Eduard Sievers.

An Old English grammar online

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the dat. plur. ends in -ingum, while the other cases have -ung.

2) Dissyllabic words with a long stem syllable and
simple final consonant syncopate the vowel of the final
syllable in the oblique cases, according to 144, while
those with a short stem retain it: s^wol-sdwle
(s^ule), Boul; f r<5f or - f rdf re, consolation; wdcor-
wdcre, usury; but firen-firene, sin; ides-idese,
wife^ etc.

3) The abstracts in Goth, -ij^a, originally trisyllabic,
have in the nom. sing, the ending -u, -o, like the short
stems, but subsequently assume a shortened form in
-tf: cftftfu and cftf{tf)^ OHG. cundida, race^ kinship ;
str^ngSTu and str^ng9, strength; gessmtu, OHG. ga-
suntida, power ^ health; oferm^ttu, arrogance^ OHG.
* ubarmuotida ; and weorOTmsmt, original -inundi]?a.

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honor. Eoth forms intrude gradually into the oblique
cases of the sing., especially into the ace, which origi-
nally had only -«.

Note 2. This usurpation on the part of the -u is presumably caused
\}j the abstracts in -u (279).

Note 3. br6, hrow^ has nom. ace. plur. br6a and br6wa, dat.
brAum and brdwum, gen. brdna.

b) i^stems. »

256. The originally short stems have all become long
by the gemination of the consonant which preceded the
i (228), and their declension no longer differs from that
of the stems originally long. The terminations are those
laid down in paragraph 252, so far as no express state-
ments to the contrary are made below.

257. Paradigms: for stems originally short, sib(b),
peace ; for stems originally long, wylf , she wolf.

Sing. N.V. 8ib(b)


Plur. N.V. sibba, -e

wylf a, -o

G. sibbe


G. sibba


D. sibbe


D. sibbiim


A. sibbe


A. sibba, -e

wylfa, -e

Note 1. For the simplification of the West Germ, geminates when
final cf . 225.

Note 2. In later documents there is sometimes to be found an ace.
sing, without inflectional ending, like sib, "wyn, etc.

Note 3. The jd-stems never take a gen. plur. in -ena (252. note 4).

Note 4. The declension of the simple d-stems differs from that of
the simple Jdnstems only in the possession of the weak gen. plur., and
in the absence of the i-umlstut of the radical syllable. They are dis-
tinguished from the long i-stems (268 ff.) by the ace. sing, in -e.

258. 1) Among the monosyllables which are declined
like sibb are the following: b^n, wound; brycgr, bridge;
cribb, crib ; ^cg, edge; fit, «on^/ h^U, hell; h^n, hen;
nyt, advantage; ssecc, contest; s^gr? sword; syll, sill.

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To these must be added, so far as regards the gemin*
tion of a final consonant before a vocalic ending, certain
derivatives in -1 and -n, like CQiidel, candle^ gryden, god'
desB^ wiergren, ahe wolf^ byrtJen, burden^ redden, arrange'
ment (gen. c^ndelle, wiergrenne, byrVenne, etc.) ; the
abstract nouns in -nes, gen. nesse (like h^ligrues, holi'
ne8B)\ and a few ferainines in-es (-is), like hsegrtes, vritch^
forl^gis, adulteress; besides WS. cn^rii», gen. cn^orisse,
generation^ liindis, Lincolnshire.

2) With wylf are to be classed c^U, leathern bottle^
aex, axe^ grierd, yard^ hiid, battle^ bind, hind^ b^OT, booty ^
ftf^ wave; and the derivatives in -s, like bllDTs, bliss, bliss^
1198, liss, favor J milds, milts, compassion.

Note 1. Certain dcriTatives in t, especially hymeta, hornet
(hlrnltu, Erf., hurnitu, Corp.), ielfetu, swan (selbitu, Ep. Corp.),
*liegetu, lightning (16gitu, Ps.), have in EWS. u in the nom. sing,
after a single t, while the oblique cases double the t : ligette, etc. (but
Ps. l^gite). In LWS. there are also abbreyiated nominatiyes like
hyrnet, and regular weak inflections like hymette, ylfette, gen. -an,
etc. ; on liegit, as a neut., see 247. c. Here belongs, likewise, the foreign
word I^mpedu, lamprey. In LWS. there is sometimes a nom. ting, in
-nisse, -nysse, corresponding to EWS. -nes, -nls, -nys.

