Edmund Waller.

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His Highness, and this Nation. | By E. W. Esq. |
London, | Printed for Richard Lowndes at the White
Lyon in | S. Pauls Church-yard, neer the little North-

NOTES. 323

dore. | 1655. Quarto. A 3 (p. 1)1063. Title and
five leaves, blank leaf besides at each end.

(ii) A | Panegyrick | To My | Lord Protector, | By
A | Gentleman I That | Loves the Peace, Union, and
Prosperity | Of The | English Nation. | Claudian :
&c. j Gaudet enim virtus testes sibi jungere Musas, |
Carmen amatquisquisCarminedignagerit. (London, j
Printed by Thomas Newcomb, in Thames-street |
over against Eaynards-Castle, 1655. Small folio.
Title and three leaves.

In spite of the hint which is given as to the author-
ship, which one would rather have expected to find in
a second impression, the text leaves no doubt that
(i) is the first, possibly pirated, edition. I only know
of the existence of two copies of (ii), one in the
Bodleian, and one in the library of Mr. Buxton
Forman, which he very kindly allowed me to collate.
I have adopted the text of this edition. The " Pane-
gyric" was not reprinted until 1690, by Bennet and
by Tonson, whose editors appear to have used MS.
copies, as there are variations, verbal and unimportant,
from the texis of the Quarto and Folio in both their

No one probably would see these lines sooner than
the person to whom they were addressed, and the
letter from Cromwell to Waller (June 13, 1655) which
I have printed in the Introduction would seem to
show that they had not been written or circulated
in MS. long before the date of their publication,
("May 31 " MS. note on the copy of (i) in the British
Museum), but I am inclined to think that part at
least of the poem was in circulation nearly two years

Y 2


before, for in 1653 appeared " The Incomparable
Poem Gondibert Vindicated," &c., where these lines

" You think they feign, that is they lie,
That spake of Gondibert so high.
If that their Verses were much taller
JfW/<?r hath since out-Gondid Waller.''

The reference can hardly be to anything but
the "Panegyric," (I know of nothing written by
Waller between this and the preceding poem),
which is introduced, not as Mr. Gosse supposes, on
account of its "pompous rhetoric," but the unworthi-
ness of its subject. It is possible that Waller re-cast
and made additions to the poem, as he appears to
have done to " Instructions to a Painter,' 1 and that it
was not sent to Cromwell till it was printed.

P. 138, //. 9-10. Cf. Fairfax, "Godfrey of
Bulloigne," iii. 52

" Above the Waves as Neptune lift his Eyes,
To chide the Winds that Trojan Ships oppressed."

P. 139, //. 39-40. Cf. Marvell, "An Horatian
Ode," &c., 97-98

" What may not then our Isle presume,
While Victoiy his crest does plume?"

P. 142, /. loo. Cf. Pope, "Windsor Forest, "400
" And seas but join the regions they divide."

P. 142, /. 105. The last great sea-fight between
Blake and Tromp, in which the latter was killed,
July 29, 1653.

NOTES. 325

P. 145, //. 165-68. Cf. Fairfax, "Godfrey of
Bulloigne," viii. 83

" So, when a lion shakes his dreadful mane,
And beats his tail, with courage proud, and wroth,
If his commander come, who first took pain
To tame his youth, his lofty crest down go'th."

P. 145, /. 175. Dorothy Osborne, writing to Sir
William Temple in 1653, says: "My Lord Saye, I
am told, has writ a romance since his retirement in
the Isle of Lundy, and Mr. Waller, they say, is
making one of our wars, which, if he does not
mingle with a great deal of pleasing fiction, cannot
be very diverting, sure the subject is so sad." It is
possible this may only refer to the present poem,
there is no trace of any poem by Waller on the Civil


These lines first appeared with Wase's translation of
the Cynegeticon of Gratius Faliscus, 1654. At the end
of the " Preface to the Reader," one Mr. Robert
Creswel, addressing Wase, and speaking of Gratius,
says :

" One who has all the right that man can doe,
You set forth him, and noble Waller you."

