Edmund Waller.

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encroachments on the English fisheries in 1635 made
it necessary for Charles to assert his sovereignty over
the narrow seas, by fitting out a fleet, of which
Waller's friend, the Earl of Northumberland, was next
year appointed Admiral. The preparation of this fleet,
being regarded as "only an artifice of State to draw
money from the subject," was the occasion of much
public dissatisfaction, and Fenton thinks this was a
happy opportunity for Waller to make his court to the
King, by " proclaiming his navy to be, as in truth it
was, the glory and defence of the Nation." Bell (1854)
rejected Fenton's date on account of the absence of
any special allusion to the circumstances detailed

NOTES. 289

above, but he follows him and other editors in finding
in the third and fourth lines a reference to a war between
France and Spain. It seems to me that these lines
ought to be assigned to the year 1627, when Bucking-
ham was busily engaged in the preparation of the
fleet, which, numbering 100 sail and having on board
7,000 soldiers, eventually left Stokes Bay on June
27. I see in lines 3 and 4 a reference, not to a war
between France and Spain, but to an agreement
between the two countries, which was ratified at Paris
in April, 1627, and, though of short duration, was, as
far as I am aware, the only occasion, about this time,
upon which they can be said to have forgotten their

P. 15, /. i. Cf. Fairfax, "Godfrey of Bulloigne,"
xv. 32.

" Thy Ship (Columbus) shall her Canvass wing
Spread o'er that World."

P. 15, //. 5-6. Cf. p. 153, 11. 61-2.

P. 15, //. 7-8. Fenton quotes from Varro,
" Qui potis plus urget ; ut pisces minutos magnus

/*. 15, //. 19-24. Johnson (Life of Waller) says,
" In the poem on the Navy those lines are very noble
which suppose the King's power secure against a second
deluge ; so noble, that it were almost criminal to remark
the mistake of 'centre ' for 'surface,' or to say that the
empire of the sea would be worth little if it were not
that the waters terminate in land."


Cf. " Cooper's Hill," 19-24.
" Paul's the late theme of such a Muse, whose flight

Has bravely reach'd and soar'd above thy height ;

Now shall thou stand, tho' sword, or time, or fire,

Or zeal, more fierce than they, thy fall conspire,

Secure, whilst thee the best of poets sings,

Preserv'd from ruin by the best of Kings."

In the first edition of his poem (1642) Denham
appended as a side-note to these lines the words
Master Waller, which became M. W. in later editions.
Cf. also Dryden, " Annus Mirabilis" st. 275
" Nor could thy fabric, Paul's, defend thee long,

Though thou wert sacred to thy Maker's praise,
Though made immortal by a poet's song,

And poets' songs the Theban walls could raise. "

P. 1 6, /. 2. I am unaware of any authority for
this accentuation of Melita.

P. 16, /. 3. The cathedral had suffered from fire in
1561, and though the repairs had been vigorously pro-
ceeded with up to 1566, in that year they were aban-
doned and nothing was done for more than fifty years.
In the interval the building had, according to Dugdale,
been much damaged by " the corroding quality of the
coal smoke " in the neighbourhood, and had been per-
mitted generally to go to decay.

P. 1 6, //. 5-18. On Nov. 1 6, 1620, James I.
had issued a commission upon the subject of the
repair of St. Paul's, and for a short time this was
acted upon, but we soon hear that the Duke of
Buckingham had "borrowed" some of the stone
collected about the Cathedral and employed it in the
repair of the water-gate at York House, and the

NOTES. 291

work was again abandoned. In 1631 Charles, at the
instigation of Laud, visited the Cathedral, and on
April 10 issued a commission under the Great Seal
which recited that the building was then in a state of
decay. Commissioners were appointed to collect money
for its repair, but, at first at least, his subjects' hearts
did not respond at all freely to the King's touch, and
on 'y y5>4 were subscribed in two years. The work
was finally interrupted by the troubles of the Civil
War, and some of the materials which had been
collected were handed over by the Parliament to the
parishioners of St. Gregory's for the repair of their

P. 17, //. 20-21. Houses appear to have been
actually built up against the walls of the Cathedral
upon land belonging to the Church : these, in spite
of the protests of their owners, were, by order of the
Privy Council, all removed before the end of 1632.

