Edmund Waller.

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No ! though arrived at all the world can aim ;

This is the mark and glory of our frame.

A soul capacious of the Deity, 45

Nothing but he that made can satisfy.

A thousand worlds, if we with him compare

Less than so many drops of water are.

Men take no pleasure but in new designs ;

And what they hope for, what they have outshines. 50

Our sheep and oxen seem no more to crave,

With full content feeding on what they have ;

Vex not themselves for an increase of store,

But think to-morrow we shall give them more.

What we from day to day receive from Heaven, 55

They do from us expect it should be given.

We made them not, yet they on us rely,

More than vain men upon the Deity ;

More beasts than they ! who will not understand

That we are fed from his immediate hand. 60

Man, that in him has being, moves, and lives,

What can he have, or use, but what he gives ?

So that no bread can nourishment afford,

Or useful be, without his Sacred Word.



EARTH praises conquerors for shedding blood,

Heaven those that love their foes, and do them good.

It is terrestrial honour to be crowned

For strowing men, like rushes, on the ground.

True glory 'tis to rise above them all, 5

Without advantage taken by their fall.

He that in fight diminishes mankind,

Does no addition to his stature find ;

But he that does a noble nature show,

Obliging others, still does higher grow ; 10

For virtue practised, such a habit gives,

That among men he like an angel lives ;

Humbly he doth, and without envy, dwell,

Loved and admired by those he does excel.

Fools anger show, which politicians hide ; 15

Blessed with this fear, men let it not abide.

The humble man, when he receives a wrong,

Refers revenge to whom it doth belong :

Nor sees he reason why he should engage,

Or vex his spirit for another's rage. 20

Placed on a rock, vain men he pities, tossed

On raging waves, and in the tempest lost.

The rolling planets, and the glorious sun,

Still keep that order which they first begun ;

They their first lesson constantly repeat, 25

Which their Creator as a law did set.

Above, below, exactly all obey ;


But wretched men have found another way ;

Knowledge of good and evil, as at first,

(That vain persuasion !) keeps them still accursed ! 30

The Sacred Word refusing as a guide,

Slaves they become to luxury and pride.

As clocks, remaining in the skilful hand

Of some great master, at the figure stand,

But when abroad, neglected they do go, 35

At random strike, and the false hour show ;

So from our Maker wandering, we stray,

Like birds that know not to their nests the way.

In him we dwelt before our exile here,

And may, returning, find contentment there, 40

True joy may find, perfection of delight,

Behold his face, and shun eternal night.

Silence, my Muse ! make not these jewels cheap,
Exposing to the world too large a heap.
Of all we read, the Sacred Writ is best, 45

Where great truths are in fewest words expressed.

Wrestling with death, these lines I did indite ;
No other theme could give my soul delight.
O that my youth had thus employed my pen !
Or that I now could write as well as then ! 50

But 'tis of grace, if sickness, age, and pain,
Are felt as throes, when we are born again ;
Timely they come to wean us from this earth,
As pangs that wait upon a second birth.



WHEN we for age could neither read nor write,

The subject made us able to indite ;

The soul, with nobler resolutions decked,

The body stooping, does herself erect.

No mortal parts are requisite to raise 5

Her that, unbodied, can her Maker praise.

The seas are quiet when the winds give o'er ;
So, calm are we when passions are no more !
For then we know how vain it was to boast
Of fleeting things, so certain to be lost. 10

Clouds of affection from our younger eyes
Conceal that emptiness which age descries.

The soul's dark cottage, battered and decayed,
Lets in new light through chinks that time has made ;
Stronger by weakness, wiser men become, 15

As they draw near to their eternal home.
Leaving the old, both worlds at once they view,
That stand upon the threshold of the new.

.... Miratur limen Olympi. VIRG.




This dedication to Henrietta Maria is here printed
for the first time, exactly as it stands in a small folio
volume, the property of Edmund Waller, Esquire,
of Farmington Lodge, Northleach, which contains a
transcript, corrected in another hand, of most of the
poems which appeared in the editions of 1645
neither the transcript nor the corrections are in the
handwriting of the poet, and the book came into Mr.
Waller's possession by purchase.


This address is headed as above in Mr. Waller's
transcript, with a note by the corrector which informs
us that the lady was Lady Sophia Bertie, a
daughter of that Earl of Lindsey, who afterwards fell
in the King's service at Edgehill : she married Sir
Richard Chaworth, and died in 1689, aged 72.

the former Pope.

The transcript has the present Pope, which fixes its
date as earlier than that of any edition of the poems.
Maffeo Barbcrini, (Urban VIII.), the Pope alluded to,
having died July 29, 1644.