Christopher Wase, Fellow of King's College, Cam-
bridge, was the author of a translation of the Electra
and several other works. lie dedicated his transla-
tion of Gratius to Lord Herbert, son of the Earl of
Pembroke, to whom he was tutor. The following
letter from Waller to an unknown correspondent was


printed by Mr. Hazlitt in his Collections and Notes:
"April 1652. S r my noble frend the Earle of
Deuenshire being now about to the send the younge
Lord his sonn into the world hath asked my aduise
concerning a gouerner for him, wch occasion I tooke
to comend our good frend M r Wase, speaking so well
(that is so deseruedly) of him, that my Lord hath a
great desire to see and conferr wth him, & to that
end will beare his charges to Latimers in Bucking-
hamshire, where his Ldp now is. Truly (S r ) if
M r Wase be not prouided of some other very good
imployment, he can not come into a nobler family in
England, nor fynde better entertainment any where.
This is the opinion of, S r , y r obedient Seruant,


These lines were first printed with the Earl of
Monmouth's translation of Cardinal Bentivoglio's
History of the Wars of Flanders, published in 1654.
Henry Carey, Earl of Monmouth, was born about
1595, and died June 13, 1661 : he was the author of
several translations from the French and Italian,
upon which he was complimented by Sir John
Suckling, Sir William Davenant, and other poets of
his day.


These lines are here printed as they appear in the
" 1664," and other editions of Waller's Poems : they
were first printed in An Essay on the first book of T.

NOTES. 327

Lucretius Cams, &f. Interpreted and made English
Verse by J. Evelyn, Esq : ' ' ' London : 1656., in a
slightly different form

" Lucretius with a stork-like fate,
Born and translated in a state,
Comes to proclaim in English Verse
No Monarch Rules the Universe ;
But chance and Atomes make this All
In Order Democrat ical,
Where Bodies freely run their course,
Without design, or Fate, or Force.
And this in such a strain he sings,
As if his Muse with Angels wings
Had soar'd beyond our utmost sphere
And other Worlds discover'd there ;
For his immortal boundless wit
To Nature does no bounds permit ;
But boldly," &c.

There are also the following minor variations 1.
13, they were for she was, 1. 14 narrow for moderate,
1. 21, A Tongue too narro~M for Too weak, too

P. 149, //. 17-22. Cf. Lucretius, i. 135-38.

P- 15. ' 38. Cf. Lucretius, iv. 1-2.


This poem was, as far as I can discover, first
printed, in folio, with the poem on St. James's Park,
(tj.v.) where it is headed, "Of our late War with
Spaine and first Victory at sea near St. Lugar."
Spain having declared war against England, Feb. 16,
1656, a fleet was sent to the Mediterranean under the
command of Blake and Montague : several projects


for its employment were formed and abandoned, and
it remained for some months inactive, before Cadiz.
On September 8, Captain Richard Stayner in the
Speaker, going with two other vessels to a neighbour-
ing bay to take in water, fell in with eight galleons,
all of which he either captured or destroyed. His
exploit forms the subject of Waller's lines.

P. 153, /. 49. Fenton refers this to Cicero, de
Divinat. II. "Omnesne qui Cannensi pugna ceci-
derunt, uno astro fuerint ? Exitus quidem omnium
unus et idem fuit."

P. 154, /. 77. The Marquis of Badajos, Viceroy
of Mexico.

P. 154, /. 82. Cf. Fairfax, "Godfrey of Bul-
loigne," xx. st. 98

" And, for he could not save her, with her dy'd."

P. 155, /. 89.- -The Marquis, with his wife and
eldest daughter, perished in the flames ; his two sons
and two younger daughters, together with about a
hundred of the crews of the galleons, were rescued
by the English.

P- 155, # 95-96. Cf. "The Maid's Tragedy
Altered "

" How frail is Man ! how quickly changed are
Our wrath and fury to a loyal care."

