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LIBRARY
Brigham Young University








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THE BISHOP PADDOCK LECTURES, 1889.



DIABOLOLOGY.



THE



PERSON AND KINGDOM



OF



SATAN.



BY



REV. EDW. H. JEWETT, D.D., LL.D.

PROFESSOR OF PASTORAL THEOLOGY IN THE GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY,

NEW YORK.



SECOND EDITION.



NEW YORK:

THOMAS WHITTAKER.

2 and 3 Bible House.

1890.



COPYRIGHT, 1889,
By THOMAS WHITTAKER.



Press of J. J. Little & Co.,
Astor Place, New York.



THE LIBRARY
WS HAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
PROVQ, UTAH.



THE

BISHOP PADDOCK LECTURES.

In the summer of the year 1880, George A. Jar-
vis, of Brooklyn, N. Y., moved by his sense of the
great good which might thereby accrue to the cause
of Christ, and to the Church of which he was an
ever-grateful member, gave to the General Theological
Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church certain
securities, exceeding in value eleven thousand dollars,
for the foundation and maintenance of a Lectureship
in said seminary.

Out of love to a former pastor and enduring friend,
the Right Rev. Benjamin Henry Paddock, D.D.,
Bishop of Massachusetts, he named the foundation
" The Bishop Paddock Lectureship."

The deed of trust declares that, —

" The subjects of the lectures shall be such as appertain to the defence
of the religion of Jesus Christ, as revealed in the Holy Bible, and
illustrated in the Book of Common Prayer, against the varying errors of
the day, whether materialistic, rationalistic, or professedly religious, and
also to its defence and confirmation in respect of such central truths as
the Trinity, the Atonement, Justification, and the Inspiration of the
Word of God ; and of such central facts as the Church 's Divine Order

iii



IV THE BISHOP PADDOCK LECTURES.

and Sacraments, her historical Reformation, and her rights and powers
as a pure and national Church. And other subjects may be chosen if
unanimously approved by the Board of Appointment as being both
timely and also within the true intent of this Lectureship."

Under the appointment of the board created by the
trust, the Rev. Edward H. Jewett, S. T. D., delivered
the Lectures for the year 1889, contained in this vol-
ume.



ANALYSIS.



LECTURE I.

PAGE

Introductory . . . i

Hostility to Creeds and Formulas of faith — Various assignable
causes — Materialistic philosophy especially hostile to pneuma-
tology — No legitimate cansus belli between material science and
Divine revelation — Resort to the theory of Accommodation —
Its underlying fallacy — Materialism powerless in dealing with
facts of pneumatology — Evils caused by the application of the
theory — The subject demands a work of construction as well
as of destruction — An d. priori argument in favor of the exist-
ence of spiritual beings — Argument strengthened by the voice
of religious instinct and sentiment — Still further strengthened
by the requirements of God's moral attributes — God's word
the highest, and ultimate authority.



LECTURE II.

Moral Probation . . . .31

The ever-abiding presence of moral evil — From what source did it
originate ? — Why was its existence or extension not prevented ?
— The overruling of evil for good does not justify its existence —
A clew to the labyrinth of mystery to be found possibly, in the
exercise of free moral agency — Applies to all conceivable forms
of free moral agency — Character ethically considered cannot be
created, but must be developed by free, self-directed action —
Probation seemingly a necessity — It involves the possibility of

V



vi ANALYSIS.

PAGE

sinning — Views of the schoolmen — In what angelic probation
consisted — How long it continued — Theories of Aquinas — Of S.
Augustine — Of German theologians — The 19th Article of the
Augsburg Confession — Under what circumstances did moral
probation terminate in a fall ? — Why were beings created under
circumstances involving the necessity of a probation ? — God's
Omnipotence not limited by the impossibility of preventing
free, moral defection — God's boundless wisdom, mercy, and
justice ultimately manifested.



LECTURE III.