NoTB 2. Other nouns haying u in the nom. sing, are 6owu, ewe
(Goth. ♦ awi), beside ewe, 6owe, gen. 6owo and ewes, 6owe8, and
960W11, handmaiden (Goth. >iwi), beside tV^owe, from which latter
form we have also weak forms, gen. 96owan, etc. The feminine
nouns deriyed from masculines by i-umlaut and the addition of -en
also take the nominative ending -u occasionally in LWS.: gydenu,
goddess, 9inenu, m^nnenu, handmaiden, mynecenu, nun; now and
then there are weak forms, like nom. nefene, grand-daughter, gen.
gydenan, etc.

Note 3. The double consonants of deriratiyes are often simplified
in LWS. : -r£&dene, etc. (225. 4).

Note 4. In leg, ig (4g), island (ON. ey, ey|ar), the derivatiye J if
retained as g. For b^nd, see 266, note 2.

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(?) Westerns.

259. Nouns with a long vowel or diphthong are
regularly declined like the simple d-stems. In OE. the
following words belong to this class: st4$w, place;
hr^ow, repentance; and tr^ow, faithfulness. Their
inflection is nom. st6w (st6u), gen. st6we, etc.

Note. In consequence of contraction, the following words exhibit
slight yariations: ^a, water (from *ahu, *au, Goth, ah^ira) ; 9r6a,
threat, throe (from ♦ ffrAwu, * ffrAu, cf . Ep. thrduu, OHG. drdwa) :
and cl^a, cl^o, claw (from ^kldwu, ^kldu, OHG. kld^ira). The gen.
sing, of ^a (originally consonant stem) occurs as 6as, and the dat. sing,
as ie; and we have the dat. pluf. ^am (6aum), tfr6am (ffr^aum),
and even the weak nom. ace. plur. 6an. Of cl^o there is onlj the ace.
plur. cl^o, el^a, dat cl6ani, and poet, cldm ; but, besides, cldwu is
regularly declined like glef u.

260. When a consonant precedes the w, the paradigms

are as follows : beadu, battle ; ms^d, mead.

Sing. N. beadu mddd I Flur. N. beadwa, -e in£&d(w)a,-e
G. beadwe mfibd I G. beadwa in£&d(w)a

Like beadu are inflected the short stems with a con-
sonant before the w: nearu, distress; sceadu, shadow
(more frequently declined like grief u, 255) ; sinu, sinew;
and the pi. tant. geatwa, arms^ frsetwa, ornaments. Like
ms^d (EWS. dat. mMa, 274) are declined l^s^pasture^
bl6d(es)ls&s, phlebotomy^ rsfes, suggestion (?). These words
exhibit irregularities in the oblique cases, the thematic
w being sometimes retained and sometimes lost.

Note. Occasionally a parasitic yowel appears before the 'wx
beadowe, nearowe, geatewe, fraetewum. In the Leyden Riddle
there occurs a dat. plur. geatum without w.

3) The I-Deolension.

261. The i-declension of OE. is chiefly confined to
masculines and feminines. A few words which were

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originally neuter, like m^re, m^ne, ^16 (and b^re, ^e,
h^te, sige, see 263. note 4), have passed over to the
masculine gender.

With the exception of masc. Seaxe, l6ode (264), fem.
meaht (beside miht, Ps. North, msebt), and gesceaft,
creature^ geVeaht, thought (both also neut.), and the
ueut. spere (no doubt originally a u-stem), the nouns of
this declension have in all cases i-umlaut, if the radical
syllable will admit; this often furnishes the only test
by which to distinguish these words from those of the
o-declension, with which the masculines have much in
common. The masculine and neuter nouns with a short
radical syllable end in e in the nom. ace. sing., while
the corresponding feminines have u ; all the long i-stems,
on the other hand, terminate in a consonant without
distinction of gender.

a) Masculines and Neuters.

