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Book.



Epochs of American History



THE COLONIES

1492- 1750



m^



BY



REUBEN GOLD THWAITES, LL.D.

EDITOR OF " JESUIT RELATIONS," " EARLY WESTERN TRAVELS," ETC.

AUTHOR OF " FRANCE IN AMERICA," " FATHER MARgUETTE,"

" HISTORIC WATERWAYS." ETC.



WITH FOUR MAPS AND
NUMEROUS BIBLIOGRAPHIES



Twenty-Fifth Impression



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

FOURTH AVENUE & 30TH STREET, NEW YORK

PRAIRIE AVENUE & 25TH STREET, CHICAGO

LONDON, BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS

I9I5



^






Copyright, 1890,
By Charles J. Mills.



Copyright, 1897,
By Longmans, Green, and Co,



Copyright, 1910,
By Longmans, Green, and Co.



A II rights reserved.



First Edition, December, 1890.
Reprinted, September, 1891, February, 1892, (Revised),
January and August, 1893, December, 1893, (Revised),
August, 1894, October, 1895, J"^y> ^^Q^j August, 1897,
(Revised), November, 1897, July, 1898, July, 1899,
April, 1900, January, 1901, October, 1901, August, 1902,
November, 1902, October, 1904, September, 1906,
May, 1908, June, 1910, (IJevised), October, 1911,
June, 1913, June, 1915. ' •



EDITOR'S PREFACE.



In offering to the public a new History of the
United States, — for such the three volumes of the
Epochs of American History, taken together, are
designed to form, — the aim is not to assemble all
the important facts, or to discuss all the important
questions that have arisen. There seems to be a
place for a series of brief works which shall show the
main causes for the foundation of the colonies, for
the formation of the Union, and for the triumph of
that Union over disintegrating tendencies. To make
clear the development of ideas and institutions from
epoch to epoch, — this is the aim of the authors and
the editor.

Detail has therefore been sacrificed to a more
thorough treatment of the broad outlines : events are
considered as evidences of tendencies and principles.
Recognizing the fact that many readers will wish to
go more carefully into narrative and social history, each
chapter throughsut the Series will be provided with a
bibliography, intended to lead, first to the more com-
mon and easily accessible books, afterward, through
the hsts of bibliographies by other hands, to special
works and monographs. The reader or teacher wil^



vi Editor's Preface.

find a select list of books in the Suggestions a few
pages below.

The historical geography of the United States has
been a much-neglected subject. In this Series, there-
fore, both physical and political geography will re-
ceive special attention. I have prepared four maps
for the first volume, and a like number will appear
in each subsequent volume. Colonial grants were
confused and uncertain ; the principle adopted has
been to accept the later interpretation of the grants
by the English government as settling earlier ques-
tions.

To my colleague, Professor Edward Channing, I
beg to offer especial thanks for many generous sug-
gestions, both as to the scope of the work and as
to details.

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART.

Cambridge, December i, 1890.



AUTHOR'S PREFACE.



Upon no epoch of American history has so much
been written, from every point of view, as upon the
Thirteen Colonies. There has, nevertheless, been
lacking a book devoted especially to it, compact in
form, yet sufficiently comprehensive in scope at once
to serve as a text-book for class use and for general
reading and reference. The present work is intended
to meet that want.

In this book American colonization is considered
in the hght of general colonization as a phase of his-
tory. Englishmen in planting colonies in America
brought with them the institutions with which they
had been famihar at home : it is shown what these
institutions were, and how, in adapting themselves to
new conditions of growth, they differed from English
models. As prominent among the changed condi-
tions, the physical geography of America and its
aboriginal inhabitants receive somewhat extended
treatment ; and it is sought to explain the important
effect these had upon the character of the settlers
and the development of the country. The social and
economic condition of the people is described, and
attention is paid to the political characteristics of the
several colonies both in the conduct of their local
affairs and in their relations with each other and the



viii Author's Preface.

mother-country. It is shown that the causes of the
Revolution were deep-seated in colonial history. At-
tention is also called to the fact, generally overlooked,
that the thirteen mainland colonies which revolted in
1776 were not all of the English colonial establishments
in America.

