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Edward A Dawe.

Paper and its uses : a treatise for printers, stationers and others online

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been introduced. They contain a large proportion of
loading, and receive a good surface, the water finish
being usually adopted. Stocked in double crown, double
demy, double royal, quad crown, and quad demy.

Impression Papers. Another term for duplicating papers.
See Duplicating Papers.

Index Boards. Pulp boards made of strong stuff, even,
hard-sized, well-rolled, giving a good writing surface. It
is important for card index systems to employ a card which
is made in one thickness only ; pasteboards bend and split



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 123

at the corners if frequently handled. The uncut boards
should be perfectly flat in order that ruling, printing, and
cutting may be executed with accuracy. Guillotine cutting
is not so satisfactory as cutting singly with a hand cutter
or rotary cutting on a card cutting machine. The usual
sizes of index boards are 20^ by 25-^ inches and
30 J by 25! inches, cutting to 5 by 3 inches, 6 by 4
inches and 8 by 5 inches.

India Proof Paper. Thin paper made from the inner
fibres of bamboo stems. Extremely soft and absorbent,
it is therefore eminently suitable for taking full-bodied
impressions in plate printing.

Insulating Papers. For insulating wires for electric cables.
See Anti-acid Manillas and Cable Papers.

Ivory Boards. Hard, white, transparent boards, made from
well-beaten stuff, the substance being obtained by
bringing two or more webs of moist paper together, the
junction being effected by rolling, no adhesive being
employed. Ivories are obtainable in three or four
substances, white or cream, and are used for high-class
work, such as visiting, business, and menu cards.
Stocked in royal boards, and also in various cut sizes.

Japanese Copying. Specially thin and strong papers
made in Japan from long fibres, used for copying books.
Japanese papers are hand-made, the fibres pulped by
hand, the sheets made on moulds of bamboo or hair.
The length of fibre, precluding machine making, makes
a paper of exceptional wearing qualities, the fibres
pulling apart, and not tearing.

Japanese Vellum. Thick papers made of Japanese fibres,
very tough and durable, almost as difficult to tear as
vellum. Finished with a good surface, suitable for
certificates and various jobs where very tough and
durable material is required. Stock sizes from crown
to imperial; substance about 19, 28, 38 Ib. demy per
ream of 500 sheets ; price about 25. 3d. per Ib.

Kraft Papers. " Kraft " means strength, and this is the
characteristic of these papers. Unbleached wood pulp
is the material used, and by prolonged boiling with
soda under comparatively low pressure, the fibres receive
less drastic chemical treatment than is usual in the



124 PAPER AND ITS USES

preparation of wood pulp. Reduction to fibrous state
is accomplished by the edge runner, drawing the fibres
out, thus retaining the length and strength. Kraft
papers are smooth, light brown in colour, strong and
flexible, and are used for wrappings where these qualities
are required.

Leather Boards. Millboards made of strong materials to
which a proportion of leather cuttings may be added.
Used in boot and portmanteau manufacture.

Leatherette. Papers used for box covering and for covers
of cheap note-books. Common papers made to colour
of the leather of which they are imitations, either as
coloured body papers, or with coloured surface, and
then embossed with leather grain.

Ledger Papers. Strong, well-made writing papers, used
for ledgers, therefore manufactured to withstand con-
siderable handling. The best qualities are all-rag, tub-
sized, air-dried, plate-glazed, quite opaque, with equal
surface both sides. Usual sizes and substances : demy
24 lb., medium 34 lb., royal 44 lb., imperial 72 Ib. per
ream of 480 sheets.

Lined Brief. Foolscap paper ruled with thirty-six lines
across the width of the paper, and a vertical marginal
line. Hand-made and high-class machine-made papers
of this kind have the lines as watermark.

Linen-faced Papers receive their patterns in one of three
ways: (i) by passing between embossed and engraved
rollers, as described under embossed papers; (2) by
interleaving with zinc plates upon which are glued sheets
of linen and passing through the plate-rolling machine ;
(3) sheets of linen used between sheets of paper to be
impressed, metal plates top and bottom, and pressure
applied at the plate-rolling machine. Many common
papers are so treated, and are at present the favourites
among fancy note-papers, silurian note L being quite
eclipsed. High-class writings and cover papers are also
linen-faced.

Lithographic Papers. Papers for lithographers' general
use, with good super-calendered surface, frequently
soft-sized, the manufacture so arranged as to reduce the
amount of stretch to a minimum. The best qualities



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 12$

are made of rag, the next quality of esparto. With the
advent of the off-set litho. press, all papers have become
possible as lithographic papers, but the description
applies only as above.

