of chemical and mechanical wood, and microscopic ex-
amination of these mixtures furnishes an easy way of
becoming familiar with the appearance of the different
wood pulps (Fig. 26).
To arrive at a correct result, as regards the pro-
portion of fibres in a mixture, is not at all easy. By
taking a series of fields on one slide, counting and
tabulating the contents under the headings of the
different fibres, and averaging the fields, a fair ap-
proximation can be obtained. For comparison of two
or more papers this will usually suffice, but consider-
Magnified 50 diameters
FIG. 22. Straw.
FIG. 23. Esparto.
FIG. 24. Bamboo.
FIG. 25. Chemical Wood.
A, Pine. B. Poplar.
FIG. 26. Mechanical Wood.
PAPER TESTING III
able experience is required before one is able to
formulate the furnish of a paper consisting of two or
more kinds of fibre, as the different fibres have varying
dimensions and weights.
Printing Qualities. The test for comparison with
a standard paper is carried out by printing on the
papers under examination at the same time, .under the
same conditions, and judging the brilliance, solidity of
colour, absorption of ink, and noting how the colours
dry. The test for the efficiency of sizing will have
shown whether the paper is likely to be too porous or
too hard, but the actual test for printing is advisable when
taking a large quantity of a special making into stock.
The trouble of registering colour work has been
dealt with at length elsewhere. If a paper has newly
arrived from the mill, it is scarcely reasonable to
condemn it on a trial for register before a little time
has elapsed for maturing. It is well to examine the
bulk to discover if all the supply is cut with the same
Various Faults. Paper which has not been
properly retreed that is, the extraction of faulty sheets
has not been done closely will be found unsuitable
for the highest class of work. The faults in the sheets
may comprise spots, specks, creases, superficial mark-
ings and torn paper. The spots and specks may be
caused by various foreign substances sand, dirt, knots
of fibre, pieces of rubber, sealing-wax, little lumps of
mineral matter or froth. The foreign matter varies
with different papers, and will be more apparent in
super-calendered papers than in those which are not
highly rolled, as the rolling brings faults into greater
prominence. Creases formed before or during calender-
ing render sheets unfit for use. Superficial markings
may occur at the drying cylinders or from marks on
the other rolls, resulting in rust marks, streaks, and
PAPER AND ITS USES
sometimes in bleaching coloured papers in lines. Torn
paper shows hurried sorting, as it is not difficult to see
such a fault when turning over the sheets. In various
coated papers sheets with uneven coating or surface
markings should not be included as " good " paper.
A paper which is even in texture cannot be considered
matched by a supply which is " wild " or cloudy in the
look-through. Although wildness is sometimes accom-
panied by strength in paper, this is not always so, and
it is desirable that printing papers should not be wild.
To analyse papers in order to discover chemical
residues and to identify them requires some very
delicate tests, and unless one has had an extensive
chemical training, mistaken conclusions may result.
The various apparatus and chemicals necessary for
paper testing as detailed in this chapter (other than
machines, chemical balance and microscope) are detailed
1 glass measure, 50 c.c. capa-
2 beakers, 225 c.c.
6 beakers, 60 c.c.
i dozen test tubes, 5 in. x f in.
i test-tube stand to take 6
6 porcelain crucibles without
covers, No. i.
i tripod stand, 7 in. x 5 in.
i piece gauze asbestos covered,
i pipeclay triangle,
i Bunsen burner ^ or one spirit
2 dozen glass slips, 3 in. x
1 oz. cover glasses, No. 3, f
2 teasing needles,
i oz. tannic acid.
i oz. aniline sulphate.
i oz. caustic soda.
5 oz. rectified spirit.
25 c.c. iodine in potass, iodide
25 c.c. sulphuric acid and gly-
25 c.c. phloroglucine solution.
3 ft. rubber tubing J lamp, 70 c.c
Messrs Townson & Mercer Ltd., of 34 Camomile
Street, London, E.C., undertake to supply the whole of
the articles for i /s. 6d. if the Bunsen burner is desired,
and for 1 6s. if a spirit lamp is to be used.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS
Account Book Papers. Strong, even, well-made papers,
hard tub-sized, with good writing surface, usually azure
laid. The finish of both sides of the paper should be
as nearly as possible equal, and opacity is essential.
