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LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA
SAN



DC
102.8



KING RENE D'ANJOU AND HIS
SEVEN QUEENS




THE CEREMONIOUS ENTRY OF THE " LADY OF THE CREST " SAUMUR
TOURNAMENT 1446

From "Le Livre des Tournois " Painted by King Rend



KING RENE D'ANJOU

AND HIS SEVEN QUEENS



BY

EDGGUMBE STALEY

AUTHOR OF

' LORDS AND LADIES OP THE ITALIAN LAKES," "GUILDS OF FLORENCE." "FAIR WOMEN OF
FLORENCE," "TRAGEDIES OF THE MEDICI," "DOGARESSAS OF VENICE,"
"HEROINES OF GENOA AND THE RIVIERAS," ETC.



WITH COLOURED FRONTISPIECE AND THIRTY-FIVE
OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS



"FIDES VITAT SERVATA"

King Rene's Motto




LONDON
JOHN LONG, LIMITED

NORRIS STREET, HAYMARKET
MCMXII



TO

MY BROTHER VERNON

AND

HIS WIFE ETHEL



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY KING

PAGES

King Rene's titles His character A beau-ideal Prince His occupations
His work as an artist Visits to Italy Scrivani ' ' The Burning
Bush" "Souls in Purgatory" "La Divina Gommedia " "St.
Madeleine preaching" "Preces Prse" "Pas d'Armes" "Livres
des Heures" Rene's literary work " Regnault et Jehanneton"
"Mortifiement de Vaine Plaisance" "La Conquete de la Doulce
Mercy " " L'Abuze en Court " " Le Tracte des Tournois " Charles
d'Anjou-Orleans Dance songs Letters Collections, books, curios,
etc. Work as a craftsman Orders and Gxiilds Agricultural tastes
The rose de Provence Workshops " Les Comptes de Roy Rene" La
Cheminee du Roy Intercourse with his people A troubadour King
Relics A famous winecup 17 29

CHAPTER II
YOLANDA D'ARKAGONA i.

A Queen in labour Natural children Princess Juanita "La Gaya
Ciencia ' ' Troubadours lolande de Flandres Bar-le-Duc High-
waymen Recruits Fetes galants Court of Love - -Juan I., King of
Aragon A beauteous damsel L 'Academic des Jeux Floraux A royal
Mainteneuse N"ails in their heads ! " Plucking the turkey " ! " Quite
as good as you!" "A gay woman" A royal baptism Princess
Yolanda The Salic Law A bridegroom-elect Mauled by a wolf A
silver throne "The Queen!" Bullfights A royal trousseau A
brilliant cavalcade Louis II. d'Anjou Attractive girls Castle of
Montpellier A royal progress "The Loves of Louis and Yolanda "
A King-suitor in disguise An ardent kiss A royal marriage Beauti-
ful Arlesennes " A lovely creature !" A splendid dowry Gardens
at Tarascon Legend of St. Martha A deadly dragon State entry
into Angers The castle and its contents "Mysteries" Inartistic
fare Feastings Yolanda Lieutenant-General of Anjou English
invasion Rabbit with a medallion Isabeau de Baviere A wasp-like
waist Jewels Catherine de Valois Yolanda's first-born The "Black
Death " Queen-Duchess Marie Princess Marie Taxes and tax-
gatherers Rene d'Anjou born St. Renatus The Queen's enterprise
Cutting off his tail ! Claimants for a throne A piteous little Prince
A royal betrothal Henry V. of England Louis II. in Italy His
death- ........ 30 66

vii



viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER III
YOLANDA D'ARRAGONA 11.

PAGES

Royal mourning Cardinal Louis de Bar Yolande a constitutional
Sovereign The Duke of Burgundy Matrimonial alliances Tourna-
ments Princess Margherita di Savoia Louis III. fights for the crown
of Naples Queen Giovanna II. Princess Isabelle de Lorraine A
stick for a bad woman ! Rene takes up arms A vassal Ordre de
la Fidelite The Van Eycks Treasures Gardens at Bar-le-Duc
Floral games Fortune is a woman ! Battle of Bauge Birth of
Louis XI. of France Jeanne d'Arc A panel of matrons Slanders
Queen Yolande's daring Charles VII. inert Rene Duke of Barrois
A debauche Prince A young widow Preux chevaliers A love-
match Princess Catherine de Champagne burnt to death Rene and
Isabelle married Rene Duke of Lorraine Battle of Bulgneville A
royal prisoner A foisted child A beretta crown Prince Jean Duke
of Calabria Princess Marie de Bourbon Agnes Sorel, the most lovely
girl in France Queen Yolande in private life The Castle of Saumur
Queen Yolande's death Her character No trace of her grave
Theophaine la Magine A quaint epitaph The stained-glass windows
of Le Mans Cathedral "A good mother and a great Queen " - 67 93

