Edward A Dawe.

Paper and its uses : a treatise for printers, stationers and others online

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writing medium, is the most suitable paper. For loose-
leaf ledgers a thinner, tougher paper is desirable, as the
leaves must lie closely and withstand the strain of
frequent handling. For cheap account book work
engine-sized papers are obtainable, very fair in appear-
ance, but not possessing all the qualities of the better
paper specified, or the extra cost of the latter could not
be justified.

The ideal paper for printed books is an all-rag
paper, moderately sized, with antique or rough finish,
excellent in handling and appearance, but the price
precludes its use for any but the most luxurious
editions. For ordinary bookwork, white paper with
dull or machine finish, quite opaque, substance equal
to 30 Ib. demy, provides a serviceable paper where no
illustrations, or line blocks only, appear. If half-tone


illustrations are included, a super-calendered paper,
slightly toned, is very suitable. When half-tones of
very fine grain are used, it may be necessary to print
on art paper throughout, or the illustrations printed on
art paper and the body of the work on a printing
paper of exactly the same shade as the coated paper.
Mixture of shades in books should be avoided as far
as possible. The practice of printing sections of
magazines on different papers is growing, but is to be

For works which have to make bulky volumes for
a comparatively few pages, featherweight papers are
employed. These in 80 Ib. quad crown will usually
be chosen, wove or laid as fancy dictates. Some of
the wholesale stationers state on the samples the thick-
ness or bulk of a volume of a definite number of pages,
this information serving as a guide in selecting paper
to produce the thickness required in a volume. When
a series of books is issued it is sometimes desired to
have all the volumes of equal bulk. This is attained
by adopting papers of different thicknesses ; thus a
book of 500 pages is printed on a paper about half
the thickness of that used for a volume of 256 pages.
The range of substances in which papers are supplied
renders this arrangement comparatively easy.

The large variety of fancy papers for jobbing work
calls for little comment. Avoid hard papers for
programmes unless there is plenty of time for the ink
to dry, or gloves will bear the printer's imprint. For
outdoor functions coloured papers, if employed for
programmes or similar jobs, must not be affected by
moisture. Colour may decorate summer costumes if
the programmes printed on coloured paper are sat
upon. Art paper, too, is unsuitable for outdoor expo-
sure in our changeable climate, and its use is to be dis-


couraged for sport programme work. Coloured poster
papers must be unaffected by rain. Many coloured
papers render printed matter exceedingly difficult to
read by artificial light.

The incongruity of a common cover paper to a
booklet printed on a good printing paper, or vice versa,
is to be avoided. Select papers for the inside and
cover bearing both in mind, and if expense is to be
considered, a compromise in quality may be effected.

It is not always easy to persuade the consumer to
select the very best paper for office stationery, but the
choice should be made with a view to create a good
impression. Remember always, too, that printing
demands good paper to produce the most satisfactory

For lithography the work in hand frequently
dictates the quality of paper to be used. Offset
printing, certainly, has enabled the lithographer to
print on papers unsuitable for direct stone printing,
but in all work the right paper produces the best
result. Fluffy papers, such as featherweights, however,
are impossible for lithography. Loose of texture, with
a tendency to shed fibre, the paper clogs the printing
surface, and in such circumstances the best work is
unattainable. Charts and maps are printed on strong,
durable papers, and the manufacturers' chart papers
will be found to conform to the description given.

Colour work requires a paper which will give full
effect to the colours superimposed upon its surface,
white paper being most suitable for the purpose, the
kind of paper employed being governed by the
destination of the printed work. Chromo paper, litho.
paper, M.G. poster paper, will be used according to
the method of exhibition of the work, as calendars,
labels, book illustrations, or posters. Work which is


to be varnished may be printed on litho. paper, which
is sized and varnished after printing, or a varnishable
paper, one that is hard-sized and finished in the manu-
facture, may be used, varnish being applied without
previous sizing, as soon as the ink is dry. A thick
litho. paper is seldom as strong as a thinner one, and
with the greater thickness goes more liability for the
surface to pluck.

