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Edward A Dawe.

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1 Add or subtract the fraction of the weight of the ream as shown.



PAPER TRADE CUSTOMS 149

PAPER TRADE CUSTOMS

THE following are the recognised customs of the trade relative
to papermaking, provided that no agreement to the contrary has
been made at the time of the order between the vendor and
the purchaser.

SALE

Paper is sold either at a price per ream, based upon its
nominal weight, or at the actual weight by the pound, packed
in reams or in reels. Wrapping paper is sold at scale weight.

MACHINE-MADE PAPERS

1. A ream of paper, unless otherwise specified, contains
480 sheets.

2. A "perfect" ream for printing papers contains 516
sheets.

3. A ream of envelope paper contains 504 sheets.

4. A ream of news contains 500 sheets.

5. An "insides" ream contains 480 sheets all "insides,"
i.e., 20 good or inside quires of 24 sheets.

6. A " mill " ream contains 480 sheets, and consists of
1 8 "good" or "inside" quires of 24 sheets each, and 2
" outsides " quires of 24 sheets each.

7. Reams are classed as "good," "retree," and "out-
sides." The price of "retree" is 10 per cent., and of
"outsides" 20 per cent, lower than that of "good."

HAND-MADE PAPERS

8. A "mill" ream, "good" or "retree," contains 472
sheets, and consists of 18 "insides " quires of 24 sheets each,
and two "outsides " quires of 20 sheets each.

9. An "insides" ream, "good "or "retree," contains 480
sheets, and consists of 20 "insides " quires of 24 sheets each.

In all cases the " outsides " quires are placed one at the
top and one at the bottom of the ream.

VARIATIONS IN WEIGHT 1

i. In printings, writings, etc., the average variation in
substance of any ream must not exceed 4 per cent, either
above or below the ordered substance.

In greys, caps, manillas, browns, coloured printings, etc.,
1 Not applicable to hand-made paper.



150 PAPER AND ITS USES

the average variation in substance of any ream must not ex-
ceed 5 per cent, either above or below the ordered substance.

2. In news, printings, writings, etc., the average variation
in substance of any reel must not exceed 5 per cent, above
or below the ordered substance.

In the case of paper on reels, claims for short length
can only be made when the shortage exceeds 5 per cent., and
then only for the amount of any excess over and above such 5
per cent., unless special arrangements to the contrary are made.

In greys, caps, manillas, browns, coloured printings, etc.,
the average variation in substance of any reel must not
exceed 6 per cent, above or below the ordered substance.

3. But for all papers of substance under 6 Ib. demy
(iyj by 22 J inches), and above 50 Ib. demy, the actual
weight may vary 8 per cent, either over or under.

4. Payment for paper in reels, according to the printed
or manufactured results, cannot be claimed by the purchaser.

VARIATIONS IN MEASUREMENTS 1

1. The variation in measurement of paper in reams must
not exceed J per cent., either above or below the ordered
measurement, but in no case shall the margin of variation
exceed inch or be less than |- inch.

2. The width of paper in reels must not vary more than
| per cent.

SPECIAL MAKINGS

1. For makings of special weight, size, tint, watermark, etc.,
not having a regular sale in the market, the buyer is to take
at full price any excess not exceeding 10 per cent, above the
quantity ordered, including a reasonable proportion of " retree."

2. Where a maximum quantity is stipulated for when
ordering, the order is considered duly executed if it amounts
to not less than 90 per cent, of the stipulated quantity.

MATERIALS

i. Unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the order, the
maker is free as to what material he shall use.

WRAPPING UP

The weight of necessary wrappers and string for reams and
reels is to be included in the chargeable weight of the paper.
1 Not applicable to hand-made paper.



PAPER TRADE CUSTOMS 151

MODE OF PAYMENT

The customary terms of payment are : A monthly
account to run from the 2oth of one month to the iQth of
the next, payable during the succeeding month ; thus goods
invoiced from the 2oth January to the igth February shall
be payable during March.

RETURNED EMPTIES

Carriage on returned empty frames, centres, boards, boxes,
packing-cases, etc., is payable by the customer returning the
same, unless special arrangements to the contrary are made.

EXCESS CARRIAGE

The excess carriage charged by the railway companies on
smalls shall be paid by the purchaser.

MARKING REAMS

The actual weight ordered shall be marked on each ream
at the mill.