Satanic Personality . . . . .65

A wide collapse of faith in a personal Satan — Ascribable in great
measure to the working of reaction — Two antagonistic theories
to be considered, Dualism and Personification — Dualism an ele-
ment in all forms of natural religion — Its ground of failure as a
philosophic speculation, or as a religious system — Personifica-
tion as opposed to Dualism — Angels regarded as personifica-
tions of natural forces — Satan a mere symbol of evil principles,
desires and gratifications — The arguments of Von Colin,
Schliermacher, Davenport, Drs. Bushnell and Parker — Argu-
ment from the assumed negativity of evil — The fallacy of the
argument — -Moral confounded with metaphysical good — Evil a
positive power corrupting being, and debasing character — No
assignable limit short of total depravity — No a priori improb-
ability against the supposition of a powerful fallen angel having
placed himself as head and leader of the hosts of darkness — As
clearly defined personal characteristics ascribed to Satan in the
Scriptures, as to the Holy Ghost.



LECTURE IV.
Parsee and Hebrew Views Compared . 98

Divine process of development within the sphere of the spiritual, as
within that of the material — Mistakes resulting from failure in
noting this — Assumption that the Jews obtained their view of



ANALYSIS. Vll

PAGE

Satan and the hosts of darkness from the Persians — The theol-
ogy of the Zoroastrians compared with that of the Jews, with
regard to the existence and nature of God, of Satan, the work
of Creation, and the Fall — Circumstances adverse to the as-
sumption — The captivity in Babylonia, and not in Persia — The
religion of the Babylonians a gross polytheism — The captivity
a period of religious purification rather than of corruption —
Equal if not greater probability that the Zoroastrians borrowed
from the Jews, than the reverse — Subsequent intercourse at
Alexandria — The collection of the Parsee Scriptures like that
of the Hebrews cumulative, and extending through many cent-
uries — Only in the later books of the Parsees is the claimed
resemblance to be found— The main question one of ontology
and not of nomenclature — Reasons why more definite statements
were not made in the earlier scriptures — The Divine plan of
development a necessity.



LECTURE V.

Christ's Teaching with Regard to Evil
and the Evil One . . . .133

God's revealed word the main and reliable ground of faith — Full-
ness of knowledge attained through various stages of develop-
ment — In our Lord's experience and teaching especially, has
truth been revealed — The personal conflict with Satan in the
wilderness — Various views of the temptation — Christ not self-
tempted — The posse non peccare, and the non posse peccare — The
temptation in whatever form presented, must have been exter-
nal — Christ's conceptions of Satanic personality and influence
revealed in His subsequent teachings — Impossibility of under-
standing His statements on the theory of personification — His
belief in Satanic personality further manifested by His speak-
ing of him in connection with the powers of darkness — Further
evidence in the cases of demoniac cure — The question of Accom-
modation considered — Its bearing upon the case repudiated —
Neander's statement — The subsequent teaching of the Apostles
in perfect harmony with those of Christ Himself.



viii ANALYSIS.



LECTURE VI.



PAGE



The Sixth Petition of the Lord's Prayer 167

Objections raised against the change of " evil " for the " Evil One "
—Such change could have been made only after careful exam-
ination, and under the influence of preponderating evidence—
The Greek original seemingly demands the change from the ab-
stract to the concrete— Various instances in which relevancy of
connection and congruity of thought require the concrete— The
revised rendering in perfect congruity with the whole prayer-
Sustained by early exegesis— Primitive versions in its favor—
The Peshito Syriac especially strong and unmistakable in its
testimony— Early patristic statements, both Greek and Latin,
support the concrete rendering— No exception to be found in
the Ante-Nicene period— Statements of Origen, Cyril of Jerusa-
lem, Gregory Nyssen, Chrysostom, Theophylact, Tertullian and
Cyprian— Concurrence of Primitive Liturgies— The concrete
rendering in most perfect harmony with our Lord's general
teaching on the subject.



PREFACE.



These lectures were written in the hope that they
might contribute, in some degree at least, to the
removal of error, and the firmer confirmation of faith
in the important doctrines of which they treat. As-
sailed by materialistic philosophy on one hand, unnum-
bered attempts have been made to explain away by
resorting to metaphor or personification, what hereto-
fore had been accepted as actual truth; and over-
whelmed on the other by sarcasm and ridicule, the
whole subject of Diabolic personality has been sum-
marily thrust aside as unworthy of serious considera-
tion. Hence the attitude assumed by numbers, even
of otherwise orthodox christians, is one of determined
opposition. So intense, and unreasoning, this opposi-
tion has been in some instances, as to justify an ap-
plication to them of the words of Goethe,

M They would not believe that it was the devil,
Even though he had them by the throat."