The thinnest and commonest papers should not be
chosen for set-off or interleaving sheets. Although
many papers, when printed, absorb the ink and hasten
the drying, it must be remembered that printer's ink,
like paint, dries by oxidation, and the more freely air
can reach the film of ink the quicker and more thorough
will be the drying. A rough surfaced paper is most
suitable for interleaving, as it will not stick to the
printed matter, and it allows air to penetrate between
the sheets. For interleaving colour work in which
bronze is used at all, a paper of fair quality must be
used, for common papers may contain chemical residues
which will affect the brightness of the bronzed work.
Paper equal to 24 Ib. demy will serve admirably, and
may be used repeatedly.

Proofs should be printed upon the paper which is to
be used for the job, if that is possible. Galley proofs
require a paper which is moderately sized, not too soft,
or corrections made in ink may be undecipherable
from the spreading of the ink.

It is not difficult to distinguish between the right
and wrong sides of paper, and little excuse can be
made for the printer who uses the wrong side. Flat
papers are usually packed with the right side upper-
most ; if the paper is folded, the right side is outwards.
There is a slight diversity of practice among paper-
makers, but the general rule is as stated. In a very


few cases of watermarked papers the watermark can
be read from both sides of the sheet, but the general
rule is that the right -side of the sheet is that from
which the watermark can be read. In machine-made
papers it is the upper side of the paper as it is made,
but in hand-mades the right side is the under side
which receives the watermark. The watermark is in
reverse upon the mould or the dandy roll, and is fixed
on the impressionable pulp by slight compression or
displacement of the fibres. In papers without water-
marks it may be taken that the smoother side is the
right side. The wrong side of machine-made papers
bears the impress of the woven wire upon which they
were made. The wire mark is fixed by various means,
such as the pressure of the dandy roll, the action of the
suction boxes, and the pressure of the couch rolls.
Blotting paper, although not subjected to all these
forces, shows the wire mark so plainly as to serve as a
guide to what one may expect to find in other papers
which are more highly finished. Looking along the
surface of the paper will sometimes reveal this mark,
when it is not possible to detect it by looking through
the sheet. The wire for hand moulds is much coarser
than the wire cloth of the machine, and as the pressure
of the pulp is not great, and the fibre is moderately
long, couching nearly obliterates the woven wire mark
and makes it less easy to distinguish between the right
and wrong sides of hand-made wove papers. In a laid
mould the wires displace fibres, and the paper is
immeasurably thinner at the places where the wires
of the mould occur, but these are the only wire marks
on the paper. A dandy roll makes the laid wire marks
on the right side of machine-made paper in addition to
the woven wire marks on the wrong side, so the
distinction between right and wrong sides is easily


made in machine-made papers. The smooth side of
M.G. papers is the right side. M.G. poster papers
are rougher on the wrong side to make the posting of
the bills an easier matter.

The wire marks assist one in distinguishing between
hand-made and machine-made papers. It is clear
that all machine-made papers have a wire mark on the
wrong side, even if laid or watermarked. The water-
mark of the hand mould is fastened over the wire, so
the watermark will never show wire marks. Looking
through the paper, observe whether the watermark has
any small woven wire marks ; if it has, it is undoubtedly
machine-made. A laid paper which shows woven wire
marks is of course the product of the machine.

Coloured papers may vary in shade on the two
sides. This variation is more frequently seen in papers
which are coloured by pigments than in those dyed
with aniline colours. Blue papers, with ultramarine in
their composition, tend to be slightly lighter on the
wrong side of the sheet. The causes of this are
different in hand-made and machine-made papers. In
hand-mades the colour has a tendency to gravitate to
the bottom of the mould, which is the right side of the
paper, while in machine-made papers the action of the
suction boxes is apt to draw some of the colour away
from the under side, leaving the right side slightly
darker. Thus difference in shade of the two sides is
not a guide to distinguish between hand- and machine-
made papers.