P. 17, /. 35. " Reduce "= bring back : reducere.

P. 18, //. 51-4. The repairs were begun in April,
1633, an d Fenton, supposing that two years might
reasonably be allowed for the completion of the Choir,
has dated this poem 1635. I have been unable to
discover when the Choir was actually finished, but the
repairs were continued for nine years, and Denham's
allusion, in 1642, to St. Paul's as the late theme of
Waller, would seem to suggest a later date for the

P. 1 8, /. 54. Charles subscribed out of the ecclesi-
astical fines the sum of .10,295 5 s - 6d., which was
applied to the erection of a Portico, designed by Inigo
Jones, and intended as " an ambulatory for such as

U 2


usually walking in the body of the Church disturb'd
the solemn service in the Choir."


These lines first appeared among Waller's poems in
the edition of 1668. I have retained the date then
assigned to them, although the reference to Noy (1. 15)
as still pleading, creates a difficulty.

Henry Lawes, whose musical connection with
" Comus " and so much of the lyric poetry of the
reign of Charles I. is well known, was born in 1600,
probably at Salisbury, where his father was vicar-
choral. He was a pupil of Coperario, and in 1625
was appointed one of the Gentlemen of the Chapel
Royal and Clerk of the Cheque to Charles I. He
lived to compose the anthem for the Coronation of
Charles II., and, dying in 1662, was buried in
Westminster Abbey.

P. 19, /. 15. William Noy, notorious as the
inventor of ship-money, was born at St. Burian,
in Cornwall, in 1577. After three years spent
at Exeter College he entered at Lincoln's Inn,
and, according to Anthony a Wood, applied him-
self with great diligence to the study of the
law. He sat in the Parliaments of 1621, 1624,
1625, and 1628, in all of which he opposed the King,
at length in 1631 he was prevailed upon to accept the
post of Attorney-General, and in that office " grew
the most hateful man that ever lived." (Weldon, The
Court of K. Charles continued, ) Clarendon says of
him that he thought "he could not give a clearer
testimony that his knowledge in the Law was greater

NOTES. 293

than all other men's, than by making That, Law,
which all other men believed Not to be so." He
died at Tunbridge Wells, Aug. 9, 1634 ; and though
Fenton's suggestion that this poem may originally
have been dated 1625 is a poor solution of the
difficulty referred to above, I am unable to find a

A reference to Noy in Collop's Poesis Rediviva,
1656, p. 79, seems inconsistent with the account of
his early years given in the Athens Oxonienses

" To prove wild youth makes good man th' proverb take,
See how the wilder Colts best horses make !
Who Noy in Law, Butler in's art excels ?
Who Julius or Severus parallels ? "

P. 20, //. 27-28. Lawes, to ridicule the practice of
singing songs the words of which neither the singer
nor the audience understood, set to music a suc-
cession of titles of Italian airs as they appeared in
an index, and was successful in passing them off as
a veritable Italian song. He published this composi-
tion in Ay res and Dialogues, 1653.


This lady was the famous Lucy Percy, daughter of
Henry, Earl of Northumberland, and aunt of
Sacharissa. Her political intrigues have occupied
the attention of the historians of our time, as her
beauty did that of the poets of her own, and it may be
said that the former have united in clearing her
character from the scandalous aspersions cast upon it
by Sir Philip Warwick. Lady Carlisle died suddenly,
on Nov. 5, 1660, and was buried at Petworth.


P. 21, 1. 2. Comply = please : complaire.

P. 21, //. 7-10. Cf. the address " To the Queene,"
yet if your Ma tie please to listen what Echo the country
returnes to so loud a praise.