From Dr. Frederick J. Turner, of the University of
Wisconsin, I have had much advice and assistance
throughout the prosecution of the work ; Dr. Edward
Channing, of Harvard College, has kindly revised the
proof-sheets and made many valuable suggestions ; while
Dr. Samuel A. Green, librarian of the Massachusetts
Historical Society, has generously done similar service
on the chapters referring to New England. To all of
these gentlemen, each professionally expert in certain
branches of the subject, I tender most cordial thanks.
REUBEN GOLD THWAITES.

Madison, Wis., December i, 1890.



PREFACE TO TWENTY-SECOND EDITION.

From time to time there have been several revisions
of the text, so that it has been kept fairly abreast of
current investigation. The bibliographies, however,
have remained untouched since the tenth edition
(August, 1897). The principal change in the present,
therefore, consists in the introduction of new and care-
fully prepared references, which will render the book of
greater service to the student than it has been at any
time within the past ten years. In this revision, I have
had the valuable assistance of Miss Annie A. Nunns.

R. G. THWAITES.

Madison, Wis., June i, 1910.



SUGGESTIONS.

While this volume is intended to be complete in itself,
compression has been necessary in order to make it con-
form to the series in which it appears. It really is but
an outline of the subject, a centre from which to start
upon a study of the American colonies. The reader,
especially the teacher, who would acquire a fairly complete
knowledge of this interesting period of our history, will
need to examine many other volumes ; from them gaining
not only further information, but the point of view of other
authors than the present — only in this manner may an
historical perspective be obtained. The classified bibli-
ographies, given by the author at the head of each
chapter, have been prepared with much care. While
perhaps few will desire to follow the topics to the lengths
there suggested, it is urged that as many of the other
volumes as possible be consulted, particularly those con-
taining source material.

Following is a hst of books which, even for a brief
study, would be desirable for reference and comparison,
or for the preparation of topics :

1-5. John Andrew Doyle: English Colonies in America.
5 vols. New York : H. Holt & Co., 1882-1907. — An analytical
study, in much detail, by an English author.

6-13. John Fiske: Beginnings of New England; The
Discovery of America^ 2 vols.; Dutch and Quaker Colonies in



X SiLggestio7is for Readers a7id Teachers,

America, 2 vols. ; N'ew France and New England ; Old Vir-
ginia and her Neighbours, 2 vols. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin
& Co., 1897-1902. — The best popular accounts; but while
eminently readable and inspiring, not sufficiently thorough at
all points, to serve as authoritative studies.

14. Henry Cabot Lodge: Short History of the English
Colonies in America. New York : Harper Brothers Co., 188 1. —
Concise and readable.

15-17. Herbert Levi Osgood: American Colonies in the
jyth Century. 3 vols. New York : The Macmillan Co., 1904-
1907. — The most elaborate treatment of this period, from the
American point of view.

If a detailed study is intended, the following volumes
should be added to the foregoing :

A. Bibliography.

1. Edward Channing and Albert Bushnell Hart : A
Guide to the Study of American History. Boston: Ginn & Co.,
1896. — A well-arranged manual for both students and general
readers.

2. Josephus Nelson Larned: Literature of American His-
tory. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1902. — More detailed
than the foregoing. Contains critical estimates of many of
the works cited, by experts in the several subjects.

B. General,

3-5. Elroy McKendree Avery : A History of the United
States and its People from their Earliest Records to the Present
Time. 15 vols. Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1904 +. —
Volumes I.-HI. cover the colonial period. Especially notable
for its illustrations — for the most part, reproductions of con-
temporary views, maps, portraits, and articles of historical
interest. The bibliographies are quite full.



List of Reference Books. xi

6, 7. Edward Channing: A History of the United States.
8 vols. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1905 -j - — A calm,
philosophical treatise, written with care and erudition.

8-13. Albert Bushnell Hart, Editor : The American N'atioii.
New York: Harper Brothers Co., 1904-1907. — The latest
co-operative history of the United States. Each volume is by
an author who specializes in the topic treated. Vols. II.-VII.
are concerned with the colonial period. The bibliographical
chapters are very useful.