To recall the methods of manufacture. The mould
of hand-made papers receives a shake each way, felting
the fibres evenly. The machine wire receives a side-
shake which is only effective for a short period as
long as the pulp is in a state of suspension and as
soon as the water has drained away the shake ceases


to take effect, consequently the majority of the fibres
are parallel to the direction of the flow of the pulp.
Some fibres are crossed or felted ; but taking the web
of paper, it is more easily pulled apart across its width
than in the direction of its length. The fibres are
fixed and are dried in a state of tension, so that the
fibres in the direction of the flow (known as the
machine direction or the grain of the paper) are fully
extended, and subsequently expand but little in length,
but may do so in width or diameter.

The direction of the fibres serves to distinguish
between hand- and machine-made papers. Tearing a
piece of hand-made paper will result in ragged tears,
very similar both ways of the sheet. A piece of
machine-made paper shows a ragged tear in one
direction, and a much straighter tear in the other.
The straighter tear is in the machine direction. If a
circle about three inches in diameter is cut from a
hand-made sheet and thoroughly damped on one side,
the paper will curl slowly and unbend again. If a
similar piece is cut from machine-made paper and
treated in the same way it will curl more quickly into
a cylinder and remain rolled up for some time. This
not only serves as a distinction between the two papers,
but, in machine-mades, shows the machine direction
which is parallel to the axis of the cylinder of paper.
By marking the sheet before the circle is cut, the
machine direction of the sheet can be determined.

Strips cut from the sheets, one from each way,
7 inches long by I inch wide, held between the finger
and thumb and allowed to incline at an angle of 60,
will behave differently according to the method of manu-
facture. Hand-made strips will keep together, because
the fibres are equally distributed, while strips of machine-
made paper will separate, owing to the difference in


the direction of fibres. The strips should be inclined
first to the right and then to the left to ensure correct

Hand-made paper has four deckle edges, but
imitation hand-mades also have these, and mould-made
papers are similarly marked. Imitation hand-mades,
being machine-made, are distinguishable by the means
enumerated above, and comparison with the edges of
known hand-made paper will be the quickest method
of distinguishing between real and imitation deckle

Mould-made papers are not easily distinguishable
from hand-made papers. The deckle edges are not
always alike on all four sides as they are in hand-made
papers. Testing on the Leunig machine (see page 99),
they will usually reveal a difference which it is not
possible to discover from looking at the sheet. The
German paper experts declare it impossible to differ-
entiate with certainty between the two kinds of paper,
while a papermaker who manufactures both varieties
usually has but little difficulty in naming them


Tests made on Leunig 's Machine (see page 99),
Papers of same size and substance

Stronger Direction.

Weaker Direction.

Mean of
Two Directions.

Description of















Per cent.


Per cent.


Per cent.

Hand-made -


3 '9





Mould-made -












21 '3


The figures given are the mean results of five tests.


Tearing paper as a method of comparing strength
is one of the simplest as well as one of the surest
methods. Paper has to withstand tearing stresses, and
the paper which ruptures with most difficulty is usually
the most resistant to wear. Tearing will reveal
whether the paper is composed of long or short fibres,
and whether it is tough or brittle, and is a method of
testing which requires no apparatus.


SELECTION of papers for stock purposes is not easy
to undertake for others, therefore this section can only
summarise the information of the earlier chapters and
offer suggestions.

The stock room should not be an out-of-the-way
room, dark and perhaps damp, but should be light,
with ample room to move paper in bulk, so that issues
as well as deliveries can be dealt with quickly. It
should be possible to control the temperature and
humidity of the paper warehouse if the paper is
generally used for register work. A dry room is
essential, or trouble will ensue, for in damp rooms
tub-sized and coated papers will deteriorate, highly
glazed papers will go back in finish, papers for colour
work will be unreliable, and delay and loss will follow.

