Edward Alfred Pollard.

Southern history of the war : the first year of the war online

. (page 1 of 36)
Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardSouthern history of the war : the first year of the war → online text (page 1 of 36)
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Entered according to Act of Conrrress, in the year 1S64.


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the

Southern District of New York.


The author has composed this work under many and severe
difficulties. The materials were collected in Richmond, while
the author was burdened with the heavy duties of public

After this explanation, and in the third volume of his work,
it is, perhaps, unnecessary for the author to repeat that he has
not sought literary ornament, or attempted a high standard
of historical composition. He has only designed to make a
faithful compendium of events, which will illustrate, for the
present, what is most interesting in the American War, and
serve as a foundation for future and more enlarged inquiries.
It may be that these, his unambitious labors, will be appro-
priated by others, who will rear upon them a superstructure
of their own ; but he cherishes the hope that he is not
destined to lose to others the benefit of his early records, and
that he may, at some future time, be able to compose a work
on the American War, worthy of its importance, and its
relations to the interests and philosophy of the present



Review of the Battle of Chancellorsville. — Two Defects in the Victory of the Con-
federates. — " The Finest Army on the Planet." — Analysis of the Victory. — General-
ship of Lee. — Services and Character of the great Confederate Leader. — His Com-
monplaces and his Virtues. — The Situation in Virginia. — Lee's Preparations for the
Summer Campaign. — Hooker to be Maneuvered out of Virginia. — Reorganization of
Lee's Army. — The Affair of Brandy Station. — The Capture of Winchester. — The
Affair of Aldie's Station. — Lee's Army Crossing the Potomac. — Invasion of Pennsyl-
vania. — Alarm in the North. — Hooker Out-Generalled and Removed. — The Mild
Warfare of the Confederate Invaders. — Southern "Chivalry." — General Lee's Error.
— His Splendid March from Culpepper Court House to Gettysburg. — Feverish Anti-
cipations in Richmond. — The Battle of Gettysburg. — First Day's Engagement. —
A Regiment of Corpses. — Charge of Gordon's Brigade. — The Nine Mississippi
Heroes. — The Yankees Driven through Gettysburg. — A Fatal Mistake of the Con-
federates. — General Lee's Embarrassments. — The Second Day. — Cemetery Hill. —
Early's Attack Almost a Success. — Adventure of Wright's Brigade. — The Third
Day. — Sublime Terrors of the Artillery. — Heroic and Ever-Memorable Cliarge of
Pickett's Division on the Heights. — Half a Mile of Shot and Shell.— Pickett's Sup-
ports Fail. — The Recoil. — General Lee's Behavior, — His Greatness in Disaster. — Im-
mense Carnage. — Death of General Barksdale, " the Haughty Rebel." — General Lee's
Retreat.— The Affair of Williamsport. — Lee Recrosses the Potomac. — Success of his
Retreat. — Yankee Misrepresentation.— Review of the Pennsylvania Campaign. — Half
of Lee's Plans Disconcerted at Richmond. — Results of the Battle of Gettysburg Ne-
gative. — Lee's Retreat Across the Potomac an Inconsequence. — Disappointment in
Richmond. — The Budget of a Single Day in the Confederate Capital Page 13


Vicksburg, " the Heroic City." — Its Value to the Confederacy. — An Opportunity
Lost by Butler. — Lieutenant-general Pemberton. — A Favorite of President Da-
vis. — The President's Obstinacy. — Blindness of Pemberton to the Enemy's De
signs. — His Telegram to Johnston. — Plan of U. S. Grant.— Its Daring.— The Battle
OF Port Gibson.— Exposure of General Bowen by Pemberton. — The First Mistake. —
Peraberton's Disregard of Johnston's Orders. — Grant's advance against Jackson. —
Johnston's Evacuation of Jackson. — His Appreciation of the Situation. — Urgent Or-
ders to Pemberton. — A Brilliant Opportunity. — Pemberton's Contumacy and Stupid-
ity. — His Irretrievable Error, — Yankee Outrages in Jackson. — The Battle of Baker's
Creek, &c.— Stevenson's Heroic Fight. — Alleged Dereliction of General Loring. —
His Division Cut Off in the Retreat.— Demoralization of Pemberton's Troops. — The
Enemy's Assault on the Big Black.— Shameful Behavior of the Confederates.— A