Hand-made and the best machine-made papers are all-
rag, tub-sized, air-dried. Cheap varieties of account
book papers can be obtained at 2jd. per lb., but these
are engine-sized, and the strength is not sufficient to
bear the handling to which account books generally are
Angle Papers. Envelope papers, made in the usual way,
and, after slitting, cut at an angle in order to economise
in cutting the envelope blanks. The angle may be
varied to suit customers' requirements.
Anti-Acid Manillas. See Cable and Insulating Papers.
Backing" Papers. For stereotyping purposes. Brown
papers which paste down easily and strengthen the
Bag Papers. Brown papers of medium substance for bags,
usually royal in size.
Banks. Thin tough papers, glazed or unglazed, for use
where strong papers of little weight are required. Banks
run from hand-made, tub-sized, air-dried, to machine-
made, engine-sized, machine-finish, and the prices from
2S. 6d. to 3d. per lb. The usual sizes and weights are :
foolscap, 7 lb. ; large post, n lb. ; medium, 13 lb.
Bank-note Papers. Hand-made papers for which new
linen cuttings are used ; the notes having to withstand
considerable handling, the paper is specially strong and
tough. Watermarks of special design are employed;
the sheets are made twice the size of a bank-note, each
note having three deckled edges.
114 PAPER AND ITS USES
Bible Papers. Thin printing papers of good quality,
opaque and strong. Used for Bibles and other books
where a large number of pages is required to occupy
a small bulk.
Bill Papers. Hand- or machine-made, all-rag papers, tub-
sized, air-dried. Being used for documents such as
promissory notes, bills of exchange, etc., the paper must
be very durable.
Biscuit Caps. Thin white M.G. papers, employed for
making bags for confectionery and similar trades, in
various sizes. The bags are frequently made up at
Blotting Papers are made from the tenderest of old cotton
rags, and are free from loading and sizing. Made in
white, pink, buff, green, blue, and silurian, the usual
size is demy, and the weight 38 Ib. per ream of 480
sheets, at prices from 4d. to 8d. per Ib. Other stock
substances are demy 27, 48, 60, 80, and 100 Ib.
Blottings for interleaving diaries and similar works are
sometimes made of a mixture of rag and soda wood
pulps, or even entirely of wood pulp, in much lighter
weights, and in various sizes equivalent to demy 14 Ib.,
at prices from 2^d. per Ib., according to quality.
Enamelled blottings are made by pasting enamelled
papers to blottings of the usual substance.
Bond Papers are similar in character to banks, but are
heavier in weight. The term is often applied to
superior looking engine-sized writings of medium sub-
stance, but strength is essential in all papers included
in this class.
Bowl Papers, made from the waste from flax spinning mills,
unsized, bleached or unbleached, are used for covering
the rolls in calendering machines, where there are
alternate rolls of compressed paper and chilled iron.
The paper is made in sheets, square and circular, in the
substance equivalent to 10 Ib. demy.
Box Boards, in various qualities, from the common grey
board to the tough glazed board, made from different
wastes, well rolled. Used by boxmakers, cut and
creased by machinery, folded and fastened by glue or
metal fastenings. Boxes for all trades are thus made,
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 115
some being quite plain, others covered with coloured or
Bright Enamel Papers. Enamelled papers, coated on
one side only, finished with a high polish produced by
calendering and brushing. Used for labels for various
purposes, the design printed in several colours and
Bristol Boards. Fine boards for black and white drawings.
Various boards are called "Bristol," but the name
rightly applies to those boards made of fine rag paper
throughout, hot pressing being the method employed
for obtaining the high surface. They are manufactured
with the utmost care, free from all defects. Stock sizes,
foolscap, demy, medium, royal, and imperial, and as
papers of these sizes are pasted, and the finished boards
trimmed all round, the boards are slightly smaller than
the sizes of the papers.
Browns. Brown wrapping papers are made of various
materials and in many qualities and substances. Rope
browns, air-dried, cylinder-dried are three kinds, " rope "
being properly made from old ropes, but some papers sold
under the name have wood pulps in their composition.
Browns are made on the Fourdrinier machine, either
dried on cylinders as ordinary papers, or cut up and hung
to become air-dried. Air-dried browns are much more
flexible and more durable than cylinder-dried papers.
Browns are usually sold by the cwt., prices ranging from
8s. 6d. to 22S. 6d. per cwt. Usual sizes are shown on
page 142. See also Wrappings.