14, 15. WooDROW Wilson : A History of the American Peo-
ple. 5 vols. New York: Harper Brothers Co., 1902. — Pop-
ular and readable, often brilliant. Only vols. I. and II. cover
the colonial period.

16-20. Justin Winsor : Narrative and Critical History of
America. 8 vols. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1889.
— A co-operative enterprise, the chapters being by different
hands, for the most part specialists. There is a wealth of
illustrations, notes, and bibliographical references. But much
of the work has been superseded by later publications. Vols.
I.-V. cover the colonial period.

C. Special Histories.

21, 22. Philip Alexander Bruce: Economic History of
Virginia in the lyth Century. 2 vols. New York : The Mac-
millan Co., 1896. — A careful, detailed study.

23. Philip Alexander Bruce : Social Life of Virginia i?t
the jjth Ceittury. Richmond : Whittet & Shepperson, 1907. —
Thorough and clear.

24, 25. Sydney George Fisher : Men, Women, and Majt-
ners in Colonial Times. 2 vols. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott
Co., 1898. — A readable and useful survey.

26. Frederick Webb Hodge : Handbook of American In-
dians north of Mexico. Washington: Smithsonian Institution,
1907. — The author, a member of the Ethnological Bureau, is
an authority on this subject.



xii Suggestions for Readers and Teachers.

27-38. Francis Parkman : France and Etiglandin North
America. 12 vols. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1851-1892.
The titles of volumes comprising this series are : Pioneers of
France in the New World ; The Jesuits in North America ;
La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West ; The Old Re-
gime in Canada ; Count Frontenac and New France ; A Half-
Century of Conflict, 2 vols.; Montcalm and Wolfe, 2 vols. ;
The Conspiracy of Pontiac, 2 vols. — In spite of its age, this
work remains the principal authority for the thrilling story of
New France. A first-hand study, written in fascinating style.

39. Ellen Churchill Semple: American History and its
Geographic Conditions, Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co.,
1903. — Of first importance in understanding the causes and
effects of the movements of population.

40. Cyrus Thomas : The Indians of North America in His-
toric Times. Philadelphia: G. Barrie & Sons, 1903. — The
latest compendious treatment ; somewhat repellent in style,
but useful for reference. The author is a well-known
authority.

41,42. William Babcock Weeden : Economic and
Social History of New England, idso-ijSg. 2 vols. Boston.
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1890. — An admirably executed
work.

D. Sources.

43,44. Albert Bushnell Hart, Editor: American
History Told by Contemporaries. 4 vols. New York : The
Macmillan Co., 1897, 1898. — Very useful for purposes of
illustration. Vols. I., II., are devoted to colonial material.

45-64. John Franklin Jameson, Editor : Original Nar-
ratives of Early American History. 20 vols. New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906 + . — Carefully edited, and in-
dispensable for first-hand study.

65 William MacDonald, Editor : Docnnientary Source
Book of American History, i6o6-i8g8. New York: The Mac-



List of Refe7'e7ice Books. xiii

millan Co., 1908. — Useful reprints of material otherwise
difficult to obtain.

In addition to the above, the publications of colonial
and town record commissions and state and local histori-
cal and antiquarian societies contain material of the
utmost value in the study of our colonial history. Among
them may especially be mentioned the volumes issued by
the Prince Society, Gorges Society, American Antiqua-
rian Society, and the state historical societies of Massa-
chusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia; also the
colonial records of New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania,
Maryland, Virginia, and North and South Carolina.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

THE LAND AND THE NATIVE RACES.

PAGES

I. References, p. i. — 2. Physical characteristics of North
America, p. 2. — 3. The native races, p. 7. — 4. Char-
acteristics of the Indian, p. 13. — 5. Relations of
the Indians and colonists, p. 17 1-19

CHAPTER 11.

DISCOVERIES AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS (1492-1606).

6. References, p. 20. — 7. Pre-Columbian discoveries, p. 21.

— 8. Early European discoveries (1492-1512), p. 23.

