Eduard Strasburger.

Handbook of practical botany; for the botanical laboratory and private student online

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PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.



This book is intended cliiefly for those who, without desiring
to become botanists by profession, wish nevertheless to be-
come acquainted with the elements of scientific structural
botany. It will likewise introduce the beginner to the various
methods of microscopical manipulation.

The study of vegetable structure is especially favourable as
an initiation into the use of the microscope ; and any one
whose future career will require command over this instru-
ment should commence with the study under the microscope
of vegetable anatomy.

The manual is divided into thirty-two chapters, each of
which is intended to provide materials for several hours' prac-
tical work in the laboratory. The earlier chapters are easy,
and the difficulties to be encountered increase almost con-
tinuously up to the last chapter. The first chapter assumes
on the part of the worker entire ignorance as to the use of
his instruments, but nevertheless assumes the possession of
some general botanical knowledge. With this elementary pre-
paration the beginner ought to be able, by the diligent use
of this book alone, to acquire a tolerably broad knowledge
both of vegetable structure and of the methods of micro-
scopical work.

The objects for study have been so selected that most can
be obtained with comparative ease. In many places I have
recommended the use of plants preserved in alcohol, as the
worker is thus rendered independent of the time of year. As,
however, the objects may need to be collected even month:^



VI PEEFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION.

have given at tlie head, of eacli chapter (task^ or lesson^ in
the original) a list of the objects required for study in
that chapter. I regret that I did not add to these lists any-
special reagents which might be required for use ; possibly a
future edition may give opportunity for this.

I have considerably enlarged the scope of Appendices II.
and III., and have added two new Appendices, I. and IV.,
which I hope may be useful to the student. Throughout the
work I have likewise added the common English names (if
any) of the plants referred to.

The student will probably not be able to carry out all the
investigations constituting a chapter at the same time. A
careful note should be made of any which are thus postponed,
so that they may be taken up in due season. It is not un-
likely that some may not come at all within the range of the
student's observation ; for these examples the' book must be
looked upon in the light of a text-book.

The student is earnestly urged to study from the beginning
the Author's methods of work. These are especially note-
worthy when he comes, perha,ps incidentally, to correlate
structure with function. The interdependence of these two
factors in the plants' life history is the great underlying
principle of modern botanical teaching, and the student
cannot too soon begin to exercise his thoughts in this direc-
tion, resting assured that his methods are right even though
his results may for the time being prove to be erroneous.

As to translation, no one can feel so fully as myself its
many and serious defects. I can only plead that the work
was executed at a time of serious pressure, and, although cir-
cumstances have delayed the issue of the book, the manuscript
was out of my hands, and therefore only subject to such
limited correction as proof-sheets would allow.

W. H.

Birmingham, Se^iemherj 1886.



"t



CONTENTS



PA.OB

Introduction. Instruments, Apparatus, Reagents, Materials . . xiii

Fig. 1. Zinc frame for object-slides xxiii



I. Use of the Microscope. Structure of Starch



Fig. 2. Microscope Stand VIIa, of Zeiss 2

3. Starch-grains from Potato tuber 8

4. Starch-grains from Bean 10

5. Starch-grains from East-Indian Arrowroot ... 11

6. Starch-grains from Wheat-meal of Tn'ticuni duru)7i . . 11

7. Starch-grains from ^ueria safiva 12

8. Starch-grains from latex of EiipJiorbia Tiel ioscopia . . 12

9. Starch-grains from latex of Euphorbia splcndcus . . 13

II. Aleurone-grains, Protein Crystals, Fat Oil, mounting of permanent

preparations, use of the simple Microscope 16

Fig. 10. Cells from cotyledons of Pea 18

,, 11. Cross-section of outer part of grain of Wheat ... 19

,, 12. Small dissecting microscope of Zeiss 21

„ 13. Large dissecting microscope of Zeiss 22

„ 14. Cell showing aleurone grains and albumen crystals, from

the endosperm of Bicinus communis . . . . 25

III, Movements of the Protoplasm ; Nucleus. Drawing with the

Camera, etc. ; calculation of Magnification 28

Fig. 15. Protoplasmic movement in hair of filament of Tradcscantia

virginica 29

„ 16. Camera lucida of Abbe 30

IV. Chromatophores. Coloured cell-sap 38

Fig. 17. Chlorophyll-bodies of Funaria liygrometrica ... 39

„ 18. Colour-bodies from calyx of Troixjeolum majus ... 40

,, 19. Epidermal cell from petal of Vinca minor .... 42

„ 20. Colour- bodies from root of Carrot 43

„ 21. Starch-builders, with starch grains, from rhizome of Iris

germanica 44

vii



vni



CONTENTS.



