta-

25 tion require me to l^ar to the laws of the state, if I
should allow any perton to be judged of by a law which
does not bind him. You, Attius, indeed, have told us,
that it was a scandal and reproach, that a Roman knight
should be exempted from those penalties to which a

30 senator, for corrupting judges is liable. But 1 tnust
tell you that it would be a much greater reproach, in a
state that is regulated by law, to depart from Ihe law.
What safety have any of us in our persons^ what secu-
rity for our rights, if the law shall be set aside ? By

35 what title do you, Q. Naso, sit in that chair, i^nd pre-
side in this judgment ? By what right, T. Attius, do
you accuse, or do I defend t Whence all the solemni-
ty and pomp of judges, and clerks, and officers, of which
this house is full ? Does not all proceed from the law,

40 which regulates the whole departments of the state ;
which, as a common bond, holds its members together ;
and like the soul within the body, actuates and directs
all the public functions ? On what ground, then» dare
you speak lightly of the law, or move that, in a crim-

45 mal trial, judges should advance one step beyond what
it permits them to go f The wisdom of our ancestors has
found, that as senators and magistrates enjoy higher
dignities, and greater advantages than other members
of the state, the law should also, with regard to them,
be more strict, and the purity and uncorruptedness of

50 their morals be guarded by more severe sanctions. But
if it be your pleasure that this institution should be al-
tered, if you wish to have the ComeKan law concern-
ing bribery extended to all ranks, then let us join, not
in violating the law, but in proposing to hive this alter-

55 ation made by a new law. My client, Ctuentius, will
be the foremost in this measur^, who now. While the
old law subsists, rejected its defence, and required his
cause to be pleaded, as If he had been bound by it..
But, though he would not avail hin^self of the law, you

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940 BXBECNTBs. [Ex. TSi

60 are bovad in jnsiaM nol to stMeh it beyoad its proper

79. Extract from Demosthenes.

Yes, Athenians, I repeat it, yon yourselves are the
contrivers of your own ruin. Lives there a man who
has confidence enough to deny it t Let him arise, and
assign, if he can, any other cause of the success and
5 prosperity of Philip—" But," you reply, " what Athena
may have lost in reputation abroad, she has gained in
splendor at home. Was there ever a greater appear-
ance of prosperity ; a greater &ce of pknty t Is not
the city enlarged ? Are not the streets better paved,

10 houses repaired and beautified I" — Away with such tri*
fles ? Shall I be paid with counters t An old square
new vamped up ! a fountain I an aqueduct I are these
acquisitions to brag of? C^st your eye upon the magis-
trate under whose ministry you boast these precious

15 improvements. Behold the despicable creature, raised,
all at once, from dirt to opulence ; firom the lowest ob-
scurity to the highest honors. Have not some of those
upstarts built private houses and seats, vying with the
most sumptuous of our public {^aces? And how have

20 their fortunes and their power increased, but as the comr
monweahh has been ruined and impoverished ?

To what are we to impute these disorders, and to
what cause assign the decay of a state so powerful and
flourishing in past times 1 The reason is plain. The

25 servant has now become the master. The magistrate was
then subservient to the people; all honors^ dignities,
and preferments, were disposed by the voice and fa-
vor of the people ; but the magistrate, now, has usurp-
ed the right of the people, and exercises an arbitrary

30 authority over his ancient and natural lord. You, mis-
erable people ! — the meanwhile, without money, without
friencte, — from being the ruler, are become the servant ;
from being the master, the dependent : happy that these
governors, into whose hands you have thus resigned your

S5 own power, are so good and so gracious as to continuo
your poor allowance to see plays«

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Believe me, AtbeQians, if recovering from this leth-
argy, you would assume the ancient freedom and spirit
of your fathers— if you would be your own soldiers and

40 your own commanders, confiding no longer your affairs
in foreign or mercenary hands — if you would charge
yourselves with your own defence, employing abroad, for
the public, what you waste in unprofitable pleasured at
home — the world might once more behold you making