This poem was addressed to the Countess of
Carlisle upon the death of her husband, who died at
Whitehall, April 5, 1636. James Hay, first Earl of
Carlisle, was the son of Sir James Hay of Kingask,
educated partly in France, he had, in early life, served
in the Scotch Guards at Paris. Handsome, accom-
plished, and of fascinating manners, he soon found his
way into the good graces of James I., who showered
wealth and honours upon him : he was created Gentle-
man of the King's Bedchamber, Comptroller of
Scotland, 1608, Lord Bewlie, 1609, Viscount Don-
caster and Earl of Carlisle, K.G. He was Master of
the Great Wardrobe from 1616 to 1636. He married
firstly Honora, daughter and heiress of Lord Denny,
and on the death of that lady, the Countess of Nor-
thumberland hoped, by a marriage between him and
her daughter, to effect the release of her husband, who
was confined in the Tower for supposed complicity in
the Gunpowder Plot. Northumberland, however,
declared that he would rather die in prison than owe
his release to a Scottish adventurer at the price of his
daughter's hand, and when Lady Lucy visited him, he
attempted to detain her in the Tower, saying that he
was a Percy, and could not endure that his daughter
should dance any Scotch jigs ; he also offered her
^20,000 if she would consent to be ruled by him.

NOTES. 295

His efforts were unavailing, and on Nov. 5, 1617,
Chamberlain writes to Dudley Carleton, " On Thurs-
day the Lord Hay married his mistress the Lady
Lucy Percy, and that night the King and Princess
honoured the wedding supper with their presence at
the Wardrobe."

Cf. Herrick (ed. Pollard, I. 78), " Upon a black
twist rounding the arm of the Countess of Carlisle."

P. 23, //. 26-30. Carlisle had been employed by
James I. upon various embassies, notably to mediate
between the Emperor and the States of Bohemia,
and between Louis XIII. and the French Protestants,
but Waller has greatly exaggerated " the power of his
enchanting tongue."

P. 23, //. 33-36. Shortly before his marriage to
Lady Lucy Percy the Earl of Carlisle entertained her
at a masque and supper, which occupied the workman-
ship and invention of thirty cooks for twelve days, and
cost more than .2,200. Sir Anthony Weldon states
that he (Carlisle) " imported live sturgeon from the
Black Sea, which were served whole at his banquets,
and that his suppers consisted of a rapid succession of
the most costly dishes, the greater part of which passed
untouched to his servants, one of whom was seen
devouring a pie, composed of ambergris, magisterial of
pearl and musk, which cost .10." During his court-
ship he lived in Richmond Park, where he made
" solemn feasts twice a week at least with that cost
and expense that the Lady of Northumberland dares
not so much as once invite him by reason of his
curiosity." (Chamberlain to Dudley Carleton, Aug. 9,


P. 23, //. 37-43. The Earl of Carlisle set out
May 17, 1624, to join Lord Kensington in Paris in
negotiating the marriage contract between Charles
and Henrietta. On May I, 1625, the marriage was
celebrated by proxy, on a stage erected opposite the
west-end of Notre Dame, and the Princess was sur-
rendered into the hands of the two lords by her
brother, Louis XIII.

P. 23, //. 46-48. Fenton compares Claudian, in
Ruftn, I. 166-7

. . . " novi quo Thessala cantu
Eripiat lunare jubar" . . .


P. 24, //. 13-18. These lines, now first included
among Waller's poems, were printed by Neve ( Cursory
Remarks on English Poets, 1789, p. 71) from a manu-
script of the middle of the reign of Charles I,, in
which they concluded the poem.

P. 25, /. 19. Cf. Spenser, Fairy Queen, Book I,
cant. 7, st. 33.


"Her (Lady Carlisle's) chamber, as it was called,
was unlike any other reception-room in England at
that time, and seems to have partaken rather of the
character of the salons of brilliant Frenchwomen a
century later." (De Fonblanque, Annals of the Hcnise
of Percy, p. 399.)