Modern opposition traces its descent through the
German rationalists to its origin in the Cartesian phi-

ix



viii ANALYSIS.



LECTURE VI.



PAGE



The Sixth Petition of the Lord's Prayer 167

Objections raised against the change of " evil "for the " Evil One "
—Such change could have been made only after careful exam-
ination, and under the influence of preponderating evidence—
The Greek original seemingly demands the change from the ab-
stract to the concrete— Various instances in which relevancy of
connection and congruity of thought require the concrete— The
revised rendering in perfect congruity with the whole prayer
Sustained by early exegesis— Primitive versions in its favor—
The Peshito Syriac especially strong and unmistakable in its
testimony— Early patristic statements, both Greek and Latin,
support the concrete rendering— No exception to be found in
the Ante-Nicene period— Statements of Origen, Cyril of Jerusa-
lem, Gregory Nyssen, Chrysostom, Theophylact, Tertullian and
Cyprian— Concurrence of Primitive Liturgies— The concrete
rendering in most perfect harmony with our Lord's general
teaching on the subject.



PREFACE.



THESE lectures were written in the hope that they
might contribute, in some degree at least, to the
removal of error, and the firmer confirmation of faith
in the important doctrines of which they treat. As-
sailed by materialistic philosophy on one hand, unnum-
bered attempts have been made to explain away by
resorting to metaphor or personification, what hereto-
fore had been accepted as actual truth; and over-
whelmed on the other by sarcasm and ridicule, the
whole subject of Diabolic personality has been sum-
marily thrust aside as unworthy of serious considera-
tion. Hence the attitude assumed by numbers, even
of otherwise orthodox christians, is one of determined
opposition. So intense, and unreasoning, this opposi-
tion has been in some instances, as to justify an ap-
plication to them of the words of Goethe,

" They would not believe that it was the devil,
Even though he had them by the throat."

Modern opposition traces its descent through the
German rationalists to its origin in the Cartesian phi-

ix



X PREFACE.

losophy. By Belthasar Bekker, a disciple of Des
Cartes, the theory of accommodation was invented,
and introduced into the German church by Semler,
who also edited the " Letters on Demoniacs " by
Hugh Farmer. Bekker and Semler had confined the
theory of accommodation mainly to demonology ; but
Kant carried the principle to its logical conclusion, by
maintaining that Satan himself was only a personifica-
tion of evil, as did Erhard and others. The theo-
logians of the English Church, accepting the doctrine
of a personal Satan as a part of their Catholic in-
heritance, have given but little attention to its con-
sideration and defence ; while American writers who
have touched on the subject, have been mainly echoes
of the German Neologists.

A recent American author evidently ignorant of the
actual facts in the case, says, " It is now commonly
agreed, I think, that Satan as primarily conceived, is
not the devil at all. He seems to be a Persian con-
ception, and was adopted into Jewish thought, per-
haps in the time of the captivity." Whatever may be
" commonly agreed" upon by such as take their
opinions second hand, the fact is, that the common
consensus of a very large and increasing body of those
most competent to form an opinion on the whole sub-
ject, is in favor of upholding the ancient faith with re-
gard to the Person and Kingdom of Satan. One
marked instance in proof of this may be found in the



PREFACE. XI

action of the New Testament Revisers in their render-
ing of S. Matt. vi. 13, ''Deliver us from the Evil
One ; " with the corresponding changes of the abstract
for the concrete in S. John, xvii. 15 ; Eph. vi. 16; 2
Thess. iii. 3, etc. At least two-thirds of that learned
body must have given their voice and vote in favor of
the change. And no less worthy of consideration is
the fact, that notwithstanding the genius of the ear-
lier German rationalists, and the marvellous influence
of Schliermacher, who sympathized with them on this
point, the later, and leading theologians, have not fol-
lowed in the same course. Hofmann, Kahnis, Lange,
Martensen, Julius Miiller, Rothe, Tholuck, Twesten,
Van Oosterzee, Dorner and others, repudiate the the-
ory of metaphor or personification, and sustain the
position that the Scriptural statements bearing upon
Satan and his Kingdom are to be literally under-
stood.