— 9. Spanish exploration of the interior (1513-1542),
p. 27. — 10. Spanish colonies {1492-1687), p. 31. —
II. The French in North America { 1 524-1 550), p. 32.

— 12. French attempts to colonize Florida (1562-
1568), p. 33. — 13 The French in Canada (1589-
1608), p. 35. — 14. English exploration (1498-1584),
p. 36. — 15. English attempts to colonize {1584-
1606), p. 38. — 16. The experience of the sixteenth
century (1492-1606), p. 42 20-44

CHAPTER III.

COLONIZATION AND THE COLONISTS.

17. References, p. 45. — 18. Colonial policy of European
states, p. 45. — 19. Spanish and Portuguese policy,
p. 47. — 20. French policy, p. 48. — 21. Dutch and
Swedish policy, p. 50. — 22. English policy, p. 51. —



xvi Prelhniiiary. The South.

PAGES

23. Character of English emigrants, p. 53. — 24.
Local government in the colonies, p. 55. — 25. Colo-
nial governments, p. 58. — 26. Privileges of the
colonists, p. 61 45*63

CHAPTER IV.

THE COLONIZATION OF THE SOUTH (1606-17OO).

27. References, p. 64. — 28. Reasons for final English
colonization, p. 65. — 29. The charter of 1606, p. 66.

— 30. The settlement of Virginia (1607-1624), p. 69.

— 31. Virginia during the English revolution (1624-
1660), p. 75. — 32. Development of Virginia {1660-
1700), p. 78. — 33. Settlement of Maryland (1632-
1635), p. 81. — 34. Maryland during the English
revolution (1642-1660), p. 84. — 35. Development
of Maryland (1660-1715), p. 86. — 36. Early settlers
in the Carolinas (i 542-1665), p. 87. — 37. Pro-
prietorship of the Carolinas (1663-1671), p. 89. -»-
38. The two settlements of Carolina (1671-1700),

p. 92 ' 64-95

CHAPTER V.

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH
IN 1700.

39. References, p. 96. — 40. Land and People in the
South, p. 96. — 41. Slavery and servants, p. 98. —
42. Middle and upper classes, p. 100. — 43. Occu-
pations, p. 102. — 44. Navigation Acts, p. 104, —
45. Social life, p. 106. — 46. Political life, and con-
clusions, p. 109 96-1 1 1

CHAPTER VL

THE COLONIZATION OF NEV^ ENGLAND (162O-1643).

47. References, p. 112. — 48. The New England colonists,
p. 113. — 49. Plymouth colonized (1620-1621), p. 116



Contents, xvii

PAGES

— 50. Development of Plymouth (i62i-i69i),p. 120.

— 51, Massachusetts founded (1630), p. 124. — 52.
Government of Massachusetts (1630-1634), p. 127.

— 53. Internal dissensions in Massachusetts (1634-
1637), p. 129. — 54. Religious troubles in Massachu-
setts (1636-1638), p. 132. — 55. Indian wars (1635-
1637), p. 136. — 56. Laws and characteristics of
Massachusetts (i 637-1 643), p. 137. — 57. Connecti-
cut founded (1633-1639), p. 140. — 58. The Con-
necticut government (1639-1643), p. 142. — 59. New
Haven founded (1637-1644), p. 144. — 60. Rhode
Island founded (1636-1654), p. 146. — 61. Maine
founded (1622-1658), p. 150. — 62. New Hampshire
founded (1620-1685), p. 152 112-153

CHAPTER VII.

NEW ENGLAND FROM 1643 ^O I7OO.

63. References, p. 154. — 64. New England confederation
formed (1637-1643), p. 154. — 65. Workings of the
confederation (1643-1660), p. 157. — 66. Disturb-
ances in Rhode Island (i 641 -1647), p. 159. — 67.
Policy of the confederation (1646-1660), p. 161. —
68. Repression of the Quakers (1656-1660), p. 165.