In Mr. Waller's transcript is written, as a note to
the heading of this poem, the lady Carlile, but she is
obviously not the lady addressed, and I am afraid the
identity of Phyllis is undiscoverable.

MOTES. 297

P. 27, //. 19-22. Fenton compares with these lines
the following from Sir John Suckling's Brennoralt,
act iii. sc. I.

" Tempests of wind thus (as my storms of grief
Carry my tears which should relieve my heart,)
Have hurry 'd to the thankless ocean clouds,
And show'rs, that needed not the courtesy ;
When the poor plains have languished for he want,
And almost burnt asunder."


These lines were prefixed to Sandys' Paraphrase
upon the Divine Poems ; 1638, folio.


These lines, headed Upon Ben : Johnson, the most
excellent of comick Poets, first appeared in Jonsonus
Virbius, 1638, quarto, a collection of poems in memory
of Jonson, who died in the preceding year, edited by
Bp. Duppa. Waller told Aubrey that he was not
acquainted with Ben Jonson.


Algernon Percy, tenth Earl of Northumberland
(born Sept. 29, 1602, died Oct. 13, 1668), married in
1629 Lady Anne Cecil, daughter of the Earl of
Salisbury, receiving with her a marriage portion of
;i 1,000. Like his sister, Lady Lucy, he was not
successful in obtaining for his marriage the approbation
of his father, who said that " the blood of Percy would
not mix with the blood of Cecil if you poured them
into a dish." The Countess died Dec. 6, 1637. The


following extract from a letter from Garrard to Lord
Wentworth, Dec. 16, 1637, announcing her death, is
the best possible commentary on this poem " She
was a virtuous and religious young lady, so apt and
fitted for him which by his wisdom he had wrought
her to, that hardly he will find the like. At the time
of her sickness I was witness of his love and care of
her. Never out of her chamber, seldom from her bed-
side, not parting from her till all the visible signs of
death were on her, about an hour and a half before she
expired : he took her death most heavily : passion
hath the least outward power of him of any man I
know ; yet in this it had got on him a great mastery.
My Lord Conway and I never left him bad com-
forters both, for he held his peace, and / could not tell
what to say. In these things time doth all ; yet I
brake silence first, being sent of some messages
betwixt his Lordship and the other sad family at
Salisbury House. He intended a solemn funeral and
a costly one, which would have been a fortnight in
preparing : but my Lord of Salisbury made it his
earnest suit to him to do it with all speed and privacy*
especially since she died of that disease \the small pox\>
and that two of his daughters were sick of the same
disease in the House ; which was yielded unto. So
she was embalmed, sent in a barge to Syon, from
whence his servants attended to Petworth, where she
is interred. I never knew a more general lamentation
for the death of any this long time. My Lord of
Northumberland is come to his sister Carlisle's
house, part of Salisbury House. Some little time he
intends to spend at Syon, and then he will return

NOTES. 299

to Court and to his place and begin the world anew

P. 31, //. 7-9. Fenton quotes from the letter of
Sulpicius to Cicero on the death of his daughter
Tullia : " Nullus dolor est quern non longinquitas
temporis minuat ac molliat ; hoc te expectare tempus
tibi turpe est, ac non ei rei sapientia tua te occurrere. "

P. 31, //. 17-24. .Kmilius, having destroyed the
empire of Macedon, lost his two sons, one five days
before, the other three days after his triumph.

His speech appears in Valerius Maximus, V. 10. 2,
' ' Precatus sum, ut si adversi quid Populo Romano
immineret, totum in meam domum converteretur.'