CHAPTER IV

ISABELLE DE LORBAIKE

Child marriages "The Pride of Lorraine" A mailed fist Duchess's
bare feet Satin skin Cardinal matchmaker Ten considerations
Woman's Avit supreme A charming boy Jean "sans Peur "
" Polluyon " A Sovereign's oath " Noel ! Noel !" First free Parlia-
ment in France Veterans Antoine de Vaudemont " You may go !"
Bulgneville Rene a prisoner Insecurity of life The Duke's terms
Two boy hostages La Tour de Bar Rene's parole Money the crux
Rene at Naples The Golden Rose A royal artist Music and song
Duchess Margaret dies " Le Roi est mort, vive le Roi !" The sword
of Lancelot A very young widow Isabelle leads an army Alfonso
in check King Rene free Women of Genoa On the throne A
troubled land " Cette vraie Amazone !" Fortune did not smile
"Too much blood" A dastardly outrage Peace Princess Mar-
guerite betrothed Black armour Jehanne de Laval Black buffaloes
Grey hair Splendid tournments Ordre du Croissant Double
nuptials Henry VI. of England Ferri carries off Yolande Cupid's
"Lists" The spectre of war Death of Queen Isabelle "My heart
has lost its love !" " Amour etFoy" - - - 94 142

CHAPTER V
JEANNE D'ARC "LA PUCELLE"

" Give me Rene !" Village of Domremy Village feuds A busy mother
A weird accouchement Le Bois Chenus Voices St. Michael Mad
Jehanne A coarse kirtle She touched the hilt Duke Charles's
strange visitors A dash around the courtyard ' ' Vive la nostre
Royne !" A pilgrimage march Priests and minstrels A famous
sword Jeanne's oriflamme A dissolute Court Charles VI. at Chinon
A. winning hazard. Certain secrets Jeanne's double ordeal Bishops
and matrons "La Pucelle " so named by Queen Yolande Filles de



CONTENTS ix

PAGES

Joie White armour An ultimatum Divided counsels The siege of
Orleans " The Maid" wounded En route to Reims The "Sacre"
Jeanne's modesty Her apotheosis " Sire, I bid you farewell "
Rene the hero Jeanne the heroine To expel the hated English The
fall of Paris "The Maid" a prisoner Deserted by everyone A
mock trial A human wreck Burnt to death A maiden's heart and
a white dove " Ma Royne est mort !" Rene's lament Charles's
remorse The memory of Jeanne d'Are .... 143 173



CHAPTER VI
MARIE D'ANJOU

'The little Queen of Bourges" A master-stroke A lovely bride, an ill-
looking groom An evil mother's influence Three fair witches
Yolande's prestige Woman's power in France Marie v. Agnes
Unhappy Charles VI. The Chatelaine de Courrages A gallows and a
flagellation Marriage of Charles and Marie Impecuniosity Never
touched her below the chin ! Jacques Cceur's loyal succour Terrible
disasters A treacherous deed Isabeaii's rage Queen Marie's speech
A lovely bevy of Maids of Honour Outrageous fashions Correcte's
crusade "Abas les hennins !" Scudding stones Plain chapelles
A faint-hearted King Queen Marie's "I will" Marie d'Anjou and
Jeanne d'Arc No place for the Queen ! Agnes Sorel, "la Belle des
Belles " Serge chemises " The plaything of the most valiant King ?"
Agnes's four daughters A loving son Boxed her ears ! Agnes's
heart in gold "Males femmes" "Everything for France !" Disas-
ters and delirium Marie in shade and shine A pillion Poor little
Princess Margaret ! " A curse on life !" A dissolute Prince Slander
and hypocrisy The Bastard of Orleans A tryst disturbed The
obscene Fete des Fous A royal repast Tours for delicacies A
famous pack of cards The Queen as a business woman Cocks and
hens Marie dies at Poitiers "A good and devout woman " - 174 215