Georgia Hero. — Pemberton and the Fugitives, — His Return to Vicksburg. — Recrim-
inations as to the Disaster of the Big Blacli. — How Pemberton Was in tlie Wrong. —
Jolinston Orders the Evacuation of Vicksburg. — Pemberton's Determination to
Hold It Page 41


The Defences of Vicksburg. — Pemberton's Force.— His Troops Reinspirited. — A
Memorable Appeal. — Grant's Assault on the Works. — Confidence of the Yankees. —
Their Repulse and Losses. — Commencement of Siege Operations. — Conflilence in
Richmond. — Johnston's Secret Anticipation of the Fall of Vicksburg. — His Alleged
Inability to Avert it. — Critical Condition of the Confederate Armies in Numbers. —
Secret Correspondence of Richmond Officials. — Mr. Seddon's Bait of Flattery. — Suf-
ferings of the Garrison of Vicksburg. — Johnston's Attempt to Extricate them. — Pro-
posed Diversion in the Trans-Mississippi. — Its Failure. — A Message from Pemberton.
A Gleam of Hope. — An Important Despatch Miscarries. — The Garrison Unable to
Fight Their Way Out. — But Their Condition not Extreme. — Pemberton's Surrender
on the Fourth of July. — Surprise in Richmond — Mendacity of the Telegraph. — The
Story of the Rats and Mules. — Pemberton's Statement as to his Supplies. — His Ex-
planation as to the Day of Surrender.— The last Incident of Humiliation. — Behavior
of the Vicksburg Population. — A Rival of "The Beast." — Appearance and Manners
of the City under Yankee Rule. — Consequences of the Fall of Vicksburg. — The Yan-
kee Reoccupation of Jackson. — Johnston's Second Evacuation. — The Enemy's Rav-
ages in Mississippi. — How they Compared with Lee's Civilities in Pennsylvania. —
The Fall of Port Hudson, &c. — Enemy's Capture of Yazoo City. — The Battle
oj Helena. — The Trans-Mississippl — Repulse of the Confederates. — Abandonment
of Little Rock. — The Trials and Sufferings of the Trans-Mississippi Department. —
Hindman's Memorable Rule. — Military Autocracy. — The Generous and Heroic Spirit
of the Trans-Mississippi Page 59


Elasticity of the Spirit of tlie Confederacy.— What it Taught.— Decay of Confi-
dence in President Davis's Administration. — His Afiection for Pemberton. — A Season
of Encouraging Events. — The Campaign in Lower Louisiana. — Capture of Brashear
City. — The Affair of Donaldson. — The Siege of Charleston. — Operations of the
Enemy on Folly Island. — General Beauregard's Embarrassments. — Assault of the
Enemy of Fort Wagner. — His Foothold on Morris Island*. — Beauregard's Designs. —
Bombardment of Fort Wagner. — Second Repulse of the Enemy's Assault. — Gilmore's
Insolent Demand. — His Attempt to Fire Charleston. — A Noble Reply from Beaure-
gard. — Bombardment of Fort Sumter. — The Fort in Ruins. — Evacuation of Morris
Island by the Confederates.— The Yankee Congratulations. — Devilish Penalties for
"the Secession City." — Dahlgren's Part of the Programme. — His Night Attack on
Sumter. — His Failure. — Safety of Charleston. — Bitterness of Yankee Disappointment.
—Morgan's Expedition into Indiana and Ohio. — His Capture of Lebanon. — An
Unnatural Encounter. — Murder of Captain Magennis. — The Incursion Through Indi- "
ana. — The Yankee Pursuit. — A Chaplain's Trick. — Operations in Ohio. — The Affair
of Buffington Island. — Morgan's Attempt to Escape. — His Capture and Imprison-
ment.— Results of his Expedition, Strategic and Material. — The Value of Military
Adventure Page 81