Mr. John Bruce writing to Notes and Queries, 4th
Series, iii. 222, was, I believe, the first to point out
that Fenton was wrong in referring this poem to the
time when the Earl of Northumberland was appointed
General of the English Army against the Scots, and to
a sickness feigned by him to relieve himself of his
command. The Earl was nominated Lord Admiral,
March 18, 1638 (his appointment is dated April 13),
and the following extracts from the Strafford Corre-
spondence leave no doubt as to the date and the reality
of the illness to which Waller alludes. Garrard writing
to Lord Wentworth (May 10, 1638), after describing
the nature of the Earl's complaint and the remedies
applied by Mayerne and Baskerville, his physicians,
says, " these last two nights he rested very well, so
that the lookers-on as well as the physicians begin to
conceive good hopes of his recovery, which I beseech


God to grant, since he is one of the noblest and
bravest gentlemen this age hath bred ; the King, the
kingdom, all his friends would have an unspeakable
loss of him, he is infinitely lamented by all sorts of

Writing again, on July 3 of the same year, to Lord
Wentworth, Garrard announces the Earl's recovery
and says, " He is a well-beloved man herein England,
I never knew greater lamentations made for any man's
recovery. I never had so long a time of sorrow ; for
seven weeks I did nothing heartily but pray, not sleep
nor eat, in all that time I never bowled ; I hope now
we shall have days of mirth, if the Scots will give us
leave. "

This poem appeared in the second (1642) and
third (1651) editions of Carew's poems.

P. 33, /. 10. The second wife of the Earl of North-
umberland was Elizabeth, daughter of Theophilus,
second Earl of Suffolk, through whom he became
possessed of Northumberland House in the Strand.

P. 33, /. 12. Cf. p. 42, 11. 45-56, and Pope,
Autumn, 11. 15-16.

" When tuneful Hylas with melodious moan,
Taught rocks to weep and made the mountains groan."

P' 33> II' 17-20. Laud, writing to Lord Went-
worth, May 14, 1638, says, " My Lord of North-
umberland was at the last made Lord Admiral till the
Duke of York come of age. . . . but now, (which I
am heartily sorry to write) all the hopes of his service
are in danger, for he hath been in a high fever now
these three weeks ; and though the physicians speak
of out of danger, yet for my part, out of my love to

NOTES. 301

him and his worth, am very fearful. I pray God
comfort and repair him, for his loss will be great in
these times."

P. 34, /. 28. A reference to the Countess of Car
lisle, the Earl's sister : the illness of his brother, Henry
Percy ( The next support, fair hope of your great name),
appears to be referred to in 1. 30. Garrard, writing to
Lord Wentworth, May 10, 1638 (the letter quoted
from above), says, "his brother Percy hath also been
desperately sick of a burning fever, stark mad with it,
but mends somewhat, though slowly. I thought last
week we should have lost both the brothers together. "
P. 34, //. 33-34. Cf. Samson Agonistei, 727-8

' but now with head declin'd
Like a fair flower surcharg'd with dew she weeps."


After her exile from France, Marie de Medicis had
lived at Brussels and Avenes in Hainault ; in Aug.,
1638, she announced her intention of visiting England,
and in spite of the remonstrances of Charles I. , con-
veyed through Boswell, his agent at the Hague, she
started on Sept. 25 : on Sept. 30 her servant Mon-
sigot announced to Charles that she was on the way,
and in deference to the pleadings of Henrietta Maria,
he ordered that she should be honourably received on
her arrival. She landed at Harwich on Oct. 19.
Her welcome appears to have been of a very mixed
character, and after living in St. James's Palace for
three years, as a pensioner of the King, she was in
Aug., 1641, on the petition of Parliament, removed
from the kingdom.


P. 35, //. 9-11. Echard, quoted by Fenton, says
she arrived at the time of such extreme wet and windy
weather, that the water-men distinguished it by the
name of Queen-Mother weather. In a masque pre-
sented at York House, Nov. 5, 1626, Marie de Medicis
had been " represented as enthroned in the midst of
the celestial deities upon the sea which separated
England and France, welcoming the Elector and
Electress as well as her three daughters with their
husbands, the Kings of England and Spain and the
Prince of Piedmont." (Gardiner, England under
Buckingham and Charles /., ii. 100.)