1) Short Stems.

262. Paradigms : masc. wine, friend (Germ, wlni-z) ;
neut. sife, sieve (Prim. Germ, sibi-z).



Mabo. Nxut.

Sing. N.V.A. wine


Flur. N.y . A. wine, -as siAi

G. wines


6. wina,wlnlg(e)a sifo

D. wine


D. winum slfnm

I. wine


263. Like wine are declined the masculines b^re,
barley^ d^ne, valley^ ^e, oil^ h^fe, weighty b^ST^i hedge,
m^ne, necklace, m^te, food, s^le, hall, st^e, place, heeite,
man, hype, hip, hyse, youth, ryge, rye, byre, son, dele,
coolness, hyge, myne, mind, pyle, pillow, tfyle, orator,
dile, dill, wlite, countenance ; the plural D^ne, Danes
(sing, in the compound Healfd^ne) ; and a great num-
ber of verbal abstracts : like dr^pe, stroke, stsepe, step ;

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^e, ache; ^e, terror^ sl^e, slaege, hlow ; h^te, hate^
sethrine, touch; gripe, grip; blice, exposure^ stice, stitch^
pain; sigr^, victory^ oftigre, subtraction; bite, bite; cwide,
speech^ scride, step^ slide, fall^ snide, incision^ stride,
stride ; (ge)byre, events eyre, choice^ dryre, fall^ gryre,
horror^ hryre, /aW, lyre, loss; swile, swyle, tumor;
cyme, coming; brjrne, burning^ dyne, din^ rjrne, course;
scyfe, «Aot;e; drype, JZtw^;; bryce, breach; byge, Jcwrf, flyge,
flighty lyge? K^/ gyte, inundation^ scyte, «Ao^, etc. ; and
the abstracts in -scipe, -ship^ like fr^ndseipe,/nVwrf«Aip.
Like sif e are declined gedyne, dm, gedyre, door post^
gemyne, care^ gewile, mH, ofd^le, ofdaele, declivity^
of ersl^ge, lintel^ wlsece, tepidity^ orl^gej^ate^ spere, spear.

Note 1. In the oldest texts the sing., with the exception of the gen.,
ends in 1 (cf. 246. note 1).

Note 2. The proper termination of the nom. ace. plur. is -e, older -i
(cf. Goth, gasteis, and 44. note 1); the termination -as is borrowed
from the o-declension, although it is more common than -e. In the
gen. plur. the form in -a is by far the more common. The ending
-ig(e)a, -ia, is only found in I>^nig(e)a, 'wliiig(e)a.

Note 3. A few words go over more or less completely to the Jo-
declension, by doubling the simple consonant at the end of the radical
syllable (cf. 228 and 247), and dropping the -e in the nom. ace. sing.
Thus WS. m^te regularly forms the plur. m^ttas (more rarely a sing.
m^tt, mattes), hyse has hysas and hyssas (likewise in the sing.
hysses, etc.). Parallel with dyne occurs dynn, dynnes; and parallel
with gewile, gewill.

Note 4. b^re, ^e, h^te, slge were, without doubt, originally
neuters in -iz (cf. Goth. *bariz- in barizeins, agis, hatls, sigis), but
passed over to the masculine gender, as stated above.

Note 6. In North, there are no essential variations from the declen-
sional forms of the other dialects, if we except the shortening of the
few words like "wilt, countenance, ni^t{t), food ; the nom. ace. plur. of
the latter word is found as m^tas, K.^, and weak in^t{t)o, L.

Note 6. The short l-stems differ from the short Jo-stems like h^re
(246) by the uniform absence of -i(g)- in certain cases of the sing, and
plur., and in part by the different terminations of the nom. ace. plur.
They differ from words like s^g (246), whose stem has become long^

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by possessing the -e in the nom. ace. sing, and plur., as well as the single
consonant at the end of the radical syllable.