Butter Papers. These are greaseproof papers used for
wrapping butter and similar articles. Vegetable parch-
ment papers are used, imitation parchments, and papers
treated with a solution of albumen and salt. Butter
papers are glazed or unglazed.
Cable Papers. Also known as insulating papers, which
better describes their purpose. These papers are made
from various materials, such as manilla, jute, and some-
times all wood ; some are unsized, but others are hard-
sized. Strength is essential, as they are cut to narrow
widths, from one-sixth of an inch upwards, wound round
the individual wires which go to make up cables. The
Il6 PAPER AND ITS USES
covered wires are dried and the whole coated with some
waterproofing non-conductive substance to ensure com-
plete insulation. See Anti-acid Manillas.
Caps. Thin brown wrappings, used in a variety of trades,
fall under this general description.
Carbolic Paper. Strong packing paper impregnated with
carbolic acid, used for packing goods liable to attack
by insects or fungi. Carbolic acid being a powerful
germicide, and poisonous to insects, acts as protection.
Carbon Paper. This is a class of paper increasing in use.
It consists of a paper with a coating of colour, ground
in an oily or waxy medium, applied to one or both
sides of the sheet. The pigment, for the black, mauve
and blue carbons, is largely composed of lampblack,
but other colouring materials are used. The paper is
unrolled from the web, the colour applied to the surface,
and brushes rub the coating into the paper. Passing
over heated and cooled cylinders the paper receives its
finish, and is reeled and allowed to mature. Afterwards
the paper is cut to special or standard sizes (foolscap
folio and large post quarto). By the use of a very thin
paper and very thin carbon papers, as many as twetve
copies of a typewritten document may be obtained at
one time. To make this possible the finest carbons are
coated on the thinnest tissue paper procurable. Carbon
papers for special purposes include two-sided, greaseless,
copyable and hektograph.
Cards. Pasteboards, ivory boards and pulp boards are cut
into cards and put up in packets of 52 and 1,040.
Retree cards have the wrappers inside out. Sizes of
cards are given on page 140.
Carpet Felt Papers. Thick, loosely-felted papers, having
very little strength. Made of waste papers, grey in
colour, used for placing under carpets to prevent marking
by floorboards, to give a better feel to the floor covering,
and, when impregnated with certain ingredients, to
prevent moth infesting the carpet. Made in widths of
54 and 60 inches and sold in rolls of 12 and 25 yards.
Carriage Panels. A special variety of compressed mill-
boards, afterwards thoroughly waterproofed and used for
roofing railway and other carriages.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS II?
Cartridges. Strong papers, the best qualities are tub-sized,
originally made for cartridge manufacture, but now used
for cover papers and as cheap drawings.
Casing's. Comparatively thin brown papers, used for
lining cases, crates, etc.
Chart Papers. Largely used by lithographers for map and
chart printing. Machine-made, the best qualities are
all-rag, tub-sized, with smooth surface. Must be strong,
pliable, tough, resistant to wear, and at the same time
a good printing surface is essential. The manufacture
is arranged so as to avoid subsequent stretch.
Cheque Papers. Good quality of paper, specially made
for strength, usually all-rag. Special watermarks may
be employed, or protection from fraud is obtained by
special printing. Other cheque papers contain chemical
compounds which render alteration or erasure easy of
detection. The means adopted for erasure cause
chemical combinations which alter the colour of the
ink, or develop chemical change which discolours the
Chromo Papers. Fine coated papers for colour litho-
graphy, having a thick coating on a good body paper,
finished dull or with a good surface. Usual sizes,
medium, royal, double crown, imperial. The weights
listed are usually those of the uncoated paper.
Cigarette Papers. Tissues of finest quality, wove or laid,
thin, strong, free from loading and taste, and must burn
easily. Ropes form the basis of the paper, fine beating
being essential. Some papers have chemical additions
to the pulp in order to ensure even combustion.
Cloth-lined Paper. Cotton cloth, equivalent to scrim or
common muslins, according to quality, having paper
facing. Cloth-centred paper has thin paper pasted on
each side, while cloth-backed papers are of better quality,
with a fair cloth on the back. Useful where much
handling is required. Cloth-lined cards (sometimes
described as linen-lined) are thicker substances than the
papers. Surface enamelled cloth-lined cards are first
made as cloth-backed cards and 'then enamelled with the
coloured coating and plate glazed.