LIMIT OF TIME

The limit of time for a mill to hold stock to order of the
purchaser shall be six months from the date when the paper
is advised as ready for delivery, sudh date not being earlier
than that specified on the order, after which it shall be
invoiced, and shall therefrom become the property of the
purchaser, and remain at his sole risk and expense, and shall
be paid for within thirty days of invoice.

DANDIES AND MOULDS

In all cases the purchaser shall pay for the dandy or
moulds forthwith, but the maker shall allow an' extra
2 1 per cent, off the invoice for each delivery of paper made
from such dandy until the cost of same is extinguished, after
which it shall become the property of the maker. If after
an interval of three years no further order has been received,
the maker shall be at liberty to take out the watermark and
make use of the frame as his property after giving thirty days'
notice, provided nevertheless that the purchaser shall have
the right of retaining the dandy or moulds by refunding one-
half of the extra discount of 2\ percent, allowed in respect
of the cost.



CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE
EXAMINATIONS

TYPOGRAPHY AND LITHOGRAPHY

Extracts from Syllabus as regards Paper

TYPOGRAPHY
PRESS AND MACHINE. GRADE I

Sizes, and subdivisions of papers and cards; number of
sheets in quires and reams ; easy questions on the various
grades of paper.

COMPOSING. GRADE II

Hand- and machine-made ; qualities and weights, equivalent
weights ; sizes and subdivisions of printings, writings, and
account book papers ; sizes and subdivisions of cards.

PRESS AND MACHINE. GRADE II

Various sizes, weights, and subdivisions; differences between
machine- and hand-made ; coated and super-calendered ; effect
of heat and damp upon ; avoidance of waste from dirt and
careless handling.

FINAL

PAPERS AND BOARDS. The manufacture of paper. The
paper-making machine ; fibre-yielding material ; warehouse
tests for the various celluloses ; soft-, half-, tub-, and engine-
sizing ; china clay, its uses and how to determine proportion.

Various classes of paper (hand-made, mould-made, and
machine-made). Printings, coated papers, writings, banks and
loans, plate, drawings, account books, cover papers, blottings,
vegetable parchments, imitation parchments, manillas, "safety"
cheque papers, wrapping papers, gummed papers.

Judging Papers. How to judge the quality of various classes
of papers and their suitability for the purposes to which they



CITY AND GUILDS OF LONDON EXAMINATIONS 153

are to be put. Bulk, handling, and "look-through," strength,
tear (straight and across), length of fibre. British and foreign
makes and how to detect. The right and wrong sides.

DEFECTS IN PAPER. Cockling, and creasing, stretching,
lifting, fluffing, the mill edge, spots, air-bubbles, foreign
substances, electricity in paper.

Technical terms used by papermakers and merchants.
Insides, outsides, retree, job, mill job, overmake, etc.

SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF PAPER. Standard sizes of the
various classes. Standard weights. Equivalent weights of
standard and odd sizes, and of reams consisting of 480, 504,
or 516 sheets. Reams to the reel.

Watermarks and mill numbers.

STOCKING OF PAPER. What classes to select for stocking.
Racks, for stock. The care of stock, samples, oddments, and
useful offcuts. Tying up and marking reams. The effect of
light, temperature, chemical fumes, damp and dust on the
various classes of paper. Stock-keeping systems and books.

BOARDS. Bristol, paste, pulp, wood-pulp, art and tinted,
millboards and strawboards. Standard sizes ; subdivisions
and standard thicknesses. Boards to the cwt.

Market prices and terms for stock papers and makings.

LITHOGRAPHY
GRADE I

Machine-made uncoated printing papers : their nature and
qualities ; dimensions of the more common printing papers,
tinted and white, wove and laid, sized and unsized.

GRADE II

Hand- and machine-made ; tinted ; enamels (single and
duplex coated) ; plain and glazed cards, their nature, qualities,
and sizes. Paper creasing and its remedies.

FINAL

Tests for printing properties ; papers suitable for particular
classes of work.



BOOKS AND PERIODICALS

" C.B.S. Standard Units and Standard Paper Tests," Cross,

Bevan, Beadle, and Sindall. E. & F. N. Spon,

Ltd. 2S. 6d. net.
" Chapters on Paper Making," Vols. I.-V., Beadle. Crosby

Lockwood & Son. 55. net each volume.
" Dyeing of Paper Pulp," Erfurt. Scott, Greenwood, &

Son. 155. net.