Though not formally presented by the Church as an
article of faith, the statements of Scripture with re-
gard to Satan and the hosts of evil, are accepted as
literal truth ; as such they are embodied in solemn
prayer and supplication, in catechetical instruction,
and in formal doctrinal teaching. Many, doubtless,
who have been influenced by the clamor and sarcasm
of popular arguments, and who have never taken the
pains to examine the matter thoroughly, put aside all
sense of the incongruous by the convenient resort to



Xll PREFACE.

personification. And yet, in view of the sinfulness of
sin, and the aboundings of iniquity, the usefulness of
those statements is maintained. Schliermacher, al-
though denying the personal existence of Satan,
wished to have his name mentioned as heretofore by
the Church. But there is neither honesty nor safety in
this. The cause of truth and righteousness will gain
no* support by the application of such means. The
underlying principle moreover, trenches too closely
upon the " telling of lies in the name of the Lord " ;
for, though regarded by the learned and intelligent as
a mere figure of speech, to the immature and ignorant,
the word Satan will ever embody a dread, personal
reality. And it is not necessary. If tire doctrine is a
myth, the terrors of the Law need no help from such
an imaginary infernal police.

There is, or there is not a personal Satan. If there
is not — if new light has been thrown upon the sub-
ject, and ancient modes of faith and expression are no
longer tenable, the emergency should be met promptly
and honestly. Such personal allusions as are likely to
lead astray, should either be expunged from all
prayers and offices of worship, or instruction be given,
and when necessary repeated, that all such allusions,
whether found in Holy Writ, or in formulas of Chris-
tian worship, are to be understood as mere figures of
speech. If, however, the ancient faith embodies the
truth — if there is a personal Satan, (and all human



PREFACE. Xill

philosophies are powerless to prove that there is not),
then let the fact be openly and fearlessly acknowledged.
Certainly, in the words of Dorner, " The possibility of
a Devil must be conceded ; to question the realization
therefore, because it is of course a disagreeable reality,
and out of tune, is not worthy of science, and decides
nothing as to the thing itself. The wish that the
devil did not exist, does not slay Jiim."

E. H. J.



DIABOLOLOGY.



LECTURE I.

INTRODUCTO RY.

HOSTILITY to formulated doctrine, is at the present
time, one of the most marked features of popular
religious sentiment. Spring from what sources it may,
there is a wide-spread tendency to looseness in defin-
ing, and to unwillingness in maintaining dogmatic
truth. This is especially the case with doctrines
which bear upon pneumatology in all its forms.
Hence the antagonism that has grown up against
received views of sin and retributive punishment, as
connected in Christian teaching with the kingdom and
prince of the powers of darkness. On all sides, even
in lesser matters, may be seen a willingness to give up
ancient views of truth at the demand of a supposed
necessity for a readjustment with philosophic and
scientific environments. And with this departure
from the accepted faith and forms of thought, there
has been as a natural result, a lowering of doctrinal
standards and modes of teaching, even though the
formulated letter has remained unchanged. That
such is the case, no careful observer needs to be told.

I



2 INTRODUCTORY.

The fact may be seen on all sides, and in various
ways. In the literature of the day, both secular and
sacred, the evidence furnished is unmistakable ; and
no less so, is that discoverable in social and religious
intercourse.

All through the christian centuries there has been
a spirit and love of change manifested, either towards
loftier forms of thought and spirituality of conception
and life ; or in the opposite lines of rationalistic scepti-
cism. But never was the spirit of the age more averse
than now, from clean cut distinctions and formulated
doctrines as authoritatively imposed. To accept dog-
matic truth as crystallized in ancient creed or confes-
sion, and to hold it firmly and fearlessly, even though
unobtrusively and in charity, is to expose one's self
not infrequently, to the charge of fossilization in statu,
and superstition, if not bigotry, in spiritu. In accord-
ance with prevailing conceptions of freedom, each
one claims for himself the right to hammer out on his
own anvil such a body of faith as may commend itself
to his own judgment, and by what is regarded as the
highest form and manifestation of charity with many,
the claim is conceded. Never in fact, did popular
sentiment voice more clearly and aptly than at the
present time, the fallacy of Pope's well-known coup-
let,

" For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight,
His can't be wrong, whose life is in the right."