Note 7. In the declension of the short i-stems is to be included the
plur. tant. -Tirare, -people, like R6mware, Cantrirare, etc. (besides
-waras and weak -waran). This is to be regarded as originally a
plur. of the sing, -waru, people (252).

2) liong Stems.

264. The masculines have dwindled to a scanty rem-
nant, and these are found only in the plural ; cf. the
paradigm Jglngrle, plur. Angles (Prim. Germ. Ang^Ii-).

Plur.N.V.A. :^ngle
G. ^ngla
D. ^nglum

Thus are declined a few proper nouns like D^re, De-
irianSj Beornlce, Bemidans^ Se(a)xe, Saxons^ Mierce,
Mercians, Norf)r(an)-, StiDr-hymbre, Northumbrians^ etc.,
besides the foreign words Cr^ce, Perse, i^gipte ; also,
the plurals ielde, ylde, men, ielfe, elves, Mode, people.
Finally, there are a number of words, originally belong-
ing to other declensions, which take in the nom. ace.
plur. either -as or -e, -a : such are waestmas, waestme,
fruits; clQmmas, clQmme, -a; b^ndas, b^nde, -a,
bonds; gl^ngas, gl^nge^-a,, ornaments; gimmas, gimme,
gems; heargas, hearge, -a, temples (273); besides Ifgetas,
ligete, -a, lightnings; weleras, welere, lips; sepplas,
aeppla, apples (273).

Note. A few of the gentile nouns, particularly Seaxe and MIerce,
are occasionally inflected according to the weak declension. Only one
form is at all common, that of the gen. plur. in -na (276. note 1) :
Seaxna, Miercna.

265. The other masculines belonging under this head
have assumed the endings of the o-declension, and hence
differ from the o-stems only in respect to etymology,

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the i-umlaut of the radical syllable, and the palataliza-
tion of final gutturals (206. 6). Paradigm: wyrm, worm
(Prim. Germ, wurmi-z).

Sing. N.V. wyrm Plur. N.V. wyrmas
G. Tiryrines G. ivyrma

J), ivyrine D. wyrmum

A. "wypm A. wyrmas

I. Wynne

266. Here belong bielg, hag^ dsfel, part^ fierst, time^
b^nd, band^ f ys^ furze^ griest, yiieHt^ liyll, hill^ lyf t, air^
^ut, giant^ gl^m^gleam^ lieg, flame ^ s^l.time^ in£§w, sea-
mew^ st^ng, pole^ str^ngT) string^ ffj^»^ giant^ wafegr, wave^
wiell, well^ and a series of verbal nouns like sw^g, clamor^
r^, reek^ sinlec, smlc, odor^ f^ng^ g^^^Pt st^nc, stsnek,
sw^ng, blow^ wr^nc, wrench^ tricky drync, driuc, drinks
dynt, dint^ stiell, jump^ swylt, deaths cierr, turn^ cierm,
clamor^ wyrp, ea»t^ liwyrft, turn^ slieht, slaughter^
flylit, fl'ghf^ liyht, hope^ tylit, instruction^ byrst, calam^
i^Vt ^yi*st, thirsty s^rist, resurrection^ brygd, brandish
ing^ etc.

Note 1. For forms like sw^ngeas instead of sw^ngas, see 206. 6.

Note 2. The nom. ace. plur. of b^nd is not only b^ndas, but also
(especially Anglian ? ) b^nda, b^nde, of which the singular is prob-
ably a fem. b^nd, belonging to 257 (Goth, bandi). Other words fol-
low the declension of the feminines (268), like s&rlst, ^pryng, lyft
(LWS. neut., with plur. lyftu), hlyst, sfibl, etc.

Note 3. There is fluctuation in 6£&, sea (Goth, salws), gen. 8^
dat. ssfe, nom. ace. plur. s^, gen. s^wa, dat. sfibwum, s^m, and fem.
gen. dat. sing, n^, ss^s, and B^we, etc. The foreign word dr^, wizard
(from Celtic dr6i), has gen. dr^ (LWS. also dr^es), dat. dr^, nom.
ace. plur. dr^aa, gen. dryra (?), dat. di^um.