" Manufacture of Paper," Sindall. Constable & Co., Ltd. 6s. net.
"Outlines of Stationery Testing," Bromley. C. Griffin &

Co., Ltd. 2S. 6d. net.

" Paper Makers' Pocket Book," Beveridge. J. Gibson. 125. 6d.
" Paper Making," Clapperton. Crosby Lockwood & Son. 55. net.
" Paper Making," Watt. Crosby Lockwood & Son. 75. 6d.
"Paper Mill Chemist," Stevens. Scott, Greenwood, & Son.

75. 6d. net.

"Paper Technology, "Sindall. C. Griffin & Co., Ltd. i2S.6d.net.
"Text-Book of Paper Making," Cross, Bevan, and Briggs.

E. & F. N. Spon, Ltd. 125. 6d. net.
"Treatise on Paper Making," Hofmann. Sampson Low,

Marston, & Co., Ltd. 6 parts, 53. net each.
"Treatment of Paper for Special Purposes," Andes. Scott,

Greenwood, & Son. 6s. net.
"What a Stationer ought to know about Paper," Maddox.

J. Whitaker & Sons, Ltd. is. net,
" Wood Pulp," Cross, Bevan, and Sindall. Constable & Co.,

Ltd. 6s. net.



British Empire Paper, Stationery and Printing Trades Journal.

Monthly, 6d.

Paper Maker and British Paper Trades Journal. Monthly, is.
Paper Makers' Monthly Journal. Monthly, 6d.
Paper Trades Review. Weekly, 6d.
Paper Making. Monthly, 6d.

154



INDEX



NOTE.



The Alphabetical List of Papers, pages 113-34, is not included
in the Index.



ABSORBENT papers, testing, 104
Accounts, stock paper, 93
Advantages of scientific conditions

in machine rooms, 69
Air-dried browns, 56
Alphabetical list of papers, 113-34
Alum in paper, 6
Amount of loading permissible in

paper, 20, 64

Analysis of mixture of fibres, 1 10
Aniline sulphate solution, 106
Animal sizing, 6
Apparatus for paper testing, 112
Art paper, 47