CHAPTER VII

GIOVANNA II. OF NAPLES

" Like Queen Giovanna !" Anjou succession in Naples A lover suffocated
King Ladislaus Many suitors Hard to please A rare quality
Marriage ring torn off Louis d' Anjou 's advance A poor old Queen
Butterfly courtesans A champion of physical beauty A wily woman
The cord of St. Francis A baseborn athlete The chief of the pages
The Queen's master Vampire kisses Louis v. Alfonso A romantic
story Fair Leonora Not a tool of the Queen Fierce rivals Pulled
the Queen's hands Giovanna in her lover's arms Flashing eyes
Beneath the lips Superb entertainments Giovanna discovers the
liaison Rene bravest of the brave Treason Duchess Covella Ruffo
and her jewelled poniard Rene at Naples ' ' II galantuomo Re "
The Jews Alfonso defeated and a prisoner Belated pious deeds
Giovanna as the Virgin Mary! An embassy from Naples Many
claimants for the throne Isabelle a virago Queen A macaroni basket
" I'll not fight with a woman !" Colossal orgies A Spartan mother
Decisive battle of Troia End of the Angevine dynasty Jean, Duke
of Calabria, raises the flag in vain .... 216 252



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER VIII

MARGUERITE D'ANJOU

PAGES

"The loveliest Princess in Christendom" A storm-rocked cradle A
child's kiss Troubadours and glee-maidens An eligible suitor The
love of all the boys Neglected education A delighted grandmother
Marriage tangles Philippe, Count de Nevers, repudiated Henry VI.
of England looking for a Queen The "Three Graces of Armagnac"
Cardinal Beaufort charmed with Marguerite An unpainted face
"Oh fie! oh fie!" An autograph letter Splendid nuptials La
Confrererie de la Passion Too poor to buy her own wedding dress A
peachy blush Fine fashions Gold garter chains Sumptuous hair-
dressing A "Marguerite" flower-holder A sorrowful parting A
truly royal train The entente cordiale The Queen short of ready cagh
A stormy passage Chicken-pox ? The King's ring A famous tire-
woman Extraordinary presents Pageants Queen Margaret crowned
"La Frangaise" The Queen's strong character The Duke of
York nonplussed Pious foundations The King's seizure She had to
play the man ! The Prince of Wales York's dastardly insinuations
A costly churching-robe Civil war begins Margaret leads the
Lancastrians in person Success and failure York's grey gory head
"Lore Lady- Day " Lord Grey de Ruthen's treason King Henry a
prisoner in the Tower " Fie on thee, thou traitor !" The Queen in
Scotland King Louis's double game A shipwreck A common robette
Galant Sir Pierre de Breze " Une Merrie Mol !" The kiss of
etiquette Thorns All the poets sing of Margaret All is lost !
Margaret at home again Earl of Warwick's loyalty A diplomatic
marriage The sea flouts Margaret Perjured Lord Wenlock A
treacherous blow The Prince murdered "Bloody Edward" The
"she- wolf" Hands tied behind her back King Henry killed The
Queen in a dungeon Renews pathetic letter The great heroine of the
Wars of the Roses Repose at Reculee A lioness at bay ' ' The grim
grey wolf of Anjou " A sad and lonely death ... 253 305

CHAPTER IX

JEHANNE DE LAVAL

Roses "December" and "May" A famous House The Queen of
Beauty All in love with Jehanne The champion's crest A tourna-
ment banquet The Grand Prix Rene struck with Jehanne His
Genoese innamorate "Devils at home" A second marriage desirable
The King bemoans Isabelle No festivities A moral allegory
A new course of life Costly offerings" Les Tards-Venus " Court of
Love at Les Baux " La Passe Rose " A coffin full of golden hair
Ruralizing royalty Jehanne, nymph of the bosquets "Pastorals"
" Regnault et Jehanneton " All fall in love, and all fall out ! An
allegory of chivalry Cuer reads the strange inscription Louis XL's
outrageous behaviour " L'Abuz en Court " Rene the victim The
Pageant of the Pheasant An elysium of love The Queen's virtues
Her portrait Rene's school of architects St. Bernardin, the King's
confessor Rene's heart Pious Sovereigns Relics The crown of
Catalonia Queen Jehanne and Queen Margaret Church spectacles
Magnificent hospitality Demoiselle Odille La Petite Helene
Patroness of crafts " The Golden Rose " Rene's green old age ' Le
bon Roy est rnort !" Marie de la Ohapelle's children Queen Jehanne
retires to Beaufort A studious widow "I have no other r&le to
play !" " La Reine " in an iron cage The Queen's sweet death
Her will Her monument and Rene's " Priez pour la bonne
Jehanne "... .... 306356