267. This class contains no original neuters. Notwith-
standing, there are certain words, originally belonging

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to other declensions, which have assumed an inflectional
type that can be assigned to this place, in virtue of
their uniform i-umlaut and the consonant termination
of their nora. ace. sing., particulars in which they agree
with the long-stemmed masculines and feminines of the
i-declension. Here belong:

a) Original neuters, like flsfesc, fle^^ fifes, fleece
(Angl. fl^os), h£§l, welfare^ hilt, hilt^ ls§ii, loan^ hr^DT,
fame (masc.?); nouns with the prefix ge-, such as gef^g,
joining^ gehield (Ps. North, gehxld) ^protections gehl^d,
clamor^ geresp, blame^ geswinc, trihvlation^ gewM,
^«^^9 geswyrf (?), filings^ gegrynd, plot of ground^
gedwild, error s gehns^st, conflict; and probably 8§cyrf,
fragment^ felcyrf, prceputium (masc.?). These are
declined like cynn, 246 (dat. plural geswlncium,
206. 6).

NoTB 1. Beside these forms are occnsionaUy found others without
i-umlaut, like gef6g, geheald, gehn^t, or alternative forms with r,
like liAlor, hr69or; this renders it probable that these words were
originally os-, es-stems (288 ft.)*

b) Original feminines, especially nouns with the prefix
ge-: geliygd, thought^ gemynd, mind^ oferhygd, arro-

. gancej gewyrht, deed^ wilit, wubt, creature^ geDTyld,
patience^ gecynd, gebyrd, nature^ s&rist, resurrection,
fulluht, baptism, grini snare, forwjrrd, destruction,
genyht, abundance. These also occur as feminines
(269), and are frequently so declined. They follow
the declension of cynn (246) or word (238), but
have in the nom. ace. plur. geliygdu, gemyndu,

Note 2. To the foregoing singulars must be added the plurals ge-
drybtu, eUmentSy gehyretu, trappings, glftu, nuptials, LWS. wistu.

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samwlstu, dainties, lyftu, airs. So, too, the unumlauted gesceaft,
originally a feminine, according to the cognate Germanic tongues
(cf. 261; 269), but likewise a neuter in OE., forms a plur.
gesceaftu, beside gesceafte, -a, according to 252. For geffeaht, see
261; 269.

Note 3. Wiht, in the sense of " being, creature," is always f em., and
does not form the plur. wlhtu till LWS. ; but in the generalized sense
of " thing, something," it asMimes the neuter gender, side by side with
the feminine, at an early period. For the compound ndwllit, etc.,
see 348.

Note 4. Beside gecynd, fem. neut., there exist two other singulars,
probably deduced from the plur. gecyndu: namely, gecynde, neut.
(246), and gecyndu, -o, weak fem. (279) ; so gebyrd has a weak
form gebyrdu, -o.

h) FeminineB.

1) Short Stems.

268. But few remains are preserved, and not all of
these are certain: d^nu (?), valley^ fr^mu, benefit^ and
perhaps hylu, hollow^ -l^gTti, laying down^ and -n^ru,
deliverance^ in ealdorl^gu, feorhl^gru (or -n^ru), of

whose nominatives we have no examples. The de-
clension of tliese words has entirely conformed to that
of the short a-stems like giefu (252) ; only sporadically
do we find a nom. sing, d^ne, which may have re-
tained the old ending of the i-stems (Prim. Germ,
nom. dani-z).

2) Long Stems.