T 2



There are three editions of Waller's poems dated


(i) The | Workes | of | Edmond Waller |
Esquire, | Lately a Member of the Ho | nourable
House of | Commons, | in this Present Parliament. |
London. | Printed for Thomas Walkley. | 1645.
Title and B H in eights.

Some copies of this edition have on the title-page
Imprimatur | Na. Brent. Decem. 30. 1644.

(ii) Poems, &c. | Written By | Mr. Ed. Waller |
of Beckonsfield, Esquire ; Lately a | Member of the
Honourable | House of Commons, | And Printed by
a Copy of | his own hand-writing. | All the Lyrick
Poems in this Booke | were set by Mr. Henry Lawes,
Gent. | of the Kings Chappell and one of his Ma- ]
jesties Private Musick. j Printed and Published
according to Order. | London, | Printed by I. N. for
Hu. Mosley, at the Princes ] Armes in Pauls Church-
yard, | 1645. A (4 leaves) N 4 in eights. O P 2
in eights.

(iii) Poems, &c. \ Written By | Mr. Ed. Waller
| of Beckonsfield, Esquire ; lately a | Member of the
Honourable | House of Commons, | All the Lyrick
Poems in this Booke | were set by Mr. Henry Lawes
Gent. | of the Kings Chappell, and one of his \
Majesties Private Musick, | Printed and Published
according to Order. | London, | Printed by T. W.
for Humphrey Mosley, at the | Princes Armes in
Pauls Church- | yard, 1645. B 1 2 in eights.
It appears from a comparison of Mr. Hazlitt's colla-

NOTES. 277

tion of this edition with that of other copies which I
have seen, that the signatures vary, but the contents
are the same.

It has been customary to describe now one,
now another of these three as the genuine first
edition, but there is nothing to show that any
one of them had the countenance of the author, in
fact, in the edition of 1664 the contrary is distinctly
stated, and Waller had, almost certainly, left
England before Dec. 30, 1644, the date upon
which the earliest of them was licensed ; this
edition, (i), the text of which I have not thought it
necessary to collate, is full of misprinls, and is
denounced in this advertisement which appears in
both (ii) and (iii) as " surruptitious," though, as a
matter of fact, (iii) consists simply of the sheets of
(i) bound up with a fresh title and the addition of
the last seven poems contained in (ii). The advertise-
ment was probably written by Mosley, who in a
somewhat similar address prefixed to his edition of
Milton's poems, of this year, congratulates himself on
the success which had attended his publication of


Fenton expresses a belief that this preface was
either written by Waller, or by his immediate direction,
and was designed "for a modest memorial " prepara-
tory to his standing candidate for the Provostship of
Eton College. But it is improbable that the poet had
this special post, if indeed he had any at all, in view
at the date of the publication of this edition of his


poems, as Dr. John Meredith, whom he was anxious
to succeed at Eton, did not die till the following
year. In Fenton's edition (1729) the signature
Albinovanus, the exact applicability of which to
Waller is not obvious, was for the first time appended
to this address.

POSTSCRIPT. Nova carmina pango.

I have been unable to trace these words they do
not occur in Virgil : possibly the writer was thinking
of Eel. iii. 86. " Pollio et ipse facit nova carmina."


In 1690 appeared " The Second Part of Mr.
Waller's Poems containing his alteration of the
Maid's Tragedy, And whatever of his is yet un-
printed : Together with some other Poems, Speeches,
&c., that were printed Severally and never put into the
First Collection of his Poems. London, Printed for
Tho. Bennet. MDCXC." 8<>. There seems no
reason to doubt that this preface, which appeared in
this edition, was written, as has always been supposed,
by Francis Atterbury a correspondent writing in
Notes and Queries [7th S. xi. p. 266] has been kind
enough to mention, for my benefit, a copy of " The
Maid's Tragedy Altered. With some other Pieces.
By Edmund Waller, Esq ; not before Printed in the
several Editions of his Poems. London, Printed for
Jacob Tonson. 1690," in which there is a MS.
addition, signed "Jacob Tonson, Senr.," to the note

NOTES. 279

printed at the beginning of the book : the note ru n
thus " Most of the following Pieces, being unfinished,
were never intended to be publish 'd ; but that a Person,
who had borrowed a Manuscript Copy of them, took
upon him to print them." After the words " a Person"
Tonson has written " Dr. Atterbury borrow'd them of
Dr. Birch." Atterbury is further connected with
Bennet by the fact that on Aug. 30, 1706, he
preached his funeral sermon in St. Paul's, in which he
speaks of having known him for twenty years.