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



FACIKO
PAGE



CEREMONIOUS ENTRY OF THE "LADY OF THE CREST"

Frontispiece

QUEEN YOLANDA D'ARRAGONA - 30

ENTRY OF A QUEEN INTO HER CAPITAL - 40

FAVOURITE RECREATIONS - 50

A MYSTERY - - 60

KING Louis II. OF SICILY- ANJOU - - 68

COMMUNION OF A KNIGHT - 74

A ROYAL REPAST 80

STREET SCENE IN Aix - 86

QUEEN ISABELLE DE LORRAINE 94

KING RENE (circa 1440) 106

ROYAL PATRONESSES AND CRAFTS - - 118

"C(EUR" AND "THE ISLAND OF LOVE " 130

"THE WHITE QUEEN" JEANNE D'ARC - 144

EXPULSION OF GAY WOMEN - - 152

SIEGE OF ORLEANS - - 160

SACRE OF CHARLES VII. - 168

QUEEN MARIE D'ANJOU - 174

A BESIEGED CASTLE - 184

KING RENE AND HIS COURT - - 194

xi



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



FACING
PAGE



QUEENS, JUDGES, AND KNIGHTS - 204

QUEEN GIOVANNA II. DA NAPOLI - - 216

HOMAGE OF A VASSAL - - 226

KING AND QUEEN IN STONE - - 236

KING RENE AND GUARINI DA VERONA - 246

QUEEN MARGUERITE D'ANJOU - - - - 254

BEFORE THE " LISTS"- - 268

KING RENE IN HIS STUDY - - 280

AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS - 292

QUEEN JEHANNE DE LAVAL - - 306

ST. MADELEINE PREACHING - - 320

"THE BURNING BUSH" . 334

KING RENF, (circa 1470) ... . 343



PREFACE

KING REN D'ANJOTJ AND HIS SEVEN QUEENS yes,
I stand by my title, and offer no apology to the
captious and the curious.

Rene was the most remarkable personality in the
French Renaissance. How many English readers of
the romance of history, I wonder, know anything about
him but his name ? Of his " seven Queens," two only
are at all familiar to the English public, Marguerite
d'Anjou and Jeanne d'Arc, and their stories as
commonly told are unconvincing. The other five are
not known even by name to the majority of people ;
therefore I have immense pleasure in introducing
them to any clientele: Yolanda d'Arragona, Isabelle
de Lorraine, Jehanne de Laval, Giovanna II. da
Napoli, Jeanne d'Arc and Marguerite d'Anjou.
This galaxy of Queens, fair and frail, will appeal as
something entirely new in sentimental biography
to those in search of novelty.

Turgid facts of history and dryasdust statistics of
the past are, of course, within everybody's ken, or
they are supposed to be this is an age of snobbery !
Piquant stories of the persons and foibles of famous
men and women are my measure, and such you will
have in plenty in my narratives. To get at my facts

xiii



xiv PREFACE

and fictions I have dug deep into the records of Court
chroniclers, and I think I have blended very success-
fully the spirit of the troubadours and the spirit of
the age of chivalry. At the end of the volume I
have added a Bibliography, for the benefit of
sententious students, and my Index is as full as possible,
to assist the casual reader.

The illustrations which adorn my pages have
been gathered from many sources. I think they
will greatly assist the appreciation of my work. With
respect to portraits of my " Queens," there are no
extant likenesses of Yolanda and Jeanne : for the
latter I have chosen to reproduce the historical
imaginative fresco of M. Lepenveu, at the Panthdon
in Paris ; for the former the stained-glass window effigy
at Le Mans Cathedral must do duty. Queen Isabelle
is an enlargement of a miniature by Rend ; Queen
Marie is after a French picture of the School of
Jean Focquet, now at the National Gallery, London,
but wrongly entitled. Queen Giovanna II. is from
an altar-piece in the National Museum at Naples.
Queen Marguerite is from a miniature by her father,
her portraits in England are eminently unsatisfactory
and non-contemporary, Queen Jehanne is froiti the
right wing of the Aix triptych, by Nicholas Froment.

There is, I think, nothing more to add to my preface,
so I leave " King Rene and his Seven Queens " t&e-a-
tete with my discerning public. If they are found to
be entertaining company I am repaid.

EDGCUMBE STALEY.