In a printing office where small quantities of paper
are dealt with, the inconvenience of carrying paper in
and out a few reams at a time may not be apparent,
but considerable time is wasted and some loss in spoiled
sheets results from such a method. Quantities of paper
should be dealt with as expeditiously, and with as little
handling, as possible. Transporter trucks require,
perhaps, more room than is taken by a man or boy
lifting reams, but it deals with thirty reams, instead of
two at a time, and in up-to-date offices time is counted
as valuable as currency.

8 9



Large stocks should be kept in stacks ; the counsel
of perfection being that no paper should actually touch
the floor, but stand on boards with a space beneath.
If paper is moved in and out of the warehouse by
transporter trucks it will stand on the platforms
supplied and be available for moving rapidly to the
machine-room. Smaller stacks will be ranged in racks
or on shelves so arranged as to be easily accessible, the
larger papers nearer the floor, and the smaller papers,
which can be handled more easily, on the higher shelves.
The arrangement in classes is advised, writings, print-
ings, coated, coloured papers having definite positions,
the sizes also being arranged for ease of handling.
Each section, size, and variety should be clearly marked
to ensure accuracy and economy in issue as well as in
keeping stocks up to correct strength. A new arrival
should not be dumped down anywhere, but should take
its place in the proper section, be considered as valuable
material, and handled accordingly. Coated papers
generally and imitation art papers mark and crease badly
if carelessly handled, but if all papers are treated care-
fully it will 'not be necessary to give instruction for
handling special papers.

Papers are received from different mills packed in
different ways. If reams are received in bales, it is
usual to unpack and to stack in single reams, as subse-
quent handling is easier in the lighter weight. Heavy
papers and boards are packed in quantities smaller
than reams to facilitate removal in and out, paper in
half or quarter reams, and boards in packets of 100,
144, or 250. The method of packing reams or parcels
is sometimes excellent, but at other times it leaves
something to be desired. If the wrappers are not
strong enough for the paper contained, they break as
the reams are moved, and the edges of the paper are


likely to become damaged. Fastening is done with
paper tape, webbing, or string, according to the size
and weight of the parcels. Light and small sued
paper may be fastened with paper tape, all sizes and
weights with webbing or cotton tape, and heavy papers
with string. If string be used, it will be necessary,
before stacking, to see that the strings are not greasy.
If soiled string has been used it must be removed and
the reams again fastened, or the grease will penetrate
and spoil a portion of the contents.

Broken quantities should always be tied up, preferably
with webbing, and the quantity marked on the wrapper,
correction being made as quantities are withdrawn.

Letterpress printers prepared to execute all classes
of work must of necessity carry a more varied stock of
papers than one who specialises in one or two lines.
It is convenient to have printing papers in several
qualities and weights, the sizes being governed by the
sizes of machines available. With a double demy
cylinder machine it is not wise to stock quad demy
paper ; but allowing that as the limit (a small one
nowadays) printing papers in double demy, double
crown, and royal will be safe sizes. Poster papers,
both ordinary and M.G. finish, should be stocked in
the full size of the capacity of the machines.

Super-calendered papers should be carried in
comparatively small quantities, unless they are to be
used quickly, as high surfaces deteriorate when stocked
for a long period. Art papers are better for being
stocked a reasonable time, as the coating becomes
fixed and there is less likelihood of picking at machine.
Tinted papers are accumulated gradually, the colours
and sizes most in demand being placed in stock.
Cover papers must of course follow the white papers for
sizes : the cover for demy works is medium, and the


royal is cut larger (20^ inches x 25 J inches) to cover
an ordinary catalogue. In this class of paper, too, sizes
and colours are governed by prevailing consumption.