CHAPTT^H PAGE

V. Tissues ; thickening of the walls ; reaction for Sugar ; Inuline,

Nitrates, Tannin, Lignin 45

Fig. 22. Stone-cells (sclerenchyma) from fruit of Pear ... 47

„ 23. Striate cell from pitli of tuber of Dahlia variabilis . . 50

„ 24. Sphaero-crystals of Inuline in tuber of Dahlia variabilis . 51
„ 25. Thickened and pitted walls from endosperm of Ornitho-

galum umbellatum, 54

,, 26. Bordered pits of Pinus sylvestris 53

Vl. The Epidermis, Stomata, Water Stomata CI

Fig. 27. Epidermis and stoma of leaf of Iris floreniina ... 03

,, 28. Epidermis and stoma of leaf of Tradcscantia virginica . 68

,, 29. Epidermis and stoma of leaf of Aloii nigricans ... 68

„ 30. Epidermic cell and stoma of leaf of Aneimia fraxinifolia, . 69

„ 31. Epidermis and water stoma of leaf of TropcEohim majus . 70

VII. The Epidermis {cont.) ; Hairs. Mucilage and Wax ... .72

Fig. 32. Hair of Cheiranthus Cheiri, and of Matthiola annua . . 73

„ 33. Hair from petal of Viola tricolor 74

„ 34. Scales from leaf of Shepherdia canadensis .... 75

,, 35. Stinging hair of X'rtica dioica 78

,, 36. Gland from ochrese of Rumex Tpatientia .... 79

,, 37. Digestive gland (tentacle) of Drosera rotundifolia . . 80

[ „ 37*. Diagram of leaf of ditto 80J

,, 38. Glandular hair from bud-scale of ^sculus hipi^ocastanum . 81

,, 39. Wax on node of stem of Saccharum officinarum ... 83



VIII. Closed collateral fibre- vasal (fibro -vascular) bundles. Mucus

and Gum 83

Fig. 40. Cress-section of vascular bundle in stem of Zea Mais . 84

,, 41. Radial section of same 90

„ 42. Cross-section of vascular bundle from leaf of Iris fiorentina 94

,, 43. Crystals of oxalate of lime 96

,, 44. Cross-section of stem of Draccena rubra .... 97

IX. Open collateral fibro-vasal bundles 100

Fig. 45. Cross-section of vascular bundle in stem of Eaniinculus

repens 101

[ ,, 45*. Latex vessels in bast of Scorzonera hispanica . . . 103]

[ „ 45**. Collenchyma in petiole of Pegonia 104]

,, 46. Cross-section of vascular bundle of Aristolochia Sipho . 106

X. Structure of the Coniferous Stem 114

[Fig. 46*. Diagrammatic section of junction of spring and autumn

wood in Pinus sijlvestris 115]

,, 47. Development of wood and bordered pits in Pinus syl-uesfris 116

,, 48. Resin-canal in wood of Pinus sylvestris 118

„ 49. Sieve-tubes of Pinus sylvestris 121

,, 50. Section of walls of ditto, treated with chlorzinc iodine . 122

[ ,, 50*. Resin passages in young bast of Hedera ?ielia; . . . 123]

XI. Structure of the stem of the Lime ; Bicollateral fibro-vasal bundles

of the Cucurbitacea3 ; Sieve-tubes 125

[Fig. 50**. Diagram of cross-section of twig ot Tilia .... 127]
„ 61. Isolated elements of wood and bast of Tilia . . . 129
„ 52. Sieve-plates of Cucurhita Pepo ...... 132



CONTENTS. IX

XII. Axial fibro-vasal Cylinder, aud secondary increase in thickness of

Eoots 136

Fig. 53. Cross-section of root of ^/h'ttm Ctjpa 1^7

„ 5k Cross-section of root of .4corus CaZawMS .... i:*-S

„ f6. Crosfe-section Of root of .rri.s./foi-e7i(ina 1 1

„ 56. Cross-section of young root of Taxus baccata . . . U-i

XIII. The vascular bundle of the Ferns and Lycopodiacese (Club Mosses) 145

Fig. 57. Cross-section through vascular bundle of Pteris aquilina . 116
„ 63. Cross-section of stem of LycopoJLium complanatam . . 149

XIV. Cork, Lenticels ; the fall of leaves 152

Fig. 59. Cork-development in stem of Sambuctts 7ngra . . . l-"'{
„ 60. CrosS'Section through Lenticel of SambucKS nij/ra . . lil



XV. Structure of foliage and of floral leaves. Terminations of the fibro-
vasal bundles



Fig. 61. Surface section of leaf of Rnta graveolens

„ 62. Cross-section of leaf of Ruta graveolens

[ „ 62*. Oil-gland of leaf of Bictamnus Fraxinella

„ 63. Cross-section of leaf of Fagus sylvatica .



160



161
162
164]
16J



177



XVI. The growing Apex of the Stem. Differentiation of the Tissues.

Course of the fibro-vasal bundles 170

Fig. 64. L-ongitudinal section of growing point of Hippuris vulgaris. 173

"■"„ 65. Apes of stem of Euonyirius jfiponicus 175

„ 66. Longitudinal section of growing point of Equisetuni

o.rvense

[ „ 66*. Schemes of division of apical cell of stem of Equisetum . 178]

, 67. Longitudinal section of bud of E



Online LibraryEduard StrasburgerHandbook of practical botany; for the botanical laboratory and private student → online text (page 1 of 42)