Loan Papers. Superior cream wove papers, made of the
strongest materials, tub-sized and finished with a good
writing surface. The materials and treatment are
similar to those employed for bank papers, but the
substances are heavier. Usual sizes, medium, double
foolscap, royal, imperial, equivalent weights 20 to 40 Ib.
medium, 480 sheets.

London Boards. Originally boards formed by pasting
sheets of best hand-made drawing paper. Thick paste-
boards are sometimes supplied as London boards.

Long 1 Elephants do not concern the ordinary printer.
They are used by paper stainers, that is, wall paper
printers. They form the ground papers for wall papers,
are frequently of the same materials as printing papers,
but put up in rolls of 22^ inches in width, with a length
of 12 yards.

Magazine Paper. Soft printing paper with a good super-
calendered surface in order to give equal printing
surfaces for half-tone illustrations each side of the sheet.
Imitation art papers also are used for illustrated
magazines.

Manifold (Typewriting) Banks. The thinnest sub-
stances of typewriting papers are so described in lighter
weights than ordinarily used as banks. The descrip-
tions under Banks and Typewriting Papers are applicable
to Manifold Banks.

Manifold Papers. Papers used for taking copies at the
time of making the original by writing or typewriting
by means of carbon papers. In order to obtain a better
impression of the original, the manifold paper, which
is a tissue, is impregnated with oil. To enable the
paper to take ruling and printing the paper is allowed
to mature for some time to allow the oil to become
distributed evenly throughout the paper.

Manilla Papers. Strong, tough, flexible papers made
from manilla hemp. Manilla does not bleach easily,
the so-called white manilla papers being always low in



126 PAPER AND ITS USES

colour. These papers are used for manilla labels
(parcel tags), cartons, folders in index systems, cor-
respondence covers, index cards, and for work where
strength and durability are essential. The term
" manilla " is now applied to a class of paper rather
than to the papers made entirely or principally of
manilla fibre. Many such papers are composed of
unbleached chemical wood pulp, a long-fibred tough
paper resulting, which is suitable for most of the pur-
poses for which manilla papers are generally employed.
For envelopes, however, the genuine article is not
easily replaced. Low grade manillas may contain
mechanical wood. Usual size and weights : double
crown, 80, 100, 120 Ib. per ream of 480 sheets.

Map Papers are thin and tough, folding without cracking,
usually slightly sized with animal sizing. Used for
printing maps which are to be folded into small
compass.

Marbled Papers are used for covers of various books,
as wholly covering the book, or as sides in half- and
quarter-binding, but the principal use is for end papers
in account books. High-class marbled papers are made
a sheet at a time in the following manner : a trough of
gum is prepared, the colours for the pattern are
sprinkled and dropped upon the surface, patterns are
made by combing or some other means of regularising
the design. The body paper is let down carefully to
the gum, the colour adheres to the paper, and the
sheets are hung to dry. Intricate machines are
employed to make marbled papers, depositing the
colours for transference to the paper. There are
many patterns of marbling, the favourites being the
Spanish, shell, and nonpareil designs, carried out in reds,
blues, and greens. Fancy marbled papers are sold, but
binders are conservative in their tastes. Cheap marbled
papers are produced by lithography.

Metallic Paper is a coated paper for special uses, such as
note-books for indelible writing, in which case writing
with a metal stylus or indelible pencil is easily made,
but cannot be erased ; for indicator diagrams for various
instruments where a light touch only can be given, but



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 127

the diagram is faithfully recorded. A good quality
paper is coated with a mixture of glue and zinc oxide,
usually applied by hand and finished in the same way as
art papers. Cheaper metallic papers are coated with
barium sulphate.

Middles. The materials for middles (of pasteboards) vary
from waste paper to all-esparto fibre. Grey middles
contain a large proportion of waste, mechanical wood
and added mineral matter, while white middles are usually
free from mechanical wood and of very fair strength.
Made on the Fourdrinier machine, and left with machine
finish, in order that the subsequent pasting of facing
papers may be more thoroughly performed. In addition
to their use for pasteboards, middles are used for
tramway and bus tickets, frequently being tinted in the
pulp.