P. 155, /. 101. In the edition of 1711, this poem,
faced by a portrait of " Generall Mountague, since
Earle of Sandwich," is headed, "Of a War with
Spain, and Fight at Sea, by General Montague. In

NOTES. 329

the year 1656." As a matter of fact, Montague was
not even present at the engagement, though he was,
upon his arrival at Portsmouth, entrusted with the
care of the prisoners and treasure, and afterwards
conducted them to London, where he received the
thanks of the House of Commons. Stayner, the real
hero, for his share in this, and in Blake's victory
off Santa Cruz (April 20, 1657), was knighted by
Cromwell. Cf. Marvell, " On the Victory obtained
by Blake," &c., 11. 117-18

" Bold Stayner leads ; this fleet's designed by fate
To give him laurel, as the last did plate."


Sir Thomas Higgons was born at \Vestbury, in
Shropshire, in 1624; he married (ist) Elizabeth,
widow of Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex (he
delivered an oration at her funeral, Sept. 16, 1656),
and (2nd) in 1661, Bridget, daughter of Sir Bevil
Grenville. He was knighted June 17, 1663, and
after having been employed in various diplomatic
missions, he died of apoplexy, Nov. 24, 1691, and
was buried in Winchester Cathedral. He published,
besides "The Venetian Triumph," a "Panegyric to
the King on his Restoration," 1660, and a " History
of Isuf Bassa," 1684. Waller's lines were printed
with " A Prospective of the Naval Triumph of the
Venetians over the Turk. To Signer Pietro Liberi
That Renowned and famous Painter. By Gio.
Francesco Busenello. London, &c. 1658"; they
did not appear among his poems till 1682.


P. 156, /. i. "The winged lion," the arms of


" The Passion of Dido for Aeneas as it is incompar-
ably exprest in the fourth book of Virgil, translated
by Edmund Waller and Sidney Godolphin, Esqrs."
1658. Reprinted 1679. Waller's portion was first
included among his poems in the "1664" edition.
John Boys, in the preface to his " Aeneas His
Descent into Hell," 1661, says, " The fourth (whose
subject is the passion of Dido for Aeneas) hath been
equally blest, as having been made speak English by
the united Studies of two Gentlemen no less eminent
than the former [Sandys]. I wish that the whole
Aeneis had learn'd our modern dialect from such
excellent masters."

P. 160, /. 86. Cf. Pope, "Eloisa to Abelard,"

" A death-like silence, and a dread repose."


These lines were first printed as a small-folio
broad-side, \Upon the late \ Storme, \ and of the
death \ of his \ Highnesse \ Ensuing the same, \ By
Mr. Waller. London. Printed for H.H.~\ and after-
wards with Dryden's and Sprat's poems on the same
occasion \Three Poems \ Upon the Death of his

NOTES. 331

late \ Highnessc \ Oliver \ Lord Protector | Of \
England, Scotland and \ Ireland. Written \

, Mr. Edm. Waller.
By Mr. Jo. Dryden.

( Mr. Sprat, of Oxford.

London, \ Printed by William Wilson, and are to be
sold in | Well-yard neer Little St. Bartholomew's \
Hospitall. 1659. Title, and B F 2 in fours. Re-
printed in 1682, Three Poems Upon the Death of the
Late Usurper Oliver Cromwell <5w.]

P. 162, //. 9-12. Fenton quotes from Hercules
(Etaus, 1638-42

" Aggeritur omnis silva, et alternae trabes
In astra tollunt Herculi angustum rogum :
Rapit aha flammis pinus, et robur tenax,
Et brevior ilex silva : contexit pyram
Populea silva, frondis Hercules nemus."

P. 162, //. 14-16. Dunkirk was ceded to England
as a result of the victory of the combined armies
of England and France over the Spaniards, June 17,


First edition To the \ King, \ Upon \ His Majesty's \
Happy Return. \ After the last line of the poem,
By Ed. Waller Esq. \ Printed for Richard Marriot,
in St. Dunstans Church-yard, Fleetstreet. Title,
and three leaves, small folio. MS. note on the title
of the copy in the British Museum, June gtA.