The events which form the subject of this poem
occurred in September, 1623, upon the arrival of the
Prince at St. Andere (now Santander) on his return to
England from Madrid. He reached the coast on St.
Matthew's Day, attended by a train of Spanish noble-
men, and having dined in the neighbourhood of the
port, was in the afternoon informed of the arrival of
the English fleet under the command of the Earl of
Rutland. I quote what follows from a contemporary
pamphlet," The Joyfull Returne Of The Most Illustrious
Prince Charles, Prince of (Ireat Britaine, from the
Court of Spaine. . . . 1623," which purports to be
written ' ' from the report of some of his Highnesse
traine that attended in the voyage." One is almost
inclined to think, from a comparison of its language
with that of the poem, that Waller must have seen
it. " How soone are joyes turned into sorrowes ?
safetie into dangers, a shining forenoone into a gloomy
euening ? His Highnesse, after all that feasting and


triumphing in Saint Andera, being desirous to go
aboord that goodly ship, (the Admirall of his Fleet)
called the Prince (a title due to it for the brauery and
Princely building of it) spent so much time that the
eueiiing drew on apace, and with the euening a more
threatning enemy : for not onely the tyde resisted his
coming backe (his Highnesse being then in his own
Barge, and his owne Watermen rowing in it) but a
storme began to arise, and the billows to swel high,
before the Watermen had gotte halfe way fro the ships
to the towne, the distance between the shore and the
ships being at least a Spanish league. The Watermen
were strong, cunning, and couragious, but the furious
wanes taught their Oares another maner of practise
than euer they were put to upon the Thames. To the
town they could not possibly get, against a winde
and tyde so raging, or if they had ventured, it had
been dangerous, in regard a huge Barke (to saue her
selfe) lay very neer to the mouth of the Harbour : to
the shore they were as fearefull to put, it being full of
rocks ; to the ships back againe to flie for succour,
night (a darke night) being spred over that Horizon,
denied that comfort, for if they should misse the
ships, they were in doubt to be carried into the maine,
the channell where the Fleet was anchored, running
with an impetuous and irresistible torrent. In this
full-Sea of Horrors the Prince resolued to turn back
towards the ships, and to fall in upon the first they
could fasten, rather than trust to the mercy of the
rockes, upon euery one of which sat ineuitable destruc-
tion. What could Hope trust to here, where neither
the watermens skill nor strength could incourage

NOTES. 281

them to bring safety to their Master ? The clouds
opened, and discharged their artillery of raine, light-
ning and thunder : elements of contrary nature, war-
ring one upon another, whilst the waters (which were
called up to decide the controuersie) quarrelling with
the winds, made the uproaremore horrid and tempes-
tuous. And so much greater was the danger, by how
much the night (by reason of the storme) grew darker
and darker : yet at last that omnipotent Arme, which
can tear up rocks from their center, and that voyce which
can call in the winds, and still them with the mouing
of his finger, sent a Dove with an Oliue branch in her
bill as an assurance of comfort. For by casting out a
rope from a ship called the Defiance (which with
much hazard of his life one of the Prince's watermen
catched hold off), by spying a light in the same ship,
his Highnesse and all in the Barge with him, (praise be
given to the Almighty Pilot that stood at Helme)
were with unspeakable joy receiucd into that shippe,
and there tooke up his lodging till the next morning :
nothing at all dauntedat these terrors, sithence dangers
to noble minds are but the triumphs of their constant
sufferings. "

P. I, U. 13-32. Edward IV. employed the Earl
of Warwick to negotiate on his behalf with the Duke
of Savoy for the hand of his daughter, the Lady Bona,
sister-in-law to Louis XI. : the Earl's proposals were
accepted, but before the treaty could be ratified, Edward
had met and fallen in love with Elizabeth Woodville,
his future Queen. His s! ibsequent neglect of Warwick
caused him to transfer his allegiance to Henry VI., and
led to a renewal of the civil war. " Nothing," says


Fenton, " could have been more happily imagin'd
than the subject which Mr. Waller has selected to
insinuate the Prince's resolution to forsake the
Infanta." It has been suggested that this poem was
re-cast and elaborated in accordance with subsequent
events, but though the marriage treaty between
Charles and Henrietta was not actually signed till
Nov. 10, 1624, there is nothing in the verses incon-
sistent with their having been written, as Fenton
supposes, in 1623, or at any rate in the beginning of
^624. Waller has of course exaggerated, or even
imagined the effect produced upon Charles by what
Sir Henry Wotton calls his " ambulatory view " of
Henrietta, but while Buckingham was still at Madrid
he had been approached by one Grey, an English
friar, with the suggestion that Mary de Medicis might
be induced to offer her youngest daughter as a substi-
tute for the Infanta. Grey subsequently proceeded
to England, and though Buckingham and Mary
denied all knowledge of the intrigue, James I.
consented to allow Lord Kensington to be sent to
Paris to sound the disposition of the French Court
upon the subject. Lord Kensington arrived in Paris
on Feb. 15, 1624, and on March 15 Buckingham dis-
closed to the Houses the project of a French alliance
for the Prince of Wales.