CHRONOLOGY



1399. Marriage of Louis II. d'Anjou and Yolanda d'Arragona.

1408. Birth of Rene d'Anjou.

1411. Giovanna II. succeeds to throne of Naples.

1417. Rene 1 adopted by Cardinal de Bar.

1420. Marriage of Rene and Isabelle de Lorraine.

1422. Marie d'Anjou marries Charles VII.

1424. Kene, Duke of Barrois.

1429. Jeanne d'Arc and Kene at Siege of Orleans.

1431. Rene", Duke of Lorraine ; prisoner at Bulgneville.

1433. Rene's campaign in Italy.

1434. Rene, King of Sicily, etc.

1435. Giovanna II. dies; Rene, King of Naples.
1437. Rene released finally from Tour de Bar.

1441. Rene retires from Italy.

1442. Queen Yolanda dies.

1445. Marriage of Marguerite d'Anjou and Henry VI.

1448. Order of the Croissant established.

1453. Queen Isabelle dies.

1455. Marriage of Rene" and Jehanne de Laval.

1463. Queen Marie dies.

1465. Ren6 proclaimed King of Catalonia.

1470. Jean, Duke of Calabria, King of Catalonia, dies.

1473. Rene retires from Anjou, which is seized by Louis XL

1480. Rene" dies.

1482. Queen Marguerite dies.

1498. Queen Jehanne dies.



xv



KING RENE D'ANJOU AND HIS
SEVEN QUEENS



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY

" RENE, King of Jerusalem, the Two Sicilies, Aragon,
Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica ; Duke of
Anjou, Barrois, and Lorraine ; Count of Provence,
Forcalquier and Piemont," so runs the preamble of
his Will. To these titles he might have added
Prince of Gerona, Duke of Calabria, Lord of Genoa,
Count of Guise, Maine, Chailly, and Longjumeau,
and Marquis of Pont-a-Mousson !

He was famous as a Sovereign, a soldier, a legis-
lator, a traveller, a linguist, a scholar, a poet, a
musician, a craftsman, a painter, an architect, a
sculptor, a collector, a sportsman, an agriculturist, and
incidentally a chivalrous lover. About such a many-
sided character there is much to tell and much to
learn. His times were spacious ; the clouds of Medi-
sevalism had rolled away, and the Sun of Progress illu-
minated the heyday of the Renaissance ; art and craft
had come into their own. Venus disarmed Mars, Diana
entranced Apollo, and Minerva restrained Mercury,
and all the hierarchy of heaven was captive to the

17



18 RENfi D'ANJOU AND HIS SEVEN QUEENS

Liberal Arts. Rene d'Anjou, figuratively, seems to
have gathered up in his cunning hand the powers of
all the spiritual intelligences alongwith the life-lines
of practical manifestations. He has come down to us
as the beau-ideal Prince of the fifteenth century.

" A Prince who had great and pre-eminent
qualities, worthy of a better future. He was a great
Justicier and an enemy to long despatches. He
said sometimes, when they presented anything to
signe, being a-hunting or at the warre, that the Pen
was a kinde of Armes, which a person should use at
all times " so wrote the historian Pierre Mathieu,
in his "History of Louis XI.," in 1614. He goes
on to say : " The reign of so good a Prince was
much lamented, for he intreated his subjects like a
Pastor and a Father. They say that when his
Treasurer brought unto him the Roy ale Taxe,
which was sixteen florins for every kindled fire,
whereof Provence might have about three thousand
five hundred, hee enformed himselfe of the aboun-
dance or barenesse of the season ; and when they
told him, that a mistrall winde had reigned long, hee
remitted the moiety and sometimes the whole taxe.
Hee contented himself with his revenues, and did
not charge his people with new tributes. Hee spent
his time in paintings, the which were excellent, as
they are yet to be seen in the city of Aix. Hee
was drawing of a partridge when as they brought
him newes of the loose of the Realme of Naples, yet
hee could not draw his hande from the work and the
pleasure hee took here in. ... They relate that
he dranke not wine, and when as the noble men
of Naples demanded the reasons, he affirmed that
it had made Titus Livius to lie, who had said that



INTRODUCTORY 19

the good wine caused the French to passe the
Alps. . . . He was perhaps better suited to
make a quiet State happy than to reduce a rebellious
one."

King Rene"s career and work as a Sovereign, a
soldier, a legislator, a traveller, a poet, and a lover,
are treated in full in the letterpress of this volume.
His work as an artist, a craftsman, an agriculturist,
and a collector, is here given under different head-
ings, as introductory to the expression of his personal
talents.