46 a figure worthy of Athenians.—" You would have us,
then, (you say,) do service in our armies tn our own per-
sons ; and, finr so doing, you would have the pensions we
receive in time of peace, accepted as pay in time of war.
Is it thus we are to understand you t — Yes, Athenians,

50 'tis my plain meaning. — I would make it a standing rule
that no person, great or little, should be the better for
the public money, who should grudge to employ it for
the public service. Are we in peace ? the public is
charged with your subsistence. Are we in war, or un-

55 der a necessity, as at this time, to enter into a war ?
let your gratitude oblige you to accept, as pay in defence
of your l^nefiictors, what you receive, in peace, as mere
bounty.*— Thus without any innovation — ^without alter-
ing or abolishing any thing but pernicious novelties,

60 introduced for the encouragement of sfoth and idleness,
— by converting only for the future, the same fiinds,
for the use of the serviceable, which are spent, at pres-
ent, upon the unprofitable, you may be well served in
your armies— your troops regularly paid — justice duly

65 administered — ^the public revenues reformed and in-
creased — and every member of this commonwealth ren-
dered useful to his country, according to his age and
ability, without any further burden to the state.


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'^42 ESBseisci* [&x«M.

S&. Bromgham^^ SpeetAyOn ik» a^Mstiknunk by ike Duke of
Yvrk iri the bouse of Lords oh the CatkoUc ^^[uestion,
when his Lordship concbuled by sayings ^'letm deter- .
mhwd^ to takMecer temure or MeffWf I may be exposed
by making this declaraiion^to persepere^in my opposition
to these olaimSy so kblp mb eot>/*^

Will any man tdJ am that he hts confideiit hope»
of theCathdie qaesUon / We ara told that we are «ot
to try the question of the 40b, freeholders on he own
mevka, but that the measure b ej^Mdieat, because it will
5 enaare the (Mssing of the Catholic Bill. This ar^funent
Htighi have been used twenty-four hours ago, but does
any man believe^ after what h%s paased,, that the enact-
meitt of this measure will be sure to carry the Catholic
Bill 1 What earthly security have i, that if I abandon

10 my priTiieges and my duty as a legislator, by voting for
this measure in the dark^ I shall even have the suppos-
ed compensation, for this abandonment and betrayal of
my duty, the passing of the Catholic BiVt ? I repeat,,
that this might have been urged as an argument two or

15 three days ago, but does any man really believe now
that the Catholic Bill will pass? Does any man believe
that the ominous news of this day, which has gone forth
to England and Ireland, will not ring the knell of de-
spair in the ears of the Catholics 1 I am not an enemy

30 to consistency of action ; I do not condemn the candid
expression of sincere conviction ; I do not even com-
{^ain of the violence of zeal, or censure the promulga-
tion of honest obstinacy, however erroneous ; but when
I behold those manly feelings darkened by ignorance

25 and inflamed by prejudice, and blinded by bigotry, I
will not hesitate to assert, that no monarch ever came
to the throne of these realms in such a spirit of direct
and predetermined, and predeclared hostility to the epin«
ions and wishes of the people. I repeat, then, that when

30 that event* shall have taken place, it will be impossible
to carry the question of emancipaiion ; nay, that its sue-

* The accession of the Duka of York, who was heir apparent
to the throne.

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O0»s 18 even at praaMit snrmuuded by doubt and danger,
while «06h opposition is brewing against it in such a
<)ttarter. Instead of a majority of twenty-seven, mem-

35 ber« of this house, to save the empire from oonvulsion,
which, within the hist twenty-four hours^ has become
ten thousand times more petrifying lo the imagination ;
I believe nothing can save Irefand— nothing can pre-
serve the tranquillity of Ireland and save England from

.40 new troubles, but a large increase of the majority on the
question. Now then, is the time to carry it or not, for
yeankp - and even now you can carry it only by an over-
whelming majority of this bouse. This is the hour of its
good fortune. This reig»— -the present reign, ts the criti*'

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