One cause for this hostility to formulated doctrine
may be ascribed doubtless, to a rebound from the
overwrought activity in dogmatizing, and theological
system making which marked the reformation period,
and the remainder of the sixteenth century. For a



INTRODUCTORY. 3

long time preceding, and following that century,
in fact, leading minds were busily occupied with met-
aphysical, moral and theological questions ; and, as an
unavoidable result, intensity of interest therein begat
affection for, with determination to support such views
as were adopted. And as one extreme usually follows
another, it is not surprising that a period which had
been prolific in producing Christian Institutes, Arti-
cles of Religion, and Systems of Divinity, should be
followed sooner or later, by another distinguished
for laxity in upholding, and opposition in defending
any special form of doctrinal truth. Certain it is,
there has long been a growing consensus of endeavor
throughout protestant Christendom, to minimize as far
as possible, alleged differences in denominational faith
and practice ; and even to pull down fences, and
deface lines, which the makers and early supporters
erected and drew with assiduous care.

It is an easily provable fact, that while the Reform-
ation emancipated evangelical truth from the shackles
of an iron-clad despotism, and the debasements of cre-
dulity fostered by a corrupt ecclesiasticism, it opened
the door to a self-centring, self-asserting individual-
ism, which, under protean forms, has become equally
antagonistic to truth.

" We see," remarks an able writer, " the great relig-
ious principles of man's personal responsibility, though
maintained by the reformers in the strictest subordi-
nation to the authority of the divine word, aiming
more and more under humanistic and other influ-
ences, at unlimited self-assertion, and gradually eman-
cipating itself from every form of authority, even upon
fundamental articles of faith. ... It was not till the



4 INTRODUCTORY.

close of the seventeenth century, that free modes
of thought began to show any sensible influence with
the common people. Lifeless orthodoxy, dogma
degenerating into scholastic subtleties, gave an impulse
to unrestrained free thinking. Descartes, Spinoza,
Bayle and others proceeded to unsettle all traditional
religious convictions, and in some cases, to destroy
their foundations ; a popular philosophy of sound
common sense (so called), began to develop an almost
open hostility to the revealed doctrines of the
church." — Christlieb, Modern Doubt a?id Christian
Belief, p. 2.

Another cause may be found in the sensitiveness of
modern civilization to all ideas of retributive suffering,
with the attendant aversion from all thought of tor-
ment as inflicted in judicial punishment. And this sen-
sitiveness arises doubtless in great measure also by way
of rebound from the harmful exaggerations and descrip-
tions of divine vindictiveness, made all the more
dreadful by the long prevailing taste for materialistic
ideas and modes of punishment inflicted upon the lost.
How horrid these have been, is well known. And,
strange as it may seem, the evil has never been con-
fined to the ignorant and vulgar. Christian fathers,
leading minds in the mediaeval church, and prominent
post-reformation divines, even to the present day, have
seemingly delighted in harrowing the soul, and
torturing the conscience by details of agony endured,
enough to move a demon's heart, and to wring from
his eyes fiery tears of compassion. Consequently,
there has been a revulsion in thought, accompanied
with a revulsion in feeling. Sentiment has taken its
stand at the opposite extreme. Undue sternness has



INTRODUCTORY. . 5

given way to vapid sentimentality. God's fatherly
love and compassion are exalted at the expense of His
righteousness and holiness. The Judgeship is placed
behind, as it were, and is overshadowed by the Father-
hood. Conceptions touching evil and guilt have
moved on with the drift. Sin is viewed as a misfor-
tune, rather than as a fault ; and its heinousness being
thus minimized and practically lost sight of, the step
is a short one to the supposition, that God will never
be extreme to mark what is done amiss. He is
" too good," the prevailing sentiment is, to punish any
offending sinner with severe, or long continued suffer-
ings. Love in short, and not justice, must dictate
both mode and measure of whatever chastisement may
be administered.

A further cause may be found in the workings of
rationalism, encouraged and supported by the mate-
rialistic tendency of modern philosophy and science.
And in saying this, we are not forgetful of the
influence still exerted by the scepticism and athe-
ism of past generations. The dark shadows pro-
jected through the centuries by such men as Hume,
Bolingbroke, Hobbs and Voltaire, rest with chilling
and spiritually deadening power upon countless souls.
Nor are we unmindful of the subtleties of a multiform
pantheism, not inaptly called " Atheism in poetic
vesture." But, we are dealing with forms of thought
and sentiment antagonistic to christian truth, as de-


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