I. ARTISTIC WORKS OP KING RENE.

Rene"s first efforts as a designer and painter were
exhibited upon the walls of his prison-chamber at
Tour de Bar, near Dijon, 1431-1435. Thence forward
he decorated the walls and stain-glazed the windows
of his various castles and palaces Bar-le-Duc,
Nancy, Angers, Saumur, Reculee, Tarascon, Mar-
seilles, and Aix. Every bastide and maison
inhabited by his Queens and himself was also
similarly adorned, and many coloured church windows
were due to his gentle art. Alas that so few
vestiges of these admirable labours remain ! French
mobs are proverbial for iconoclastic propensities, and no
land has suffered more than France from the
suicidal mania of her sans-culottes.

To fresco-painting, portraits, and glass-staining, the
Royal artist added miniatures and penmanship. His
" style " was formed and developed successively
under such personal tuition as that of the bi others
Van Eyck and Maistre Jehannot le Flament. Later
on Jean Focquet of Tours and Nicholas Froment
influenced him. A letter is extant of King Rene,



20 RENti D'ANJOU AND HIS SEVEN QUEENS

addressed in 1448 to Jan Van Eyck, in which he
asks for two good painters to be sent to Barrois.

Visits to Rome, Florence, Naples, Milan, and other
art cities of Italy, very greatly enlarged Renews
metier. Intercourse with Fra Angelico da Fiesole,
Fra Filippo Lippi, Paolo Ucello, the Delia Robbia,
and many other Tuscan artists, quickened his
natural talent and guided his eye and hand. Leon
Battista Alberti, Francesco Brunellesco, and Cennino
Cennini, and their works in materia and literature,
produced great results in the receptive faculties of
the King-artist. At Naples he came in contact
with Colantonio del Fiore, Antonio Solario II
Zingaro and Angiolo Franco, and gathered up
what they taught.

Besides these immense advantages as a personal
friend of great ruling Italian families, the Medici,
the Pazzi, the Tornabuoni, the Visconti, the Sforza,
the Orsini, and many others, Rend had oppor-
tunities enjoyed by very few. His own amiable
individuality and his ample knowledge were the
highest credentials in the pursuit of art and
craft. Rend witnessed the consecration of the
Duomo of Florence and the completion of the
guild shrine of Or San Michele, and he was
enrolled as an honorary member thereof. At
Florence also he was thrown in contact with world
famous scrivani writers and illustrators of manu-
script. The subsequent excellence of French minia-
turists was largely due to King Rene's example
and encouragement.

Rene's more considerable paintings, which have
been preserved, are as follows :

1. The Burning Bush, part of an altar triptych,



INTRODUCTORY 21

at the Cathedral of Aix. Projected and begun by
the King, it was finished by Nicholas Froment, 1475-76,
and for it the artist received no more than 70
gulden (see illustration).

2. Souls in Purgatory, an altar-piece (7 x 5J),
originally in hospital chapel at the Chartreuse of
Villeneuve les Avignon. It is really a " Judgment,"
with Christ and saints above the clouds, and twenty-
four little figures in and out torment. The building
was destroyed in 1793.

3. La Divina Commedia, an altar-piece (8 x 6),
in the church of the Celestins at Avignon in distemper.
It was due to Rene"s vision of his mistress, Dame
Chapelle, upon the day of her death, which shocked
him so greatly that he painted this composition to
remove the painful impression he thus experienced.

4. Saint Madeleine preaching, now in the
H6tel Cluny. It was a whimsical conceit connecting
the story of the sisters of Lazarus with Rene' and
his Queen Jehanne. It is conventional in treatment
but finished most beautifully (see illustration).

King Renews artistic speciality was miniatures.
He illuminated many manuscripts.

1. Preces Prce. The Latin " Hours " of King
Rene", a manuscript of 150 sheets of fine vellum,
written very beautifully in small lettering, with
superb capitals in gold and colours. The borders and
miniatures are exquisitely painted. It is bound in
red morocco. This precious volume was dedicated
to Queen Isabelle, whose portrait is painted as a
frontispiece (see illustration). It was one of the
King's wedding presents to his second Queen, Jehanne
de Laval. The value of the Preces Prce is enhanced
by numerous marginal notes of dates and details



22 RENE D'ANJOU AND HIS SEVEN QUEENS

written by Rene's hand. At the end by way of



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