Contrast between our Military Fortunes in the East and in the West. — Some
.Reasons for our Success in Virginia. — Her Hearty Co-operation with the Confederate
Authorities. — Her Contributions to the War. — General Eragg's Situation in Tennes-
Bee.— Confederate criticisms on General Eosecrans. — Opinion of the " Chattanooga
Eebel." — An Extensive Movement Contemplated by Rosecrans. — Bragg's Retreat to
Chattanooga. — The Yankees on a Double Line of Operations. — Buckner's Evacuation
of Knoxville. The Sukkkndek of Cumberland Gap. — President Davis's Comment
on the Surrender. — The B.\ttles of Ciilokamauga. — Braggs' Evacuation of Chatta-
nooga. — Topography of the Ba.ttler.lield. — Thomas's Column of Yankees in McLeraore's
Cove. — Disobedience of Orders by Lieutenant-general Hill of the Confederates. —
Bragg's Orders to Lieutenant-general Polk. — Two Opportunities Lost. Note:
Bragg's Secret and Official Report of the Miscarriage of His Plans. — The First Day's
Engagement on the Cliickamauga. — Second Day. — General Polk's Fight on our
Eight.— Longstreet's Successful Attack on the Left.— The Grand Charge. — Rout of
the Enemy. — Longstreet's Message to Bragg. — Forrest Up a Tree. — Bragg Declines to
Pursue. — His Hesitation and Error. — His Movement upon Chattanooga. — Boast of
Rosecrans. — An Empty Victory for the Confederates. — Bragg's Awkward Pause. —
Discussions of the Campaign. — His Supposed Livestment of Chattanooga. — Two
Blunders of the Confederate Commander. — Cliickamauga a Second Edition of Bull
Eun. Note : Observations of a General Office^r of the Confederate States Army on
the Campaign in the West Page lOfi


Political Movements in the Fall of 1863.— The "Peace Party" in the North.— The
Yankee Fall Elections. — The War Democrats in the North.— The South's Worst
Enemies. — Y'"ankee Self-Glorifieation. — Farragut's Dinner-Party. — The Russian Ban-
quet. — Russia and Yankeedom. — The Poles and the Confederates. — The Political
Troubles in Kentucky. — Bramlette and Wickclifie. — The Democratic Platform in
Kentucky. — Political Ambidexterity. — Burnside's Despotic Orders. — The Kentucky
"Board of Trade." — An Election by Bayonets. — The Fate of Kentucky Sealed.— Our
European Relations. — Dismissal of the Foreign Consuls in the Confederacy. —
Seizure of the Confederate " Rams" in England. — The Confederate Privateers. —
Their Achievements. — British Interests in Privateering. — The Profits of So-called
"Neutrality." — Naval Affairs of the Confederacy. — Embarrassments of Our
Naval Enterprise. — The Naval Structures of the Confederates. — Lee's Flank Move-
ment in Virginia. — Affair of Bristoe Station. — Failure of Lee's Plans. — Meade's
Escape to Centreville, — Imboden's Operations in the Valley. — Capture of Charlestown.
— Operations at Rappahannock Bridge. — Kelley's Ford. — Surprise and Capture of
Hayes' and Hoke's Brigades. — Gallantry of Colonel Godwin. — Lee's Army on the
Eapidan. — The Affair of Germania Ford. — Meade Foiled. — The "On-to-Eich-
mond" Delayed Page 134


The Chattanooga Lines. — Grant's Command. — The Military Division of the Missis-
sippi. — Scarcity of Supplies in Chattanooga. — Wheeler's Eaid.—Grant's Plans. — He
Opens the Communications of Chattanooga. — The Affair of Lookout Valley. —
Relief of Chattanooga. — The Battle of Missionary Ridge. — Bragg's Unfortuuiite