P. 164, //. 13-14. Fenton sees in these lines a
reference to the death of William Oughtred, Rector


of Aldbury, the great mathematician, who, being
upwards of eighty years of age, expired in a transport
of joy upon hearing of the Restoration.

P. 165, //. 41-42. Cf. Dryden, " Astrsea Redux,"

" He made all countries where he came his own,
And, viewing monarchs' secret arts of sway,"

P. 165, //. 55-56. Upon the medal struck in
honour of the birth of Charles II. was inscribed
HACTENUS . ANGLORUM . NULLI . round the four
shields of (i) France and England, (ii) Scotland,
(iii) France, and (iv) Ireland, he being the first
Prince, born in Enland, entitled to bear these arms.

P. 166, //. 83-84. Two medals were struck at the
Restoration, one inscribed " Sicut Argentum Pro-
basti Me," and on the reverse, " Magna Opera
Domini"; the other, " Carolus II. Rex.," and on
the reverse, " Magnalia Dei."

P. 1 66, //. 87-88. Cf. Beaumont and Fletcher,
" Philaster," act iii. sc. i.

" The People

Against their nature are all bent before him :
And, like a field of standing corn that's mov'd
With a stiff gale, their heads bow all one way."

P. 1 66, //. 95-98. Cf. Oldham, " To the Memory
o Mr. C. Morwent "

" Those Indians who their Kings by Tortures choose,
Subjecting all the Royal Issue to that Test,
Could ne'er thy Sway refuse."

P. 167, //. 107-108. Cf. "The Maid's Tragedy
Altered "

" Justice and Bounty in a Prince are things
That Subjects make as happy as their Kings."

NOTES. 333


A | Poem | on | St. James's | Park | As lately im-
proved by his | Majesty. | Written by Edmund
Waller, Esq ; | London, | Printed for Gabriel Bedel
and Thomas Collins | at the Middle-Temple-Gate.
1661. Title and seven leaves, small folio. On p. n
begins, "Of our late war with Spain," &c. ; at the
end, " The Reader is desired to take notice that a
false Copy of these verses on St. James's Park was
surreptitiously and very imperfectly printed in one
sheet, without the Author's knowledge and consent,
several lines being there left out." I have not met
with any traces of this surreptitious copy.

P. 1 68, //. 1-3. Cf. Pope, "Windsor Forest, "7, 8

" The groves of Eden vanished now so long,
Live in description."

P. 168, /. 6. Among the improvements was the
introduction into the Park of a stream of water from
the Thames.

P. 170, //. 57-66. The reference is to the game of
" paille-maille," a favourite diversion of Charles II.

P. 171, /. 87. Cardinal Wolsey.

P. 171, /. 95. Cf. Addison, "The Campaign"
" To make the series of his toils complete."

P. 171, //. 101-104. Cf. Cowley, "Ode to Mr.
Hobbes "

" So contraries on /Etna's top conspire ;
Here hoary frosts ; and by (hem breaks out fire :
A secure peace the faithful neighbours keep ;
TV embolden'd snow next to the tlamedoes sleep,"

and Claudian, " Raptus Proserp." I. 164-68.


P. 172, //. 109-10. At the Coronation of Charles
II. a medal was struck, upon the reverse of which
the King was represented as a shepherd tending his
sheep; the inscription was " Dixi . Custodiam . xxiii .
April . 1661 . ", and on the edge, " Coronato .
Pastore . Ovat . Ovile ."

P. 172, //. 128-30. This star, the references -to
which are numerous, was observed about noon, when
Charles I. was returning from St. Paul's after having
given thanks for the birth of his son.


Catherine of Braganza was born Nov. 14, 1638,
but her birthday was observed in England upon the
25th. These lines were written in 1663. "Orinda"
(Mrs. Philips), who had herself written a poem on
the same occasion, characterizes them as the worst
verses that ever fell from Waller's pen.