— 69. Royal commission (1660-1664), p. 166. — 70.
Indian wars (1660-1678), p. 170. — 71. Territorial
disputes (1649-1685), p. 173. — 72. Revocation of
the charters (1679-1687), p. 174. — 73. Restoration

of the charters (1689- 1 692), p. 176 154-177



CHAPTER VIII.

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN NEW ENGLAND
IN 1700.

74. References, p. 178. — 75. Land and people, p. 179. —
76. Social classes and professions, p. 181. — 77. Oc-
cupations, p. 184. — 78. Social conditions, p. 186. —



xviii New England, Middle Colofties,



PAGES



79. Moral and religious conditions, p. 188. — 80.
The witchcraft delusion, p. 190. —81. Political con-
ditions, p. 192 178-194

CHAPTER YX.

THE COLONIZATION OF THE MIDDLE COLONIES (1609-I7OO).

82. References, p. 195. — 83. Dutnh settlement (1609-
1625), p. 196. — 84. Progress of New Netherland
(1626-1664), p. 198. — 85. Conquest of New Neth-
erland (1664), p. 202. — 86. Development of New
York (1664-1700), p. 203. —87. Delaware (1623-
1700), p. 207. — 88. New Jersey (1664-1738), p. 210.
^89. Penns3?lvania (1681-1718), p. 215. - . 195-217

CHAPTER X.

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE MIDDLE
COLONIES IN 1700.

90. References, p. 218. — 91. Geographical conditions in
the middle colonies, p. 218. — 92. People of the
middle colonies, p. 220. — 93. Social classes, p. 222.

— 94. Occupations, p. 224. — 95. Social life, p. 226.

— 96. Intellectual and moral conditions, p. 229. —

97. Political conditions, and conclusion, p. 231 . 218-232

CHAPTER XI.

OTHER ENGLISH NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES (1605-I750).

98. References, p. 233. — 99. Outlying English colonies,
p. 234. — 100. Windward and Leeward Islands
(1605-1814), p. 236. — loi. Bermudas (1609-1750)
and Bahamas (1522-1783), p. 238. — 102. Jamaica
(1655-1750), p. 240. — 103. British Honduras (1600-
1798), p. 241. — 104. Newfoundland (1497-1783),
p. 241. — 105. Nova Scotia, Acadia (1497-1755),
p. 242. — 106. Hudson's Bay Company, p. 243 . 233-244



Contents. xix



CHAPTER XII.

PAGES
THE COLONIZATION OF NEW FRANCE (160S-1750).

References, p. 245. — 108. Settlement of Canada
(1608-1629), p. 246, — log. Exploration of the
Northwest (1629-1699), p. 247. — no. Social and
political conditions, p. 249. — iii. Intercolonial
wars (1628-1697), p. 252. — 112. Frontier wars
(1702-1748), p. 254. — 113. Territorial claims, p. 255.
— 114. Effect of French colonization, p. 257 . 245-257

CHAPTER XIII.

THE COLONIZATION OF GEORGIA (1732-1755).

References, p. 258. — 116. Settlement of Georgia
(1732-1735), p. 258. — 117. Slow development of
Georgia (1735-1755), p. 261 258-263

CHAPTER XIV.

THE CONTINENTAL COLONIES FROM I7OO TO I75O.

References, p. 264. — 119. Population (1700-1750),
p 265 — 120. Attacks on the charters (1701-1749),
p. 266. — 121. Settlement and boundaries (1700-
1750). P' 267. — 122. Schemes of colonial union
(1690-1754), p. 269. — 123. Quarrels with royal
governors (1700-1750), p. 271. — 124. Governors
of southern colonies, p. 272. — 125. Governors of
middle colonies, p. 273. — 126. Governors of New
England colonies, p. 275.— 127. Effect of the French
wars (1700-1750), p. 277 128. Economic condi-
tions, p. 278. — 129. Political and social conditions
(1700-17 50), p. 280. — 130. Results of the half-cen-
tury (i 700-1750), p. 282 264-284



Index 285



XX List of Maps,



LIST OF MAPS.

I. Physical Features of the United States . . . Frontispiece.

1. North America, 1650 Endofvohime.

3. English Colonies in North America, 1700 . End of volume.

4. North America, 1750 End of volume.



EPOCHS OF AMERICAN HISTORY.