Detachment of Longstrcct's Force— His Evacuation of Lookout Mountain. — The
Attack on Missionary Kidge. — Hardee's Galhmt Resistance. — Kout and Panic of the
Confederates. — President Davis's First Eeproof of the Confederate Troops. — Bragg's
Retreat to Dalton. — Cleburne's Galhmt Affair. — Longstkeet's Expedition Against
Knoxville. — More of Bragg's Mismanagement, — Insufficiency of Longstreet's Fprce.
— Difficulty in Obtaining Supplies. — Hh* Investment of Knoxville. — An Incident of
Personal Gallantry. — Daring of an English Volunteer. — Longstreet's Plans Discon-
certed. — The Assault on Fort Sanders. — Devotion of Longstreet's Veterans.—The
Yankee "Wire-net."— The Fatal Ditch.— Longstreet's Masterly Retreat.— His Posi-
tion in Northeastern Tennessee. — He Winters his Army there. — The Affair of
Sabine Pass, Texas. — The Trans-Mississippi. — Franklin's Expedition Defeated. —
The Upper Portions of the Trans-Mis.sissippi. — The Missouri " Guerillas." — Quan-
trell. — Romantic Incidents. — The Virginia-Tennessee Frontier. — Operations of
General Sam Jones.— An Engagement near Warm Springs.— The Affair of Rogers-
ville. — Battle of Droop Mountain. — The Enemy Baffled. — Averill's Great Decem-
ber Raid. — The Pursuit. — The North Carolina Swamps. — The Negro Banditti in the
Swamps.— Wild, Butler's " Jackal."— His Murder of Daniel Bright.— Confederate
Women in Irons. — Cowardice and Ferocity of the Yankees « Page 153


The President's Declaration to the Confederate Congress of 1863-64.— "Want of
Capacity" in the Confederate Authorities. — Character of Jefferson Davis. — Official
Shiftlessness at Richmond. — Early Prognostications of the War. — The " Statesman-
ship" of the Confederates. — Ludicrous Errors of Confederate Leaders. — What " King
Cotton" might have done. — ^'Gross Mismanagement of the Confederate Finances. — Mr.
Memminger's Maladministration. — The Moral Evils of an Expanded Currency. — The
Military Situation in December. — Secretary Seddon's Siiameful Confession. — " De-
magogism" in the Confederate War Department.— Seddon's Propositions. — Military
" Substitutes." — An Act of Perfidy. — Bullying in Congress. — Spirit of the Confederate
Soldiery.— Lincoln's " Peace Proclamation."— Its Stupidity, Insolence, and Out-
rage.— How the Confederates Replied to it.— A New Appeal Against " Recon-
struction."— The Slavery Question in the War. — A French Opinion.— The
Abolitionists Unmasked.— Decay of European Sympathy with Them.— Review of
Lincoln's " Emancipation" Policy.— The Arming of the Blacks.— The Negro Coloni-
zation Schemes.— Experiments of New England "Civilization" in Louisiana. —
Frightful Mortality of " Freedmen."— The Appalling Statistics of Emancipation.—
The Contraband Camps in the Mississippi Valley.— Pictures of Yankee Philanthropy,
— "Slavery" Tested by the War.— The Confederates the True Friends of the African
Laborer. — The System of Negro Servitude in the Confederacy. — The " War-to-the-
Knife" Party in the North. — History of the " Retaliation" Policy. — The Outrages
of Yankee Warfare.— President Davis's Sentimentalism.— The Record of his Unpar-
donable and Unparalleled Weakness. — A Peep into Yankee Prisons. — The Torture-
Houses of the North. — Captain Morgan's Experience Among "the Convict-Drivers."
— President Davis's Bluster.— His Two Faces. — Moral Effects of Submission to Yankee
Outrage. — The Rival Administrations in December 1863. — Richmond and Washing-
ton. — Mr. Lincoln's Gaiety. — New Issues for the Confederacy Page 174


The Importance of the Winter Campaigns of the War.— A Series of Remarkable
Events. — Encouragement of the Confederacy. — Rosser's Raid. — A Magnificent
Prize. — Pickett's Expedition against Newbern. — The Fight on Bachelor's Creek. —


Destruction of the Yankee Gunboat " Underwriter."— The Brilliant Exploit of Com-
mander Wood. — Results of the Expedition. — Thk Akfaiij of John's Island. — General
Wise's Fisrht. — Thk Battle of Ocean Pond. — History of the Yankee Expeditions into
Florida. — Lincoln's Designs upon Florida.— Tlieir Utter Defeat. — Political Jugglery
of Seymour's Expedition. — Price of " Three Electoral Votes."— Sherman's P^xpedi-
TioN in the Southwest. — What it Conteinplatotl. — Grant's Extensive Designs. — The
Strategic Triangle. — Grant's Proposed Removal of the Mississippi River. — Polk's Ke-
treat into Alabama. — Forrest's Heroic Enterprise. — His Defeat of Smith's and Grier-
Bon's Columns. — Sherman's Eetreat to Vicksburg. — His Disgraceful Failure. — The
Yankee Campaign in the West Disconcerted. — The Lines in North Georgia. — Eepulse
of the Yankees Page 210