P. 174, //. 33-36. Cf. Fairfax, "Godfrey of
Bulloigne," xx. 129

" And her fair face, fair bosom, he bedews
With tears ; tears of remorse, of ruth, of sorrow :
As the pale rose her colour lost renews,
With the fresh drops fall'n from the silver morrow :
So, she revives ; and cheeks empurpled shows,
Moist with their own tears, and with tears they borrow."

P. 1 74, Nunc itaque, c. This quotation concluded
the edition of 1664.

Keck says, ' ' 'Twas formerly not unusual among
our English ladies for coolness in y e hot weather
to carry a snake in their sleeve."

NOTES. 335


In the original edition of this poem, after the title
as given in the text, " Ut, qui vos Imperatores
vestros, & Anglorum Res gestas semper ornavit,
Ilumanitate vestra levatus, potius quam acerbitate
violatus esse videatur. Cicero pro Arch. Poet. By
Edm. Waller Esq ; London, Printed for Henry
Herringman, at the Anchor on the Lower Walk of
the New Exchange. 1666." Small folio, title and
eight leaves, A 2 E.

Waller, no doubt, derived the idea of this form of
composition from the poem of Businello (see p. 156),
and he himself was imitated by Denham, Marvell,
and others, to such an extent that, in 1680, the writer
of a broadside was provoked to revolt against the

" Each puny brother of the rhyming trade
At every turn implores the Painter's aid,
And fondly cnamour'd of his own foul brat,
Cries in an ecstacy, Paint this. Draw that ! "

For the events celebrated in this poem, cf. Dryden,
" Annus Mirabilis."

P. 176, /. 7. The star appeared Dec. 24, 1664.

P. 177, /. 34. Alluding to the orders sent to de
Ruyter to return with the Smyrna and East India
ships by the coasts of Norway and Denmark.

P. 177, //. 39-41. The Dutch Bordeaux fleet, to-
gether with other mercham-s>hips, to the number of
more than a hundred and thirty, was captured and
condemned by the English in Nov., 1664, before the
declaration of war, while Opdam was lying at Goree.


P. 178, //. 49-50. In Oct., 1664, Sir Thomas
Allen concluded a peace with the Algerines.

P. 178, /. 64. The MS. in the copy which be-
longed to Col. Cunningham, to which I have before
alluded, ends with this line.

P. 179, /. 94. The English Hamburg fleet,
missing a vessel which had been sent to warn them of
the departure of the Duke of York for the coast of
England, set sail, and was nearly all captured by the

P. 181, /. 138. Opdam commanded the combined
fleets of Holland and Denmark and defeated the
Swedes in the Sound, in 1658.

P. 181, /. 141. Cf. Dryden, " Annus Mirabilis,"
st. 59-

" On high-raised decks the haughty Belgians ride."

P. 181, /. 147. The Earl of Falmouth, Lord
Muskerry, and Mr. Boyle, second son of the Earl of

/". 183, /. 213. Cf. Dryden, "Annus Mirabilis,"
st. 280 " And eager flames give on to storm the
rest," and "Indian Emperor," act ii., sc. 3, "The
enemy gives on, by fury led."

P. 184, //. 237-40. Cf. Fuller, "David's Heinous
Sin," st. 39

"Were there not used, in the days of yore,
Enough men-murdering engines, but our age
Witty in wickedness, must make them more,
By new-found plots, man's malice to enrage?
So that fire-spitting cannons to the cost
Of Christian blood, all valour have engross'd,
Whose finding makes that many a life is lost."

NOTES. 337


Henrietta Maria returned to England in December,
1660, and took up her residence at Somerset House,
which she enlarged and beautified.

Waller's lines first appeared as a folio broadside in

Cf. Cowley's poem on the same subject, and "The
Speech of Her Majesty the Queen Mother's Palace,
Upon the Reparation and Enlargement of it by Her
Majesty," 1665.


The son of Viscount Andover (eldest son of the
Earl of Berkshire), for whom this epitaph was in-
tended, died in 1641, and was buried in New-Elm
Church, Oxfordshire.