Il8 . PAPER AND ITS USES
Coils. Used for various purposes, such as telegraph, time
recording machines, cash registers, music rolls for piano
players, wiping the die in relief stamping, and for print-
ing small forms on the reel. Papers are slit from the
full reel, and re-wound on centres suitable for the
machine or other spindles.
Collar Papers. Papers for making paper collars and
similar articles; made of wood pulp with a woven
cotton or linen fabric rolled down to the paper, the
surface filled with mineral and the whole highly rolled.
Copying Papers. Thin glazed or unglazed papers of the
same character and composition as tissues, but some-
times having a small amount of mineral matter added to
ensure perfect copying. These papers are used for
taking press copies of correspondence, the original being
written (or typewritten) with copyable ink. The
copying paper is damped, the superfluous moisture
removed with a sheet of drying royal (<j.v.\ an oiled
sheet placed at the back of the copying page and the
whole placed in the copying press and given a good
squeeze. One or more perfect copies of the correspon-
dence can be obtained by this method. As copying
books are made with 500 or 1,000 leaves, the reams are
made up of 500 sheets. Rotary copying machines
employ copying paper in rolls, sometimes perforated at
regular intervals, a damping roller preparing the paper :
the copy is taken by rotary pressure. Everdamp copy-
ing paper eliminates the damping roller from this class
Cork Paper. For packing bottles, coarse wrapping paper
is covered with adhesive, and on this powdered cork
is sprinkled making an elastic packing material. For
cigarette tips very thin sheets of cork are pasted to
tissues and cut to widths suitable for the well-known
Corrugated Paper. The corrugation is effected by
machine, the corrugated paper being glued or pasted to a
flat web of similar paper. Commonly the thinnest straw-
boards are used, but for better classes white papers are
employed. Obtainable in sheets or rolls, corrugated paper
serves as protective packing for many classes of goods.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS I IQ
Cover Papers. The term is applied to a large class of
fancy papers, made in many shades, substances and
sizes, suitable for the covers of pamphlets, booklets,
price lists, for J)ox covering, and the neutral shades for
photographic albums and mounts. The qualities vary
with the prices, which range from 2d. to 8d. per lb., the
sizes following those most in demand, viz., medium (for
demy), royal, etc.
Crayon Papers. Drawing papers specially prepared for
crayon work, with a rough surface, or finished smooth
on one side. Hand-made or machine-made white or
tinted papers are obtainable.
Crepe Papers. Tissues in tints and deep colours, crinkled
by passing through rollers bearing the pattern. The
paper is much reduced in length, often to less than half
the original length. Made up in rolls of 20 inches wide,
2.\ yards long. Used for many fancy purposes, candle
and lamp shades, artificial flowers, etc.
Cutlery Papers. Thin brown papers, glazed on one or
both sides, manufactured with special care to avoid
acidity, so that they are sometimes finished with some
alkalinity in order that cutlery and similar articles wrapped
in the paper shall not be liable to attack from residues
in the paper.
Drapers' Caps. Very thin brown papers, glazed on one
side (M.G.), made of wood pulp, used for wrapping
small articles in many trades besides that of drapers ;
usual size, double crown.
Drawing Papers are made of the best and strongest rag
fibres, free from impurities of all kinds. The highest
classes of drawing papers are hand-made from un-
bleached fibre, tub-sized, with special treatment to
avoid deterioration of the sizing, air-dried, and finished
with various surfaces to suit different purposes. Machine-
made drawing papers are made of similar materials
with similar treatment, but papers of very fair quality,
made entirely of chemical wood and engine-sized, are
on the market. Cartridge papers are frequently used
as substitutes for ordinary machine-made drawing papers.
The usual sizes are royal, imperial, double elephant, and
120 PAPER AND ITS USES
Drying Royal. Strong, unsized papers, royal in size,
used in copying books to absorb the excess of moisture
after the copying paper has been wetted. Blotting
paper is not sufficiently strong to stand the handling
to which the drying royal is subjected. Hand-made
papers of this class are all-rag, but other fibres are used
for some of those made on the machine. Weight,
44 Ib. or 88 Ib. per ream of 480 sheets.
Duplex Papers may be made of two layers of differently
coloured papers brought together in the wet state and
rolled together, or may be coated with different colours,
after the paper is made, as duplex art papers.