Auspicious Signs of the Spring of 1864. — Military Successes of the Confederates. —
Improvements in the Internal Polity of the Confederacy — Two Important Measuros
of Legislation. — Revolution of our Finances. — Enlargement of the Conscription. —
Theory of the New Military Law. — A Blot on the Political Record of the Confeder-
acy. — Qualified Suspension of the Habeas Corpus. — An Infamous Edict, but a '* Dead-
letter." — An Official Libel upon the Confederacy.— The Real Condition of Civil
Liberty in the South. — The Conscription not properly a Measure 6f Force. — Im-
pressments but a System of Patriotic Contribution. — Development of the Yankee
Government into Despotism. — An Explanation of this. — The Essence of Despotism
in One Yankee Statute. — Military Resources of the Confederacy. — Its Military
System, the Best and Most Elastic in the World. — The War Conducted on A Volun-
tary Basis. — Supplies.— Scarcity of Meat. — The Grain Product. — Two Centres of Sup-
plies. — A Dream of Yankee Hate. — Great Natural Resources of tlie North. — Summary
of the Yankee Military Drafts. — Tonnage of the Yankee Navy. — The Yankee War
Debt. — Economic Effects of the War. — Its Effects on European Industry. — Yankee
Conquest of the South an Impossibility. — A Remarkable Incident of the War. —
Dahlgren's Raid around Richmond. — Kilpatrick's and Custar's Parts of the Expe-
dition. — Dahlgren and his Negro Guide. — His "Braves" Whipped by the Richmond
Clerks and Artisans. — Death of the Marauder. — Revelation of his Infamous Designs.
— Copy and History of '' the Dahlgren Papers." — A Characteristic Yankee Apothe-
osis. — Ridiculous and Infamous Behavior of the Confederate Authorities. — A Bru-
tal and Savage Threat. — President Davis in Melodrama Pagk 228


The Current of Confederate Victories.— The Red River Expedition. — Banks' Am-
bitious Designs. — Condition of the Confederates West of the Mississippi. — Banks'
Extensive Preparations. — A Gala Day at Vicksburg.— Yankee Capture of Fort De
Russy. — Occupation of Alexandria. — Porter's Warfare and Pillage. — Banks' Con-
tinued Advance.— -Shreveport, the Grand Objective Point. — Kirby Smith's Designs. —
General Green's Cavalry Fight. — Battle of Mansfield. — Success of the Confeder-
ates.- Battle of Pleasant Hill.— The Heroic and Devoted Charge of the Confoder-
ates.— The Scene on the Hill.— Banks Fatally Defeated.— Price's Capture of Yankee
Trains.— Grand Results of Kirby Smith's Campaign.— Banks in Disgrace.— Yankee
Tenure of Louisiana. — Forrest's Expedition into Kentucky. — His Gallant Assaulti
on Fort Pillow.— The Yankee Story of " Massacre."— Capture of Unioh City.— Con-
federate Occupation of Paducah.— Chastisement of the Yankees on their own Theatre


of Outrages — Capture of Plymouth, N. C. — General Hoke's Expedition. — Capture
of" Fort Wessel." — Exploit of the " Albemarle." — The Assaults upon the Town. —
Fruits of its Capture. — The Yankees in North Carolina Page 246