269. Paradigm: \^n, petition (Prim. Germ, bdni-z).

Sing. N.V. b6n Plur. N.V. b^ne, -a
G. b6ne G. b^na

D. b6ne D. b6num

A. b6ii A. b6ne, -a

I. b^ne

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Thus are declined b^nc, bench^ cw^n, woman^- drjht^
ho8t^ h^d, skin^ lyft, air^ nfed, need^ tfd, tide^ tfrftf^
strength^ w^n, hope, wiht, wuht, thinffj wynn, pleas-
ure^ wyrd,/a^e, wyrt, herb^ root^ b^sen, example^ sfe(w),
latv^ and many verbal-abstracts (with the original
suffix -ti): e.g.^ ds^d, deed^ fierd, army^ STl^d, gleed^
spM, success^ gehygd, thought^ gr^cynd, grebyrd, na^t^r^,
grenyht, aitincJan^^, gemynd, mmc?, gr^wyrht, c^^ec?,
greVyld, patience^ s&ht, property^ niiht, mighty geaceaft,
creature^ %e^^S^th(mght^ 6st, grace^ wist, sustenance^
fstf storm^ 8§rist, resurrection^ etc.

Note 1. The endings of this declension are the same as those of the
d-declension, except in the ace. sing., which in the former has -e. In
North, this termination is introduced into the i-Kleclension at an early
period, and to a considerable extent ; in WS. and Kent, it makes its
appearance later, and is at first comparatiyely rare. Examples are :
tide, cw^ne, etc.

NoTK 2. The genuine oldest termination of the nom. ace. plur. is -i
(msectl, Csedmon's Hymn, cf. Goth, mahteis), which subsequently
became -e (44). Notwithstanding, there is an early intrusion of -as
from the d-Kleclension (iiuyrdae, Ep.). Beda has, sporadically, o.

Note 3. £& is indeclinable in the nom. ace. plur. ; in the sing, is
found a gen. ik%, besides the gen. dat. sing. £&we, in agreement with
which there is formed a nom. ace. gfew. For Bfib, see 266. note 3.

Note 4. lyft and g&rist are also ihasc. (266. note 2); gehygd,
gemynd, gewyrht, wlht, wuht, geffyld, gecynd, gebyrd, £&iist,
fulluht, lyft, genyht, gesceaft, geffeaht, are also neuter (267).
dugu9, virtue, geogu9, youth, and Ides', woman, which would reg^ilarly
belong to the i-declension, in OE. follow the d-declension (252) ; s^on,
s^n, face, ons^on, view, frequently hare in WS. the ace. sing, s^on,
but in Fs. and North, always take -e, according to the d-declension
(onsiene, Fs.).

Note 6. In North, many of these feminines appear also as neuters
(cf. 251. note). Among deyiations from the regular inflectional types
are to be noted the gen. sing, in -es of Lind. and Kit., tides, d^es,
etc.; and the weak plur., as in nom. ace. tide, d^do, gen. tidana,
d^dana, etc.

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declension op nouns. 161

4) The u-Declension.
a) Masculines.
1) Short Stems. >

270. Paradigm : sunu, son (Prim. Germ, sunu-z, Goth.


Sing. N.V. Bunu, -o, LWS. -a Plur. N.V. suna, -u, -o

G. suna 6. suna

D. suna, -u, -o D. sunum

A. sunu, -o, LWS. -a A. suna, -u, -o
I. suna

271. The number of words which follow this declension
is quite limited : fully inflected are only sunu and wudu,
wood. Beside nom. ace. sing, meodu, mead^ magu, boy^
there are only dat. meodu, -o, nom. ace. plur. magas; of
bre(o)go, prince^ heoru, sword^ lagu, lake^ siodu, custom^
spitu, spit^ there are only nom. ace. sing. The words
frioflTu, peaccy and liofJTu, limb (Goth. fri];us, li]^us), no
longer occur as u-stems, except when the first member
of compound words ; otherwise there occur fern. friotTu
(279), neut. friar (239. 2), neut. liff (239. 2); and for Goth.
qi>us, venter^ only cwiOr. So al so for Goth, skadus, shadow^
OE. has the fem.sceadu and the neut. scead (cf. 253; 240).

Note. The gen. sing, subsequently has the termination -es, as in
the o-declension, e.g., wiides, and similarly the nom. ace. plur. -as:
wudas, sttiias, even LWS. sunan ; magmas already in EWS.

. 2) liong Stems.