decomposition of glue in, 76
durability of, 65

manufacture of, 48

picking or lifting of, 73

testing, 73

Ashcroft paper-testing machine, 100
Ash of papers, 105

BAMBOO, 3

fibres, microscopical examination

of, no

testing for, 107
Bank notes, 38, 39

paper, 39
Beating engine, 9

rags, n

wood pulp, 13
Bleaching powder, 1 1

pulp, 1 1

Blotting papers, manufacture of, 51

enamelled, 52

Board machine, 36
Boards, box, 50

coated, 50

table of prices of, 141

Boards, to find prices and weights,
146



Boiling rags, 9

Bond papers, 39

Books and periodicals, 154

mixture of shades of papers in,

81

quantity of paper required for,

148
Bound books, direction of paper

for, 78
Box boards, 50

manufacture of, 36

Bristol boards, manufacture of, 36

Broke, 29

Browns, air-dried, 56

and wrappings, table of sizes,

weights, and prices, 142

cylinder-dried, 56
Bursting strain, 100

CARDBOARDS, 59

cockling of, 72

table of prices of, 141

Card index boards, characteristics

of, 58
Cards, table of sizes and methods

of cutting, 140

index, sizes of, and methods of

cutting, 140
Care of paper, 90
Cartridge papers, 41

table of weights and prices,

139

Carriage panels, manufacture of, 36
Carrington paper-testing machine,

99

Cellulose, 2

in fibres, 61

Change of colour of papers, 77
Characteristics of card index boards,

58
ledger papers, 39



155



1 5 6



INDEX



Characteristics of printing papers,

43

Chemical wood, 3, 13
microscopical examination of,

no

Cheque papers, 40
China clay, 6

as loading, 20
Choosing paper to suit job, 80
Chromo boards, 59

papers, 49

City and Guilds Syllabus for typo-
graphy and lithography, 152-53

Classification of fibres, 64

Cloth-lined cards, coloured, 50

Coated boards, 50

- papers, 48

ink for, 75

Cockling of cardboards, 72

Coloured cloth -lined cards, 50
- papers, difference in shade of
two sides, 85

papers for pasting, 104

printings, 45

Colouring matter in papers, 7, 103
fastness to light of, 103

pulp, 20

Common printings, 44
Comparison between hand-, mould-,

and machine-made papers, 87

of strength by tearing, 88
Condition of knives of cutting-
machines, 78

Constituents of paper, 6
Copying papers, 53

testing, 105

Cost of paper, to find, 146
Cotton, cellulose in, 2

fibres, 4, 6 1

microscopical examination of,

108

Couching, 16
Couch rolls, 23
Cover papers, 53

embossed, 54

pamphlet, 54
Crayon papers, 42

Cutting machine, condition of
knives, 78

watermarked papers, 79
Cutting machine webs into sheets,

.32

Cylinder-dried browns, 56
Cylinder papermaking machine, 25



DANDY rolls, 22

effect of, 23

laid, 23

spiral laid, 23

wove, 23

Deckle, 15

straps, 21

Decomposition of gelatine sizing,
76

of glue in art paper, 76
Defects in paper, 66
Deterioration of mechanical wood

papers, 65

of paper, 63

Difference in shade of two sides of

coloured papers, 85
Direction of paper for bound books,

78

Discoloration of paper, 63
Distinguishing between hand- and

machine-made papers, 85, 86

mould-made papers, 87
Drawing papers, 41

weights and prices of, 139

Drying cylinders, 23

sized paper, 29

Duplex boards, manufacture of, 35
Duplicating paper, 52

testing, 105

Durability of art paper, 65

of featherweight paper, 45, 64

EDDY paper-testing machines, 100
Edge runner or kollergang, 13
Elasticity of paper, 97
Electricity in paper, 74
Embossed cover papers, 54
Enamelled papers, 49
Engine-sized papers, 21, 39, 41
Envelope papers, 32
Equivalent weights of various

papers, 144-45
Esparto, 3

cellulose in, 2

fibres, 5, 62

microscopical examination of,

1 10

testing for, 107

treatment of, 1 1
Exercise book covers, 55
Expansion of paper, 68
Extracts from City and Guilds

Syllabus for typography and
lithography, 152-53



INDEX



157



FASTNESS to light of colouring

matters, 103
Featherweight paper, 45, 64, 81

durability of, 45, 64
Fibre composition, examination of,

1 06
Fibres, bamboo, no

cellulose in, 6 1

classification of, 64

cotton, 4, 61, 108

esparto, 5, 62, no
- flax, 62

hemp, 4, 109

jute, 5, 109

linen, 4, 109

manilla, 5, 109

microscopical examination of,

107

straw, 5, 109

wood, 5, 62, 1 10
Filling, 6

Filter papers, manufacture of, 51

Finish, machine, 25

Finish of paper, testing, 101

Finishing paper, 28

Flax fibres, 62

Flint glazed papers, 32, 49

Fluff from papers, 75

Folding machine, 101

tests, 101

Fourdrinier machine, 1 8
Friction glazing, 31

GUMMED papers, 55
non-curling, 55

HALFSTUFF, 10, 12

Hand- and machine-made papers,
distinguishing between, 85, 86

mould-made papers, distin-
guishing between, 87

and machine-made papers,

comparison between, 87

Hand-made papers, 14

printings, 44
Hemp fibres, 4, 109

microscopical examination of,

109
Hollander, 9

IMITATION art paper, 47

: loading in, 20

Impression paper, 52

Index cards, characteristics of, 58



Index cards, table of sizes and
methods of cutting, 140
prices, 141
Ink for coated papers, 75
Insides, 30, 33
Iodine solution, 108
Ivory boards, manufacture of, 35

JUDGING paper, 80
Jute fibres, 5, 109

microscopical examination of,

109

KRAFT papers, 56

weights and prices, 142

LAID dandy roll, 23
Leather boards, manufacture of, 36
Ledger papers, characteristics of, 39
Leunig paper-testing machine, 98
Letterpress printers, stock papers

for, 91

Linen fibres, 4, 109
microscopical examination of,

109

Lithographers, stock papers for, 93
Litho. papers, 46, 82

stretching of, 46, 71

Loading, 6

amount of, permissible in print-

ings, 26, 64

writings, 20, 64

present in imitation art papers,

20

china clay as, 20

testing for, 105
Loan papers, 39
Loft drying, 17

Loss of strength in papers, 64

MACHINE finish (M.F.), 25, 30

made papers, 18
writing papers, 30

tub sizing, 30
Manilla fibres, 5, 109

microscopical examination of, 1 06
Manufacture of art paper, 48

of blotting paper, 51

of Bristol boards, 36

of duplex boards, 35

of filter paper, 51

of ivory boards, 35

of millboards, 36

of pasteboards, 36



I 5 8



INDEX



Manufacture of pulp boards, 35

of triplex boards, 35

of wrapping papers, 56
Marshall's paper-testing machine, 98
Maturing paper, 67, 69
Mechanical wood pulp, 4, 6, 13, 63,