Close of the Third Year of the War.— Sketch of the SuDsequent Operations in Vir-
ginia and Georgia. — Grant's " On-to-Richmond." — The Combination Against the
Confederate Capital. — Thk Battlks of the Wilderness. — A Thrilling Crisis, — Grant
on the Verge of Rout. — Ilis First Design Bafflf;d. — The Battles of Spottsylvania
Court-housk. — Death of General Sedgwick.— The Carnage of May the 12th. — Five
Battles in Six Days. — Grant's Obstinacy. — " Tiie Butcher." — Sheridan's Expedition.
—Death of General " Jeb" Stuart.— Butler's Operations on the South Side of the
James. -"The Beast" at the Back-Door of Richmond. — He is Driven to Bermuda
Hundred by Beauregard.— Defeat of Sigel in the Valley.— Grant's Movement Down
the Valley of the Rappahannock. — His Passage of the Pamnnkey.— Re-organization of
General Lee's Lines. — Grant's Favorite Tactics. — Yankee Exultation at his Approach
to Richmond — Caricatures of the Confederacy, — A Hasty Apotheosis. — A True The-
ory of Grant's " Flank Movements," — His Occupation of McClellan's Old Itines. — The
Battle of the Chickahominy on Cold Harbor. — A Confederate Victory in Ten
Minutes. — What Had Become of Yankee Exultation. — Review of the Rival Routes to
Richmond.— Grant Crosses the James River. — His Second Grand Combination Against
Richmond. — Hunter's Capture of Staunton. — The Battles of PetersrL-rg. — General
Wise's Heroic Address, — Engagement of 16th June. — Grand Assault of 18th June. —
on " the Cockade City." — A Decisive defeat of the Yankees, — Engagement at Port
Walthal Junction — Sheridan's Defeat Near Gordonsville. — Hunter's Repulse at
Lynchburg. — Two Affairs on the Weldon Railroad. — Grant's Second Combination a
Complete Failure. — Discouragement of the North. — The Gold Barometer. — Secretary
Chase's Declaration, — Sherman's " On-to- Atlanta," — His Flanking Movement, —
Engagement in Resaca Valley. — Johnston's Retreat. — Engagement at New Hope. —
John.ston's Telegram to Richmond. — Defeat of Sturgis's Expedition in Mississippi. —
Battle of Kenesaw Mountain. — Sherman's Successful Strategy, — The Confederates
Fall Back to Atlanta. — The Battles of Atlanta. — Hood's Gallant Defence. — ....
The Military Situation in July, 1864, — Grant's Failure. — His Consumption of Troops.
— Review of Yankee Atrocities in the Summer Campaign of 1864. — Sherman's Char
acter. — His Letter on " Wild Beasts." — His War on Factory Girls.— Sutie rings of
Confederate Women and Children, — Ravages in Georgia. — Hunter's Vandalism iu
Virginia,—" The Avengers of Fort Pillow," — Sturgis and his Demons.— The Spirit of
the Confederates. — . . . Some Words on " Peace Negotiations." — A Piratical Prop-
osition and an Infamous Bribe. — The Heroic Choice of the Confederates Page 261



Sentimental Regrets concerning American History. — The European Opinion of
"State" Institutions, — Calhoun, the Great Political Scholar of America, — His Doc-
trines, — Consenatism of "Nullification." — Its " Union" Sentiment. — Brilliant Vision
of the South Carolina Statesman. — Webster, the Representative Of the Imperfect and
Insolent " Education" of New England. — Yankee Libels in the shape of Party
Nomenclatwre. — Influence of State Institutions. — How they were Auxiliary to the


Union. — The Moral Veneration of the Union Pecvliarhj a Sentiment of the South. —
"What tlie South had done for the Union. — Senator Hammond's Speech.— ^The States
not Schools of Provincialism and Estrangement. — Tlie Development of America, a
Korth and South, not Hostile States.— Peculiar Ideas of Yankee Civilization.— Ideas
Nursed in "Free Schools." — Yankee Mateiaalism. — How it has Developed in the
War. — Yankee Falsehoods and Yankee Cruelties.— His Commercial Politics.— Price
of his Liberties. — Ideas of the Confederates in the War.— How the Washingtou
Eoutine was introduced. — The Kichmond Government, Weak and Negative. —
No Political Novelty in the Confederacy.— The Future of Confederate Ideas. —
Intellectual Barrenness of the War. — Material of the Confederate Array.— The
Birth of Great Ideas.— The Old Political Idolaters.— The Recompense of Suf-

Online LibraryEdward Alfred PollardSouthern history of the war : the first year of the war → online text (page 1 of 36)