P. 2, //. 41-2. L. 42 is repeated, p. 161, 1. 134, as
a translation of SEn. iv. 583, " Annixi torquent spu-
mas, et coerula verrunt." Cf. Fairfax, "Godfrey of

Bulloigne," xv. 12

. . . . " Some with strong Oars sweep

The Waters smooth, and brush the buxom Wave,

Their Breasts in sunder cleave the yielding deep."

NOTES. 283

P. 3, /. 45. Sort = company or crowd.

P. 3, /. 54. Imitated from Caesar's answer to the
boatman "Quid times? Gesarem vehis." Cf. Mrs.
Philips. " To his Majesty (Charles II.) at his passage
into England "

" Charles and his mighty hopes you bear :
A greater now than Caesar's here."

P. 3, /. 66. Cf. p. 9, 11. 21-2.
P. 4, /. 76. Impeach = obstruct. Cf. p. 31, 1. 12,
p. 166, 1. 82, and " Godfrey of Bulloigne," xi. 52

" And there it seems the mighty Prince intends
Godfrtdo's hoped Entrance to impeach."

P. 4, //. 85-93. Cf. /n. I. 81-101.
P. 5, //. 117-18. Fenton refers these lines to
Claudian, De nupt. Honor, et Afar., 247-50.

Ceu geminai Pa^tana rosse per jugera regnant,
Hscc largo matura die, saturataque vernis
Roribus, indulget spatio ; latet altera nodo,
Nee teneris audct foliis admittere soles."

P. 6, /. 135. This line is repeated p. 13, I. i.

P. 7, //. 163-64. Ovid, Ex Ponto, iv. 3. 35.
"Omnia sunt hominum tenui pendentia filo."

P. 7, /. 168. Fenton refers this line to Iliad viii.

SeipJjv xpvffflijv i$ ovpavbOtv Kpffj.a.<ra.vTts
Ildvrei 5' i^&irrfCfOe Otol Taffai re


Fenton supposes this poem to have been addressed
to the Queen shortly after her arrival in England, and
the language of it would seem to support his view.


He printed a glowing account of the attractions of
Henrietta from a letter of lx>rd Kensington to
Charles, who himself appears to have regarded the
alliance with much less enthusiasm : writing (Aug.
13, 1624) to the Earl of Carli.-,le, who was then in
Paris, he says : " Yet use what industry you can to
reduce them to reason, for I respect the person of the
lady as being a worthy creature, fit to be my wife ; and
as ye love me put it to a quick issue one way or

P. 9, //. 45-46. Cf. Fairfax, "Godfreyof Bulloigne,"
vi. 70

" For in the secret of her troubled Thought,
A doubtful Combat, Love and Honour fought."

P. 9, //. 49-52. "At Paris the Prince spent one
whole day to give his mind some contentment
in viewing of a famous City and Court, which
was a neighbour to his future estates, But for the
better Veiling of their visages, his Highnesse and
the Marquesse (afterwards Duke, of Buckingham, his
Achates) bought each of them a Perriwigge somewhat
to overshaddow their foreheads. . . . Towards Even-
ing, by a meere chance, in appearance, though under-
lined with providence, they had a full sight of the
Queene Infanta, and of the princesse Henriettas Marie
with other great Ladyes at the practise of a Masquing
Daunce, which was then in preparation." (Wotton,
Short View of the Life and Death of Buckingham,

/". IO, //. 57-58. This idea is repeated p. 57,

11. 11-12.

NOTES. 285


The news of the assassination of the Duke of
Buckingham (Aug. 23, 1628) was brought to the
King by Sir John Hippesly, while he was at prayers at
Southwick, the seat of Sir Daniel Norton, about five
miles from Portsmouth. According to Clarendon,
" His Majesty continued unmoved and without the
least change in his countenance till prayers were
ended : " Another account ( Court and Times of
Charles I. , vol. I, 390) says, "when this news was
brought by one Charles Price, the twenty-first chapter
of Acts was reading, where observe the twenty-eighth
verse, &c."