Millboards are made from various waste fibres and waste
papers. Hand-made and the best machine-made boards
are made from hemp and flax fibres, the commoner
machine-made from waste papers with or without long
fibred material. The raw materials are reduced to pulp
(the stronger materials boiled and beaten), made into
boards in hand moulds or on special board machines,
pressed, dried, heavily rolled, trimmed to size. Used
for binding, boxmaking, portmanteaux, carriage panels,
etc. (see page 143 for sizes and substances).

Mould-made Papers come between hand- and machine-
made papers, having most of the characteristics of
hand-mades. The moulding is mechanical, but the
other operations are carried out as for hand-made papers.
Four deckled edges will be present.

Music Papers, used for printing sheet music, are thick
printing papers with a moderate amount of sizing, and
with machine finish, making an easy printing surface
for music type, plates, or lithographic surfaces. Usual
size: demy, 20^ inches by 14 j inches, 24 to 28 Ib. per
ream of 480 sheets.

News. Common printing papers, containing 60 to 80 per
cent, of mechanical wood, a small amount of loading,
and very little sizing. Suitable for news and other work
of an ephemeral nature. Supplied in reels or sheets.



128 PAPER AND ITS USES

Non-curling Gummed Paper. Specially prepared
gummed paper, the body paper being made as nearly
free from stretch as possible, and the coating of gum,
when dry, is broken into fine particles by drawing the
finished paper over a steel bar. This prevents the film
of gum from acting as a single surface, and only when
the particles again cohere is the non-curling property
destroyed.

Oiled Paper. See Manifold Paper and Stencil Paper.

Onion Skin. A term applied to thin, hard, highly glazed
translucent papers, because of their resemblance to the
thin outer skin of the onion.

O. \V. Papers are specially prepared for water colour
drawings, the rags being reduced to pulp without chemical
treatment, without bleaching. The papers are tested
for chemical purity. Usual sizes of drawing papers.

Pamphlet Papers. Tinted papers of various substances,
used for covers of pamphlets, and for a large variety
of jobbing work where a paper of fair weight is required.

Parcel Tape Paper is supplied in various widths and
qualities, from ordinary gummed paper to kraft brown
with gummed back ; used for fastening small parcels
instead of string or wax. Supplied in coils for use
with a special damping machine.

Parchment Papers. Properly, parchmented papers, i.e.,
the cellulose of which the paper is composed is altered
in character to resemble parchment. A web of unsized
paper is passed through a bath of strong sulphuric acid,
which attacks and dissolves the cellulose, changing its
fibrous form. Before the change is complete the paper
is washed, the acid is neutralised, and the paper dried.
The paper shrinks considerably, but is greaseproof and
much stronger than before treatment. Vegetable parch-
ment and pergamyn are alternative names for the same
material. Used as an impervious packing paper for
provisions, for tea packing, jam covers, etc.

Pasteboards. Cardboards formed by pasting fine papers
to middles of inferior quality. Distinct from triplex,
ivory, and pulp boards.

Pastings. Papers for pasting down ; facings for paste-



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 1 29

boards ; covering paper used by boxmakers ; white or
coloured.

Plate Papers. Thick, soft printing papers, made of good
material, soft-sized. The thicker kinds are made by
bringing two or more webs together in the wet state
and pressing them together, one side only being
calendered. Used for taking impressions from engraved
copper and steel plates, also for fine lithography. Usual
sizes and weights are crown, demy, royal, and double
crown, equivalent to 40 to 60 Ib. demy.

Porcelain Paper. Thick transparent paper of the nature
of celluloid, made of well-beaten pulp. Used for
Christmas cards and similar work.

Portmanteau Boards. Tough boards used for the shapes
or shells of portmanteaux and trunks, over which the
leather or canvas cover is fixed. Manufactured as
millboards, flax and hemp fibres being employed.

Pottery Tissues. Tissue papers specially prepared for
printing transfers for pottery decoration. The printing
is from copperplate, engraved rolls, or lithographic
surface, and the pattern is transferred to the china or
earthenware before glazing.

Press Boards. Thin, hard glazed boards, made of the
best materials (see Millboards). Heavily rolled and
friction glazed. Used for interleaving work which is
to be hot or cold pressed.

Pressings. Thick coloured papers, made on the single
cylinder machine, therefore with M.G. surface. Used
for the covers of exercise books, for box covering, etc.