Duplicating Papers. Unsized or half-sized papers used
for taking copies on cyclostyle, mimeograph and similar
duplicating machines. Best qualities are composed
largely of esparto, but the common varieties contain
mechanical wood. Usual sizes : double foolscap 24 Ib.,
large post 18 Ib. per ream of 480 sheets.
Embossed Papers. Papers of various qualities and
colours are run through rollers engraved with patterns,
by which means the papers are permanently embossed.
Hard cover papers retain the patterns better than softer
papers, but many kinds, repp, linen, crash, crocodile and
other leather patterns are made upon soft papers. Em-
bossed papers find favour as cover papers and box
Enamelled Papers are body papers with a mineral coating
on one side, white or coloured, the surface being highly
polished. Used for labels, box coverings, and outside
wrappers of various kinds, printed in one or more
Engine-sized Papers. The majority of papers are sized
with resin, which is added to the pulp in the beating
engine, hence the term " engine-sized " (E.S.). The
attempts to size with animal size in the engine are not
completely successful, as a large part of the gelatine,
being in solution, goes away with the water. Most
machine-made papers which are tub-sized are to some
Envelope Papers. All kinds of paper may be used for
envelope making, but papers highly glazed on one side
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 121
are usually meant. The highly-glazed surface is more
suited for writing, while the rougher side takes the gum
for the flap better than a burnished surface. Envelope
papers are usually cut at an angle to prevent waste
when cutting out blanks for envelopes. Demonstration
of the waste involved by the use of square paper can be
made by opening an ordinary envelope, and marking it
out on an ordinary sheet of paper.
Feather-weight Paper. A term applied to bulky book
papers much in favour for current fiction. The fibre is
esparto, beaten quickly, no loading, but little sizing,
very little pressure while passing through the machine.
The fibre being loose occupies a large space, and the
paper is very light for its bulk, hence the term. Usual
sizes and weights : double crown 30 to 60 lb., double
demy 40 to 70 lb., and quad crown 55 to 120 lb. per
ream of 516 sheets.
Filter Papers are used in chemical laboratories to separate
substances in suspension from liquids. It is essential
that the papers be entirely free from chemicals, and
allow liquids to pass freely while retaining suspended
matter. All-rag fibre is used, but grey filter papers may
contain a proportion of wool fibre. Filter papers are
made as blotting papers, and subjected to special treat-
ment to remove all matter that is likely to confuse
chemical analyses. Usual size, 24 by 24 inches.
Foil Papers. Metals reduced to fine powder are dusted
upon the paper which has received a coating of adhesive,
and when all is dry the surface is highly burnished.
Embossed foil papers are passed through special rolls.
Used for covering boxes and picture mounts.
Fruit Paper. Thin papers, similar to tissues in texture,
but much lower in quality, used for wrapping fruits
apples, oranges, etc. before packing. It is found that
this isolation justifies the trouble and expense, an
increased percentage of sound fruit reaching the market.
Some wrappers are printed with the merchant's name
Glazed Boards. Millboards which are given a very high
surface by repeated rolling.
122 PAPER AND ITS USES
Grass-bleached Tissues. This term is applied to special
tissues to describe papers quite free from chemicals.
The ideal method of bleaching linen is by exposing on
grass, and though these tissues are not treated in that
manner, the ideal papers which will not tarnish silver
or other bright metal goods are so described. Used for
wrapping silver goods, and for protecting metal decora-
tions and buttons on uniforms.
Greaseproof Papers. Used for packing butter, lard, and
other provisions ; may be prepared as such in the pulp
by prolonged beating, "wet" pulp being the result of
long beating. The resulting paper is close, transparent,
and, with ordinary sizing, is greaseproof. Other papers
are rendered greaseproof by immersion in a bath of
albumen and salt, this giving the paper an impervious
coating. Vegetable parchment papers are used for
Grocery Papers. The well-known blue sugar paper and
purple sugar bags are examples of this class of paper.
They are made of low-grade pulps, with which are
mixed waste papers, a moderate amount of loading, and
aniline colours. The squares are cut at the mill and
bags too are often produced at the paper mill.
Hosiery Papers. These are special heavy white wrapping
papers, prepared to stand a good amount of handling,
used as wrappers for packets of hosiery stock, and for
Imitation Art Paper. To meet the demand for a cheaper
paper than art paper, with some of the characteristics of
the latter, such as opacity, absorbency, and a surface
suitable for printing half-tones, imitation art papers have