P. 36, //. 13-16. Cf. J&n.. vi. 785-8

" qualis Berecyntia mater
Invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes,
Laeta deum partu centum complexa nepotes,
Omnes coelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes."

P. 36, /. 30. Marie de Medicis was daughter of the
Grand Duke of Tuscany : the references in the pre-
ceding lines are to Tasso, with whom Waller was
familiar through the medium of Fairfax's translation.


Lady Anne Cavendish, only daughter of William,
Earl of Devonshire, married to Lord Rich, heir of the
Earl of Warwick, died in her 27th year, on Aug. 24,
1638, at Lees, and was buried at Felstead, in Essex.
Dr. John Gauden composed a long Latin inscription
upon her, in prose, and Sidney Godolphin wrote
some verses to her memory, which were first printed
with Gauden's Funeral Sermon on her son, Lord

NOTES. 303

Robert Rich, 1658, and included by Fenton in his
edition of Waller.

P. 37, /. 4. Cf. Pope, Windsor Forest, 45-56

" To savage beasts and savage laws a prey,
And Kings more furious and severe than they."

P. 37, //. 21-24. Cf. Oldham, To Madam L.E.,
upon her Recovery

" The Queen of Love (we're told) once let ussee
That Goddesses from wounds could not be free."

P. 38, /. 26. Her mother was Christian (so called
from having been born on Christmas Day), daughter
of Edward, Lord Bruce of Kinloss, who claimed descent
from Robert Bruce (cf. 1. 32). This lady, one of the
most intelligent and distinguished women of her time,
after having contributed to the Restoration by secret
intrigues with Monk, died Jan. 16, 1675.

/". 38, //. 41-42. Fenton says these lines are imi-
tated from Aurelius Victor's character of Fabricius, qui
diffiiilins ab honestate quam sol a suo cursu averti

P. 39, //. 57-58. Cf. the poem on p. 60, Tell me,
lovely, loving pair !

P. 39, //. 61-62. Cf. Sidney Godolphin's lines

" The largest mind, and which did most extend
To all the laws of daughter, wife, and friend."

f- 39. H- 75-76. Cf. p. 127, 11. 10-12.
P. 40, //. 86-89. Cf. Oldham, On the Death of
Mrs. Katherint, Kingscourt

" 'Twas sure some noble Being left the Sphere,
Which deign'd a little to inhabit here.
And can't be said to die but disappear."


And Flatman, On the Death of Charles II.

" But Princes, (like the wondrous Enoch) should be free
From Death's unbounded Tyranny,
And when their Godlike Race is run,
And nothing glorious left undone,
Never submit to Fate, but only disappear."

Browning, in a private letter, expressed admiration
for this idea, but assigned the credit of it to Flatman.


The lady, whose death is lamented in this poem,
was Lady Mary Feilding, eldest daughter of William,
first Earl of Denbigh, and Mary, daughter of Sir
George Villiers, and sister of George, first Duke of
Buckingham. She was married in 1620 to James,
first Duke of Hamilton (then Earl of Arran), and
died May 10, 1638.

P. 41, /< 16. Fenton quotes from Florus, Prooem 2,
" ad constituendum ejus imperium contendisse virtus
et fortuna videantur."

P. 41, //. 19-20. The Duke of Hamilton traced
his descent from a sister of King James III. of Scot-
land, and the right of his family to succeed to the
crown, upon failure of the Stuart line, was recognized
by Parliament. Lady Hamilton was Lady of the Bed-
chamber to Henrietta Maria, and was, according to
Burnet, admitted by her " into an entire confidence
and friendship."

/*. 41, //. 29-34. Cf. Cicero, de Senect. xix. 30.
"Quasi poma ex arboribus, cruda si sint, vi avelluntur;

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