Printing's. A large class of papers, which are usually made
with a fair surface, machine finish. Printings are
moderately sized, so as to absorb ink readily, and only
a small quantity of loading is added. The materials
used include all the fibres which will bleach well ; hand-
made printings are tub-sized, machine-made are all engine-
sized. Rag, rag and esparto, chemical wood and esparto,
chemical wood, chemical and mechanical wood papers
are the varieties obtainable, white or toned. Super-
calendered, imitation art, and art papers can be included
under this heading, but they are usually treated sepa-
rately. Sizes, weights, and prices on pp. 136-37.



130 PAPER AND ITS USES

Profile Papers are specially ruled papers for the use of
engineers and surveyors ; ruled, or printed from engraved
roll. The usual pattern has quarter -inch squares,
divided into five horizontal sections.

Programme Papers. Soft papers, white or tinted, used
for concert programmes, in order that there shall be no
rustle when the pages are turned. The light weight
(44 Ib.) of drying royal is sometimes used as a
programme paper.

Pulp Boards are boards of one thickness only, made on the
Fourdrinier machine, well sized, well rolled, in various
substances and qualities, and in a variety of useful tints.
Used for all purposes for which cards are employed.

Railway Buffs. Cheap buff papers used for forms and
envelopes for railway business. Forms are printed on
glazed buffs, super-calendered papers ; envelopes are
made from M.G. buffs.

Rocket Paper. Thick coarse paper used for making cases
for rockets and other fireworks. White, coloured, or
fancy papers are pasted on the outside of the firework
cases, and the touch paper fastened on last.

Royal Hands. A term used for wrapping papers made to
royal size (24 by 19 inches).

Safety Cheque Papers are specially prepared by printing,
as a groundwork, a small design in ink which is fugitive
if treated with chemicals, or if erasure is attempted.
Other safety papers are made by adding sensitive
chemicals to the pulp, or by impregnating the finished
paper. These additions act as detectives, as any
alteration or attempt to remove the original writing
results in coloured patches which betray the work.

Sampling Papers. Coloured papers used for the display
of textile and other samples, usually deep blue or deep
yellow. Made in medium, 25 Ib. per ream of 480
sheets, and also supplied in rolls.

Sealings. Thin tough M.G. papers used as parcel papers.
Being glazed on one side, sealing wax adheres readily
to the. rough side. Made in various substances and
colours.

Sectional Papers are papers with squares of definite
measurement, J, J, $, -jV, -^ inch, or millimetre



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 131

ruling. The larger squares are ruled, the smaller
are printed from engraved rolls or from electrotypes of
engraved plates. Printed on drawing paper, also on
thin paper for subsequent reproduction by contact with
sensitized papers.

Sensitized Paper. Various papers for photographic
printing, the paper receiving treatment after making.
The emulsions are made and applied to the surface of
the papers, or the paper is passed through a solution of
sensitive salts. The developing after printing is done in
another solution or in water, according to the prepara-
tion of the paper.

Shops. White papers for packing, either glazed or unglazed ;
white grocery papers are shops. Substances equivalent
to demy, 40 to 48 Ib. ; sizes: demy, royal, 28 by
20 inches and in rolls.

Silurian. Grey paper mottled with blue fibres. The pulps
are coloured separately with fast dyes, and a small
proportion of the darker fibres added to the grey pulp.

Skips. Thin packing papers for lining skips or crates in
which various goods afe packed.

Small Hands. Thin M.G. wrapping papers, made of the
commonest pulps. '.

Squared Papers. Ruled or printed squares of various
sizes on drawing, cartridge, and tracing papers. See
Sectional Paper.

Stencil Paper (Oiled). Thick strong paper used for cutting
stencils for decorators. Manilla or other papers of good
strength and substance are soaked in linseed oil, and
sometimes varnished on one side.

Stencil Papers (Waxed) are used in connection with
cyclostyle, mimeograph and similar machines. Thin,
strong, unsized papers are coated with wax, and a stencil
is actually made by removing the wax in various ways.
For stencils made by handwriting the wax is removed
by writing with a stylus on a file plate or a metal plate
covered with bolting silk, or a cyclostyle pen, having a
wheel at its tip, is used, making a series of perforations
through the waxed paper. With the typewriter the wax
is removed by a blow of the letter upon a tissue which
is placed in front of the stencil paper. Wherever wax



132 PAPER AND ITS USES

is perforated or removed ink can be forced through the
stencil, and the prints, although not always showing the
broken lines of stencil work, are actually produced by
stencil process. On account of the strength of long
fibred papers, Japanese tissues are usually employed as
the basis of stencil papers.