P. n, /. 8. The Earl of Lindsey was immediately
appointed to succeed Buckingham in the command of
the fleet for the relief of Rochelle, which sailed Sept. 4.
P. n, /. 15. John Felton was a member of an old
Suffolk family, and of the blood of the Earl of Arundel,
who, together with his wife and son, Lord Maltravers,
visited him in prison on the day before his execution.
Waller is probably thinking of the " ten-penny knife "
which the assassin purchased at a cutler's on Tower

P. II, //. 17-20. The allusion is to the picture by
Timanthes of the sacrifice of Iphigenia, wherein the
painter having expressed various degrees of grief in
the faces of Calchas, Odysseus, Ajax, and Menelaus,
represented Agamemnon, the father of the victim,
with his face buried in the folds of his drapery.

/'. 12, //. 31-32. " Some that observe the passages
in Court, say the King seems as much affected to the


duke's memory as he was to his person, minding
nothing so much for the present as the advancement
of his friends and followers." (Mead to Stuteville,
Sept. 20, 1628.)

' ' The news we received on Saturday was as
followeth : . . . That the duchess (of Buckingham)
hath confirmed unto her, for her own and her son's
life, Roper's office, in the King's Bench, worth ,4,000
a-year : and that some talked (but mine author would
not believe it) as though the profits of the Admiralty
here, and the customs of Ireland also, should for
twenty-one years to come be applied to the duchess and
her children." (The same to the same, Oct. II, 1628.)

"Sir Henry Hungate, the duke's bosom friend, is
sworn gentleman of the Privy Chamber in Sir William
Crofte's place, who hath stood suspended there from
any time these three years, ever since he spoke against
the duke in parliament ; as likewise was Sir Ralph
Clare, in whose place young Ashburnham, the duke's
nephew, is sworn."

"Two of the duke's footmen are sworn the king's
footmen, and the rest of the duke's servants are to
attend the Marquis of Hamilton." (The same to the
same, Nov. I, 1628.)


These lines, the first, as far as I can discover, of
Waller's that were printed, appeared in " Rex Redux,"
1633, a collection of verses written by members of the
University of Cambridge and addressed to Charles I.
upon his return to England after his coronation at

NOTES. 287


During the early years of the reign of Charles I.,
the ravages committed by the Salle rovers formed a
constant subject of complaint in the House of
Commons. In July, 1625, Sir Walter Erie mentioned
to the House that, during the last few weeks, English
vessels had been captured by them off the Scilly
Islands, and on Aug. 1 1 of the same year a letter from
one William Legg, a prisoner to the Moorish pirates
at Salle, was read in the House, and witnesses, who
had escaped, were in attendance to speak of the
barbarous cruelty of their captors. Spoil, it was said,
had been committed upon the English coasts to such
an extent that vessels scarce dare venture from port.
Subsequently squadrons had been sent out, one under
the command of Sir Francis Steward, and another
under Sir Samuel Argall, to clear the English seas of
pirates, but they both returned without having effected
anything. At last on Feb. 26, 1637, a fleet of six
ships, subsequently joined by two others, carrying in
all 990 men sailed from England, and on March 24.
anchored in Salle roads. Salle apparently consisted
of two parts, Old and New Salle, and at this time the
governor of New Salle was in a state of revolt against
the authority of the King of Morocco. It was only by
occupying Old Salle with the consent of the governor
and joining in a civil war that the English were able
to effect their object. On Sept. 19, the Moorish
ambassador came on board the fleet, which set sail
and landed 339 rescued captives at Torbay on Oct. 6.
(A True Journall of the Sally Fleet, &"c. Published
ly John Dunton, London 1637.^


P. 13, //. 13-15. i Samuel, xv. 33.


In all the editions from 1664 to 1712 this poem was
printed first, and in that of 1711 a date, 1626, was for
the first time assigned to it, the writer of the " Life "
prefixed to the book being of opinion that the lines
were occasioned by the expedition against Spain,
under Lord Wimbledon, which sailed in that year.
Rymer (Short View of Tragedy, 1693, p. 79) dates it
1632, without giving any reason for his view. Fenton
rejects the first of these dates because in the same
edition (1711) the poem Of the danger his Majesty
escaped, &=(., was clearly assigned to a wrong year
(1621), and the second, because there was not in
1632 any naval armament considerable enough to form
the subject of the poem : he himself decides in favour
of 1636, because the Dutch, having concluded a
league with France against Spain, had, by thei

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