These lines, headed " Of Pandoras not being
approved upon the stage as a Tragedy," were published
in 1665, with " Three Playes Written by Sir William
Killigrew, Vice-Chamberlain to Her Majesty the
Queen Consort." Sir William Killigrew, the eldest
of the five sons of Sir Robert Killigrew, was born at
Han worth in 1605 ; he was governor of Pendennis
Castle, and commanded two troops of the King's
Guard throughout the Civil War ; at the Restoration
he became Gentleman-Usher to the King, and later,
Vice-Chamberlain to the Queen Consort. He died
in 1693.




Frances Theresa, daughter of William Stuart, third
son of the first Lord Blantyre, sat to Roettier, the
medallist, as a model for Britannia. Pepys says (Feb.
25, 1667), "At my goldsmiths did observe the
King's new medal, where in little there is Mrs.
Stewart's face as well done as ever I saw anything in
my whole life I think ; and a pretty thing it is that
he should choose her face to represent Britannia by."

Cf. Marvell, " Last Instructions to a Painter," 714,
"And female Stewart there rules the four seas," allud-
ing to the inscription " Quatuor Maria Vindico,"
which surrounded the figure of Britannia.


Lines 15-20 of this poem are supplied from a trans-
cript in Mr. Waller's possession, in which the title
is, "On the Lady Isabella [Thynne's] cutting Trees
in Paper.' (See p. 90.) There is a note at the end of
the poem, " I had these verses from my Lady Long
in 1656. Her La? had several other copies of Mr.
Waller's verses (of which Mr. Waller had not
duplicats) which she lent to the Dutches of Beaufort,
and were never return'd. Their friendship is now
broken : but I hope her Grace will be so kind as to
grant transcripts of themupon ye reprinting of ye book."
The poem first appeared in the " 1 668 " edition.



In the late Col. Cunningham's ccpy this was
headed, "To Mrs. Steward who brought him the

NOTES. 339

verses he had lost, and was then sitting to Mr. Lilly
for her picture."


These lines, headed " This Booke, never Dedicated
to any before humbly desires the Patronage of hir
R. Highness," are inscribed in a copy of the edition
of 1668, now in the British Museum. Mary of
Modena arrived in England Nov. 21, 1673, t> ut as
this volume has also inscribed in it the lines on the
Death of the Duke of Cambridge, it was probably not
presented to her till after the event which they

The Duchess of Orleans, "la belle Henriette,"
took leave of the Court at Dover, June 2, 1670,
returned to St. Cloud, and died on the 3Oth of the
same month.

George, first Earl of Berkeley (1628-1698), pub-
lished " Historical Applications and Occasional
Meditations Upon Several Subjects, Written by a
Person of Honour," in 1 666. Waller's lines were
prefixed to a French translation of this work published
in the following year.



These lines did not appear among Waller's poems
till 1686, when no doubt the title was added to them.

Z 2


Mary, Princess of Orange (born Nov. 4, 1631), died
Dec. 24, 1660, and Ann, Duchess of York, in 1671.


This statue was cast, about 1630, by Hubert Le
Soeur for the Lord Treasurer Weston, who intended
to set it up in his gardens at Roehampton. Before it
could be removed from the place, near the church in
Covent Garden, where it was cast, the Civil War
began, and the Parliament sold it to John Rivett, a
brazier, with strict orders to break it up. Rivett is
said to have disposed of hundreds of knives, the
handles of which, he said, were made from the
bronze of the statue, but on May 16, 1660, the Earl
of Portland, the son of the Lord Treasurer, informed
the House of Lords that he had discovered where the
statue was hid, and as he supposed it was his, he
asked that the Sheriff might serve a replevin, there
being no court of law to which he could resort ; as,
however, Rivett subsequently presented it to the
King, it may be inferred that his right was recognized.
It was set up in its present position in 1674.

Charles Cavendish, second son of William, second
Earl of Devonshire, was born in London, May 20,
1620. After spending some time in travelling, and
in gaining military experience in Holland, he returned

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