Stereotyping Papers. Tissues, grey blottings, and brown
papers, as used in making stereo flong, are included in
this category. It is possible to obtain flong papers made
on the paper machine, the three papers being made
separately and brought together before the couch rolls
are reached.

Strawboards. The cheapest boards obtainable for binding
and mounting purposes. Made from straw, boiled with
lime and reduced to pulp, manufactured into boards
of various substances. Usual sizes, 30 by 25 inches,
32 by 22 inches, the boards being made up into bundles
weighing 56 lb., the weight of individual boards
governing the number in a bundle, e.g., 8 oz. board,
112 to bundle, 2j lb. 22 in bundle, etc.

Sulphite Browns. Brown wrapping papers made from
unbleached sulphite wood pulp producing very strong
papers.

Super-calendered Papers. Term applied to printing
papers which have received a high surface by passing
through the super-calender rolls ; but most writings, art,
manilla, and coloured papers receive their finish in the
same manner.

Tea Cartridges. Generally made from chemical wood,
but in some cases a mixture of rag and chemical wood
is employed. Engine-sized, supplied in sheets or reels,
substance equivalent to 14 to 34 lb. demy.

Ticket Boards. Pasteboards with good white or coloured
facing papers, sometimes coated, white or coloured ;
used by ticket writers for window tickets.

Tips. Binders' tips are very thin millboards. Trunk
makers' tips are thick, tough brown papers.

Tissues. Fine thin papers, made of strong materials such
as rag and hemp fibres, beaten very finely. Other
tissues are made of chemical wood and a proportion of
straw pulp. Papers are unsized, used for wrapping and



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PAPERS 133

protective purposes. Usual size and weight : double
crown 7 Ib. per ream of 500 sheets.

Tobacco Papers. Papers used for packing small quantities
of the cheaper tobaccos ; with good printing surface.
Substance and sizes, 28 to 30 Ib. demy.

Toilet Papers. Very thin M.G. papers put up in packets
of cut pieces, or in rolls with or without perforation.

Tracing Papers. Thin papers specially treated with a
coating consisting of a mixture of certain gums and
turpentine. Other papers used for tracing are glazed
imitation parchments. Used for tracing maps, plans,
drawings, etc.

Transfer Papers. Specially coated papers for transferring
designs to lithographic printing surfaces. Opaque or
transparent papers are used, according to the use of the
paper, whether it is merely as a transfer paper or also as
a tracing paper. The coating mixture is such as will
readily strip from the paper when put down on stone
and the back is damped, all the ink of the transfer being
left on the stone.

Triplex Boards are made on a cylinder machine, three
webs being brought together in the wet state, but rolled,
dried, and finished as a single web.

Tube Papers. Soft unsized papers, made with a good
percentage of rag, for making tubes or spools on which
the yarn for spinning machines is wound.

Typewriting Papers. Strong bank papers of good appear-
ance, unglazed, used for correspondence and other type-
written matter. The extra superfine qualities are all-
rag, tub-sized ; some of the lower grades, chemical wood,
engine-sized.

Vegetable Parchment. Another name for parchment or
parchmented paper. See Parchment Paper.

Vellum Papers. (i) Name applied to writing papers with
a good writing surface, not so smooth as super-calendered
papers, but nearer to the surface of a well-finished
vellum. Usually vellum woves, although laid papers
with vellum finish are supplied. (2) Thick, strong,
fine papers, used for engravings. See Japanese Vellum .

Waterproof Papers for packing purposes are made by
coating strong wrappings with tar or bitumen, and rolling



134 PAPER AND ITS USES



scrim on to the surface to prevent the coating coming in
contact with the contents of the package. A coating
between two sheets of thin wrapping paper is another
method of waterproofing. Used for protecting goods
from the influence of moisture. Roofing paper is a
variety of waterproof paper prepared by coating strong
papers with tar.

Waxed Paper. Thin paper passed through a bath of
melted paraffin wax which makes it perfectly impervious
to moisture. Used for packing goods which are liable
to deterioration if exposed to the atmosphere.

Whatman Boards are made by pasting sheets of " What-
man " drawing paper together until the desired thickness
of board is attained. Boards only faced with " What-
man " paper are also supplied under this name.

Wheatstone Paper. Blue tinted paper cut to narrow
width for use in the tape machine, the telegraphic
messages being recorded on the paper strip.

"Willesden Paper. Strong paper rendered impervious to
moisture by immersion in a solution made copper in


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Online LibraryEdward A DawePaper and its uses : a treatise for printers, stationers and others → online text (page 9 of 12)