110
papers, deterioration of, 65

testing for, 106

microscopical examination of,

no

Methods of transporting paper, 89
M.G. papers, 25

poster papers, 47
Micrometer for testing thickness,

97

Microscope, 107
Microscopical analysis of mixture of

fibres, no

examination of fibres, 107

preparation of fibres for, 107

Middles, 36

Mill ream, 33

numbers, 25
Millboards, manufacture of, 36

table of sizes and thicknesses,

143
Mineral matter, 6

testing for, 105

Mitscherlich pulp, 62

Mixture of shades of paper in books,

81

Moisture in paper, 67
Mould-made paper, 17

printings, 44

Moulds for hand-made paper, 15
Mullen paper-testing machine, 100
Multi-copying paper, 52

NEWS, ream of, 34
Non-curling gummed paper, 55
Note and letter papers, table of

sizes of, 135
Number of copies from given

quantity of paper, 147

OFFCUTS, 95

Opacity of paper, testing, 100

Outsides, 33

Oxford India paper, 44

PAMPHLET cover papers, 54
Paper, absorbent, 104



Paper, amount of loading present
in, 20

bamboo in, 107, no

bursting strain of, 100

care of, 90

chemical wood in, 110

cockling of, 72

coloured, for pasting, 104

colouring matter in, 7, 103

constituents of, 61

copying, 105

curing machine, 70

cotton in, 108

defects in, 66

deterioration of, 63

discoloration of, 63

duplicating, 105

elasticity of, 97

electricity in, 74

envelope, 32

esparto in, 107, no

expansion of, 68

featherweight, 64, 81

finish of, 101

flint glazed, 31

fluff from, 75

-for colour work, 82

for register work, 72

for programmes, 81

for varnished work, 82

gummed, 55

hand-made, 14

hemp in, 109

jute in, 109

linen in, 109

machine-made, 18

maturing, 67, 69

manilla in, 109

mechanical wood in, 65, 105,

no

M.G., 25

microscopical examination of,

107

moisture in, 67

mould-made, 17

opacity of, 100

poster, 82

proof, 83

printing qualities of, 1 1 1

quantity required for books, 148

set-off, 83

sizes, weights, and prices, 135

sorting, 33

squareness of, 97



INDEX



59



Paper, starch in, 103

straw in, 107

stretching of, 7 1

surface of, 101

tensile strength of, 97

testing, 96

machines, 98, 99, 100

thickness of, 97

to calculate weight of, 146

to find cost of, 146

transporting, 89

varnishable, 83

wavy edges to, 72
Papermaking

hand-made, 15

machine, wet end of, 21

materials for, I

rags for, 3
Paper testing, 96
apparatus for, 112

machine, Ashcroft, 100
Carrington, 99

Eddy, 100

Leunig, 98

Marshall's, 98

Mullen, 100

Rehse, 100

South worth, 100

Woolley, 100

Paper trade customs, 149-51
Papers, alphabetical list of, 113-34
Papyrus, I

Pasteboards, manufacture of, 36
Pastings, 36
Perfect ream, 34
Phloroglucine solution, 106
Picking or lifting of art papers, 73
Plate papers, 47

rolling, 29

Portmanteau boards, manufacture of,

36
Position and condition of stock

room, 89
Poster papers, 47, 82

-M.G.,47

Preparation of fibres for microscopi-
cal examination, 107

Presse-pate machine, 12

Pressings, 55

Prices and weights of boards, to find,
146

of boards, 141

of brown and wrapping papers,

142



Prices of printing papers, 137

of writing papers, 139
Printing papers, 43

coloured, 45

common, 44

loading in, 20

permissible in, 64

qualities, 1 1 1

table of sizes and weights, 136

weights and prices, 137

Programme papers, 8 1

Proofs, paper for, 83

Pulp boards, 58

manufacture of, 35

QUANTITY of paper required for
books, 148

RAGS, beating, u

boiling, 9

for papermaking, 3, 8

sorting, 8 ^ .