In making a selection of writing papers, unless
one is a very large consumer, a safe course for the
better classes is to make a selection of watermarked
papers. There is no virtue in a watermark as such,
but the wholesale stationer is able to keep known
papers up to standard, and also is able to meet all
reasonable demands from stock. The prevailing sizes
for writing papers are foolscap, post, large post, double
foolscap ; for account book work, demy, medium, and
royal (in writing sizes), and imperial. Writing papers
in cream wove, cream laid, azure laid, yellow wove
(another term for azure wove), blue laid, and blue wove
will be required. It may be necessary to keep a small
stock of hand-made papers for documents of importance.
Banks in medium, large post, and double foolscap are
stocked if required. Engine-sized writings are suitable
for much printed work, but for stationery of good
appearance tub-sized papers should be stocked. Large
post writings in 18, 21, 23, and 27 Ib. will be useful
stock, with other sizes in equivalent weights. Double
large post is desirable in all engine-sized writings, and
frequently in tub-sized papers, when obtainable. The
usual weights for bank papers are "foolscap 7 Ib., large
post I I Ib., medium 1 3 Ib., but thinner papers are
obtainable. Bond papers are similar to banks but
heavier in substance, and experience will teach what
substances and sizes should be stocked. Account book
papers follow custom as to weight, 24 Ib. demy, 34 Ib.
medium, 1 44 Ib. royal, 1 72 Ib. imperial, and these are

1 Some mills make medium in 32 and 34 Ib., and royal in 42
and 44 Ib. ; all hand-made papers are of the customary weights
given above.


usually azure or blue laid, tub-sized, and air-dried.
Hand-made papers are necessary for many books which
are in constant use, to ensure the permanence of the
records. Engine-sized account book papers are not
recommended for stock, although the papers are suitable
for much work of a temporary nature. Tinted writ-
ings can be obtained in great variety, and reference to
the sample books of the wholesale houses will serve
to guide in making a safe stock selection.

Only small quantities of gummed paper should be
kept, demy being the usual size, and a paper weighing
about i 8 Ib. per ream (ungummed) is a fair quality. Non-
curling gummed paper is of course the kind to purchase.

Stock boards will usually be royal in size. Good
qualities of pasteboards, two substances of ivories, a full
range of pulp boards in various tints will be a useful
selection. Thicker boards, useful for show cards, are
stocked in royal and imperial, one-sided white boards,
one-sided coated and two-sided coated, in 10- and 12-
sheet substances, should be kept in small quantities.

The lithographer requires litho. papers of various
substances and qualities in sizes to suit the machines
of his establishment. The lithographer can frequently
transfer several jobs on to one stone of the full size of
the machine, and work more economically than by using
papers and machines of smaller sizes. For black work a
fair litho. paper in several substances should be stocked,
for colour work a heavier paper in one or two sub-
stances only, and small quantities of plate, plan, chart
and chromo papers will be required. All the writings
and miscellaneous papers mentioned earlier will be in-
cluded in the stock warehouse of the lithographer.

Stock accounts should be kept very carefully.
Employers should insist that paper drawn for making
ready, for proofing, and for set-off sheets be accounted



for as accurately as a ream of hand-made paper. It
is only by adopting a system of accurate accounting
that the balance between receipts and issues can be
maintained. No issue for replacing spoiled sheets
should be made without an entry to that effect in the
stock ledger. Whether a card index system or a paper
stock ledger with receipt and issue sides be the method
of accounting, it should be possible to check the state
of the stock at very short notice. The entries will be
in this or similar form. Prices are kept separately,
unless it is preferred to keep them with the stock

DESCRIPTION Printing Double Demy^ 40 Ib. 480*8.
STOCK No. 25. Purchased from SPALDING & HODGE.














Jan. i, 1914


Jan. 3, 1914




Mar. i,






At the time of stocktaking it should not be necessary
to close the stock room, but if done gradually, starting
a few days before the end of the year (or other period),
the stocks are taken and each stack as checked is
marked, and issues up to the end of the year entered
on special slips or cards placed in the stack. On the
day of stocktaking it will not take long to adjust the
book of balances with the additional entries. If a
discharge has been given for every issue of paper, either
by work sheet, or by a requisition from the various


departments receiving the stock, the balances should
be correct.

In order that sample sheets may be shown to
customers, and to avoid frequent requisitions for single
sheets of paper, a few sheets of all stock papers should

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Online LibraryEdward A DawePaper and its uses : a treatise for printers, stationers and others → online text (page 6 of 12)