272. Words with a long stem dropped the u in the

nom. ace. sing., according to 134, and thus became

assimilated to the o-stems, whose inflection they then

to some extent assumed. Their inflection is elk follows :

Sing. N.V.A. feld Plur. N.V.A. felda, -as
G. felda, -es 6. felda

D. felda, -e D. feldum

I. felda. -e

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273. Traces of this declension are still to be per-
ceived in the words eard, country^ feld, fields ford,
ford^ -^dr, Javelin^ hdd, rank^ heargr, idol^ temple, weald,
forest, s^aff, fountain; the dissyllabic sumor, svmmer,
winter, winter, aeppel(?), apple. The other words
which formerly belonged to the u-declension have com-
pletely passed over to the o-declension : dr, messenger,
d^atf, death, feorh, life, fL6d, flood, scield, shield, Vorn,
thorn, wdg, wall, hungor, hunger, etc. = Goth, airus,
dau]7us, fairhwus, fl6dus, skildus, J^aurnus, waddjus,
htihrus, and the numerous verbal nouns in -(n)of)r,
-(n)at)r = Goth. -<5dus.

NoTB 1. In North, there are still found the datives d^o9a, WQnga,
and eyen a few examples of original o-stems, like binna, bin.

Note 2. Examples of the gen. sing, in -a are : h&da, Ijlccitfelda,
Wihtg^ura, ivintra. The dat. instr. in -a is still common in the older
texts, but is subsequently replaced by the -e of the o-declension.

Note 3. "winter, which is always of the masc. gender in the sing.,
so far as can be determined, takes in the nom. ace. plur. the neuter
forms, 'wintru and winter. The regular plur. of s»ppel is sepplas,
seldom ap(p)la, LWS. -u.

Note 4. The u is retained in the form aetgaeru of the Ep. Oloss.
(Erf. aetg&ru), as in the Runic fl6du and olwfwoljyu.

b) Feminines,

274. Of these there are but few remaining, the most

important being duru, door, and liQnd, hand. Their

declension is as follows:

Sing. N.V.A. duru hgnd Plur. N.V.A. dura, -u hQnda

6. dura hgnda G. dura hgnda

I.D. dura, -u hgnda D. durum hgnduni

Note 1. Other relics of this declension are: nosu, nose; cweorn,
quern; fLdTy^oor; and worold, world. Case-forms of these words are
dat. nosa, ace. nosu; dat. cweoma; dat. fl6ra; dat. w^orulda.
worold has almost entirely passed oyer to the l-declension, and the
others fluctuate: gen. dat. instr. sing, dure, nose; dat. cweome,

Digitized by VjOOQIC


cweornan; gen. dat. fl6re, ace. fl6r (also masc. 273), etc.; eyen dat.
dyre, dyru ; gen. dat hQnd. Beside nosu, etc., is found nasu (early

Note 2. dum and nosn are perhaps relics of an earlier dual. Here
may likewise be mentioned the form scnldru (sciildro), dual of the
masc. sculdor, and the neut. br^ost, perhaps originally a dual.

(?) Neuter9,

275. There is no longer an independent u-declension
of neuters in OE. The sole relics are Ps. North, feolu,
feolo, and WS. feola, fela, much (the former a stereo-
typed nom. ace., the latter perhaps a stereotyped form
of the other cases). Goth, faihu, cattle^ is WS. Kent.
feoh, f^o, North, feh, which belongs wholly to the
o-declension (242).


276. The three genders are scarcely distinguishable,
except in the nom. voc. sing, (with which the neut. ace.
is identical) ; the masc. ending is -a, the fem. -e or -u
(279), and the neut. -e. Paradigms are: masc. gruma,
man; fem. tungre, tongue; neut. ^agre, eye.

MASCULIlfE. Fbmininb. KEirTBB.

Sing. N.y. gatskA tunge ^age

G. guman tungan ^agan

D. I. guman tungan ^agan

A. guman tungan ^age

Plur. N.y.A. guman tungan ^agan

G. gumena tungena ^agena

D. gumum tungum ^agum

Note 1. In certain texts -on is found for -an. The gen. plur. more
rarely ends in -ana, -ona (cf. note 2, end) ; still other occasional end-

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