washing, 9, 10

Raw materials for papermaking, I

reduction to pulp, 8

Ream, mill, 33

news, 34

perfect, 34

stationers', 34

wrappers, 57
Reed pulp, 3

Register work, paper for, 72
Rehse paper-testing machine, loo
Remedy for faults in art papers,

73

Resistance to wear, testing for, 101
Retree, 29, 33
Right side of paper, 79, 83
Rolling printed work, 76
Ruling on various papers, 76

SAMPLE portfolio, 95

Set-off sheets, 83

Sheets in a reel, to calculate, 147

Single cylinder papermaking

machine, 25

Size of sheets, checking, 97
Sizing, animal, 6

engine, 21
testing for, 102

tub, 6, 28

testing for, 102

vegetable, 6, 21

Slate boards, manufacture of, 36



i6o



INDEX



Society of Arts and deterioration of

paper, 63
Soda pulp, 3
Sorting paper, 29

rags, 8

Southworth paper-testing machine,

100

Spiral laid dandy roll, 23
Squareness, testing for, 97
Starch, testing for, 103
Stationers' ream, 34
Stock accounts, 93

papers for letterpress printers,

91

lithographers, 93

Stock room, position and condition

of, 89

Stocktaking, 94
Straw, 3, 5, 109

fibres, 5, 109

microscopical examination of, 109

testing for, 107

Stretch in litho. paper, 46, 71

Stretching of paper, 71

Suction boxes, 23

Sulphate pulp, 4

Sulphite pulp, 4

Surface-coloured enamel papers, 49

Surface of papers, testing, 101

Super-calendered (S.C.) papers, 30

Super-calendering, 25

" Swift" paper curing machine, 70

TABLE of equivalent weights, 144-45

of prices of boards, 141

of sizes and thicknesses of

millboards, 143

of cards, 140

of index cards, 140

of note and letter papers, 135

of sizes, weights, and prices of

browns and wrappings, 142

printings, 136
writings, 138

Tearing as a method of comparing

strength, 88
Tensile strength, 97
Testing absorbent paper, 104

art paper, 73

bursting strain, 100

coloured papers for pasting, 104

copying paper, 105

duplicating paper, 105

elasticity, 97



Testing fastness of colours, 103

for bamboo in paper, 107, no

chemical wood, 1 10

cotton in paper, 108
esparto in paper, 107, no

hemp in paper, 109

jute in paper, 109

linen in paper, 109

loading, 105

manilla in paper, 109
mechanical wood, 106, iio

mineral matter, 105

starch, 103

straw in paper, 107, 109

various faults, 1 1 1

opacity, 100

printing qualities, 1 1 1

resistance to wear, 101

sizing of papers, 102

squareness, 97

surface, 101

thickness of papers, 97
Testing paper, 96
Thickness of sheets, 97
Tinted printings, 45
Tissue papers, 53
Toned printings, 45
Torn paper, 1 1 1
Transporting paper, 89
Treatment of esparto, 1 1

of rags, 9
Triplex boards, 59

manufacture of, 35
Tub-sizing, 28

testing for, 102

writing papers, 30
Typewriting papers, 40

USUAL weights and sizes of browns

and wrappings, 142
printings, 136

writings, 138

VARNISHABLE paper, 83
Varnished work, paper for, 82

WASHING rags, 9, 10

Water finish, 30

Waterleaf, 17

Watermarked paper, cutting, 79

Watermarks, 15, 25

Wavy edges, 72

Wearing qualities of paper, 64

Weight of paper, to calculate, 146



INDEX l6l

Weights of browns and wrappings, Wood, mechanical, testing for, 106

142 Mitscherlich, 62

of printings, 136 Woolley paper - testing machine,

of writings, 138 100

Wet end of paper machine, 21 Wove dandy roll, 23

Wildness in paper, 112 Wrapping papers, 55

Wire mark in paper, 84 manufacture of, 56

Wood fibres, 5, 62, 1 10 Writing papers, 39

microscopical examination of, loading in, 20, 64

no tables of sizes, weights, and

pulp, 13 prices, 138

beating, 13



chemical, 3, 13, no

mechanical, 3, 6, 13, no


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11

Online LibraryEdward A DawePaper and its uses : a treatise for printers, stationers and others → online text (page 11 of 12)