THE COLONIES.

1492-1750.



CHAPTER I.

THE LAND AND THE NATIVE KACES.

1. References.

Bibliographies. — L. Farrand, Basis of American History,
ch. xviii.; J. Larned, Literature of American History, 21-50;
J. Winsor, Narrative and Critical History, I., II.; Channing and
Hart, Guide, §§21, 77-80; C. Lummis, Reading List on Indians.

Historical Maps. — No. i, this volume {Epoch Maps, No. i);
T. MacCoun, Historical Geography of United States; school his-
tories of Channing, Elson, Gordy, James and Sanford, Mace,
McLaughlin, McMaster, and Montgomery.

General Accounts. — Historical significance of geography of
the United States: H. Mill, International Geography, ch. xxxix.;
F. Ratzel, Vereinigte Staaten, I. ch. ii.; B. Hinsdale, How to
Study and Teach History, ch. xiv. ; E. Bogart, Economic History
of United States, introduction; E. Semple, American History and
its Geographic Conditions; A. Brigham, Geographic Influences in
American History; W. Scaife, America: its Geographical His-
tory. — Topographical descriptions of the country: J. Whitney,
United States, I. pt. i.; N. Shaler, United States, I., and Nature
and Man in America; Mill, as above; E. Reclus, North America,
III.; Hinsdale, as above, ch. xv. — Prehistoric Man in America*
L. Morgan, Ancient Society; J. Nadaillac, Prehistoric America;
J. Foster, Prehistoric Races; Winsor, as above, I. ch. vi.; E.
Avery, United States and its People, I. chs. i., ii.; Farrand, as
above, ch. v. — The Indians (or Amerinds): D. Brinton, Ameri-
can Race; C. Thomas, Indians in Historic Times; F. Hodge,



2 La7id and Aborigi?ies, [Ch. I.

Handbook of American Indians; Farrand, as above, chs. vi.-
xviii,; Avery, as above, I. ch. xxii.; F. Dellenbaugh, North
Americans of Yesterday; S. Drake, Aboriginal Races of America;
G. Ellis, Red Man and White' Man in North America; G. Grin-
nell. Story of the Indian. The introduction to F. Parkman, Jesuits
in North America, and his Conspiracy of Pontiac, I. ch. i., are ad-
mirable general surveys. Briefer, also excellent, is J. Fiske's Dis-
covery of America, I. ch. i. The mound-builders have now been
identified as Indians. L. Carr, Mounds of the Mississippi Valley
Historically Considered is the best exposition of this subject. C.
Thomas, Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the Rocky Moun-
tains is useful.

Special Histories. — Lamed, History for Ready Reference, I.
83-1 15,' gives brief account and bibhographies of tribes; Farrand,
as above, 2 79-2 86, does the same by geographical groups. Espe-
cially notable are L. Morgan, League of the Iroquois, and C. Golden,
Five Indian Nations. For detailed treatment of the aborigines of
that section, consult H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific
Coast, II., and Mexico, I.; J. Palfrey, New England, I. chs. i., ii.,
describes the Indians in that region; T. Roosevelt, Winning of the
West, I. chs. iii., iv., the Southern tribes; and Parkman, Pontiac,
the 6ld Northwest tribes. There are numerous biographies of
chiefs, and a considerable literature on border warfare.



2. Physical Characteristics of North America,

Whence came the native races of America? Doubt-
less the chain of Aleutian islands served as stepping-
stones for straggling bands of Asiatics to cross over
Origin of the i^^o Continental Alaska many centuries ago ;
nauve races, others may have traversed the ice-bridge of
Bering's Strait ; possibly prehistoric vessels from China,
Japan, or the Malay peninsula were blown upon our
shores by westerly hurricanes, or drifted hither upon the
ocean currents of the Pacific. There are striking simi-
larities between the flora on each shore of the North
Pacific ; and the Eskimos of North America, like the



Ch. 1.3 The Pacific Slope. 3

West-Slope Indians of South America, have been thought
to exhibit physical resemblances to the Mon-



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